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THE LIBRARY 
VICTORIA UNIVERSITY 
T, ,ronto 



BURTON'S 

ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLZ 



rtt{;NTISI»[E('E TO THE {)RIGINAi. EI}IT! 

lla-[Ol a to 



THE 
OF 3IELANCIOLY, 
WHAT IT IS, 
ITS KDS, CAUSES, SYMPTOMS, PR06NOSTICS, A,ND 
SEYERAL CURES OF IT. 

IN THREE PARTITIONS. 

WTH TI SEVERAL 
ECTIONS, IEMBEllS, AND SUBSECTIONS, PH[LOSOPHICALLY, MEDICALL, 
hND EISTORICALLt 0PENED hND CUT UP. 

BY DEMOCRITUS JUNIOR. 

A SATI17JCAL PREFACE, C01DUCING TO THE FOLLOWING DISCOUI1SE. 

00RRECTED, AND ENRICHED BY TRAN8LATIONS OF THE NUMEROU8 CLASSICAL ErI'RACTS 
B] DEIOCRITUS hIINOR. 

LONDON WILLIAII TEGG. 



EEF.& RF.. 



]Elocturu ,IOEOI 



ADVERTISEOENT. 

Trie work now restorcd to public notice bas had an extraor- 
dinary rate. At the time of its original publication it obtained a 
great celebrity, which continued more than hall a century. Durlng 
that perlod few books were more read or more deservedly 
plauded. If was the delight of the learned» the solaee of the 
indolent» and the refuge of the unlnformed. /t passed through af 
least elght edltlons» by wlfich the bookseller, as WOOD records, got 
an estate; and» notwlthstanding the objectîon sometlmes opposed 
agalnst it, of a quaint style and too greatan accumulation 
authorltles, the fascination of its vit» faney» and sterllng sens% 
bave borne down all censures» and extorted pralse from the firs 
v¢riters in the English language. The grave JoInsor bas pmlsed 
if in the warmest terres» and the ludierous STEar. bas interwoven 
many parts o£ it into hls own popular performance. MILTOr did 
hot disdaln to build two of his finest poems on if; and a host of 
inferlor wrlters bave embellished their works wlth beauties hot 
their om» eulled from a performance whlch they had not tho 
justlee even to mention. Change of tlmes» and the fiàvolity 
tashlon» suspended» in ome degree» that faine wlfich had lasted 
mear a eentury; and the succeeding generatlon affected indiffer- 
.enee towards an author, who af lenh was only looked into by 
the plunderers of literature» the poachers in obscure volumes. The 
plaarîsms of Tristram ,Shandy» so suecessfully brought to light by 
Da. :FEraa» af lenh drew the attention of the public towar,]s 
a wrlter» who though then littl¢ _know_n might without impeach- 



VHI ADVERTISEMENT. 

nent ol  modesty» lay elaim to every mark ol  respect; and inqulry 
proved, beyond a doubt» that the ealls of" justice had been little 
attended to by others, as well as the faeetious YOI,.[CK. VooD 
vbserved, more than a eentury ago, that several authors had un- 
raercif"ully stolen marrer from ]3tJrtTO ,4thout any acknowledg- 
ment. The tlme, however, at length arrlved, when the merits of 
the Aatomy ofg'l[elancholy were to reeeive thelr due praise. Ttte 
Look ,vas again sought for and rend, and agaln it beeame an 
«pplauded performance. Its exeelleneies once more stood eonfessed, 
in the increased prlce which every copy offered for sale produeed; 
and the inereased demand pointed out the neeessity of" a new 
cditlon. This is now prescnted to the public in a manner hot dis- 
graeeful to the memory ol  the author; and the publisher relies 
with confidence» that so valuable a repository of` amusement an'3 in- 
f,»rmation, will continue to hold the rank to which it has been restorcd, 
flrmly supported by its own merit, and sale from the influence and 
l,light of" any future caprices of fashion. To open its valuable 
:ysterles to those who bave hOt had the advantage of a classical 
tducation, translations of the conntless quotations from ancient writers 
v, hich occur in the work, are nowf« the first thne glvon and obsolete 
v;thogral,hy iz in  instaacc-q moernied. 



M E M O I R 

OF THE 

AUTO. 

ROBERT "DuIITOX WaS the son of Rlph Iurton, of an ancient and genteel 
family at Lindley, in Leicestêrshire, and was born there on the 8th of February, 
1576.* He received the first rudiments of learning at the free school of 
Sutton Coldfield, in "Warwickshire,+ ri'oto whence he was, at the age of 
seventeen, in the long vacation, 1593, sent to ]razen :Nose College, in the 
condition of a commoner, where he ruade a considerable progress in logic and 
I,hilosophy. In 1599 he was elected student of Christ Church, and, for form 
sake, was put undcr the tuition of Dr. John Bancroft, afterwards ]ishop of 
Oxford. In 1614 he was admitted to the reading of the entences, and on the 
gth of :November, 1616, had the vicarage of St. Thomas, in the west suburb 
of Oxford, conferred on him by the dean and canons of Christ Church, which, 
,vith the rectory of 8egrave, in Leicestershire, given to him in the year 1636, 
l,y George, Lord ]erkeley, he kept, fo use the words of the Oxford antiquary, 
,vith much ado to his dying day. tIe seems to have been first beneficed ai 
Valsby, in Lincolnshire, through the munificence of his noble patroness, 
Frances, Countess Dowager of Exeter, but resigned the saine, as he relis us, for 
some special reasons. At his viearage he is remarked to have always given 
the sacrament in wafers. "Wood's character of him is, that "he was an exact 
mathematician,  eurious calculator of nativities, a general read scholar,  
thorough-paced philologist, and one that understood the surveying of lands 
well. As he was by many accounted t severe student, a devotu-er of authors, 
a melancholy and humorous person; so by others, who knew him well, a persoa 
of great honesty, plain dealing and charity. I have heard some ofthe ancients 
of Christ Church often say, that his company was very merry, facete, and 

at Sutton Coldel admitted commoner, or gentleman commonex of Brazen Nose Coeg I91 ; st the Inner 
Templ th May 1593; B.A. 22nd Jun I9; and aRwar a hamster an6 reporter In the Co  
Common Ple. « B hIs nat geni," sys Wo "leang h fo te s of her genlo- 
 and antiq he bece exceller In those obscu and inicate matt; look upon   a 
gentleman, w counte by a that knew hlm, to be the bt of hls tlme for those sdi,  may appear 
by h ' Dptlon of Leitehloe.'" His weak contuon hot peittlng him to follow busln, he retircd 
Into the coun, and h tt wor «The Description of Leicte" w pubhed  follo, 1622. 
He died at Fd aRer suffeng much  the civil wa G 6th ApriÇ 16» and w bmed  the parish church 
bclonng theto, led Hanbu. 
•  This ls Wood's count. His wlll says, Nuneaton; but a page In this work [vol. L . 95s] mentio 
utoa Coldfleld: robably he may havc bccu ai both schoo 



• ACCOI.rIçT OF TIIE AUTHOII. 

juvenile; and no man in his rime did surpass him fi)r his ready and dext.rous 
interlarding his common discourses among them with verses frein the poets, or 
sentences frein classic authors; which being then ail the .fashion in the Univer- 
sity, ruade his company the more acceptable." He appears te have been a 
universal reader of ail kinds of books, and availed himself of his mu]tifarious 
studies ha a very extraordioary manner. From the information of Hearne, we 
leara that John Rouse, the Bodleian librarian, furnished him with choice books 
for the proseeution of his work. The subject of his labour and amusement, 
seems te bave been adopted frein the infirmities of his own habit and constitu- 
tion. ]Ir. Oranger says, "He composed this book with a view of relieving 
his own melancholy, but increased it te such a de_-ree, that nohing could mako 
him laugh, but goiug te the bridge-foot and heaï'iug the ribaldry ofthe barge- 
men, which mrely failed te throw him into a vident fit of laughter. ]3clore 
he was overeome with this holTid disorder, he, in the intervah of his vapeurs, 
was esteemed one of the most facetious companions in the Unversa y. 
His residence was chiefly at Oxford ; where, in his chamber in Christ 
Church Coll%-,e, he departed this lire, at or very near the time whieh he had 
seine years before foretold, frein the calculation of his ovn nativity, and which, 
say- 3Vood, "being exact, several of the students did net forbear te whisper 
amoug themselve.s, that rather than there should be a mistake in the calcula- 
tion, he sent up his seul te heaven through a slip about his neck." Whether 
this suggestion is founded in truth, we have no other evidence than an obscure 
hint in the epitaph hereafter insert, ed, which was written by the author himself, 
a short rime before his death. His body, with due solemnity, was bufied near 
that of Dr. l%bel 3Veston, in the north aisle which jois .next te the choir of 
the Cathedral of Christ Church, on the 27th of January, 1639-40. Over his 
gra.ve was soon after erected a comely monument, on the Ul»l»er pillar of tho 
'tid aisle, wit, h his buse, painted te the lire. On the right hand is the f, llowing 
calculation of his nativity: 



ACCOUNT OF THE AUTHOR.  

and under the buse, his inscription of his own composition 

Paucis notus, paucioribus ignotus» 
Hic jacet Democritu junior 
Cul vitam dedit et mortem 
]Iclancholia. 
Ob. 8 Id. Jan. A.C. racxxxL,¢. 

Arms :--Azure on a bend O. between three dogs' heads O. a crescent G. 

A few months belote his death, he ruade his will, of which the following is 

EXTRACED IROM THE ]EGISTRY Ol  TIIE I:)IIEROGATIVE COURT OF CANTERBURY. 

In zYornin D«i Amen. August 15  One thousand six huudrcd thirty nine because 
there be so many casualties to which our life is subject besides quarrelling and contention 
vhich happen to our Successors after our Dcath by rcason of unsettled Estates I Robert 
]3urton Studcnt of Christchurch Oxon. though my means be but small bave thought gond 
hy this my last Will and Testament to dispose ot" that littlc which I bave and being t 
this present I thank God in perfect health of ]3odie and Mind and if this Testament ho 
ot so formal according to the nice and strict terres of Law and other Circumstauccs 
peradventure required of which I ara ignorant I desire howsoever this my Will may be 
accepted and stand good according to my trne Intent and meaning First I bequeath 
Animam Dco Corpus Terroe whensoever it shall please God to call me I give my Land in 
]-Iigham 'hich my good Father lalphe ]3urton of Lindly in the County of Leicestcr 
Esquire cave me by Deed of Gift and that which I bave annexcd to that Farm by purchaso 
since, now leased for thirty eight pounds per Ann. to mine E]der Brother William Iurton 
of Lmdly Esquire during his lifo and after him to his Heirs I make my said Brothcr 
William likewise mine Executor as well as paying such Annuities and Legacies out of my 
Iands and Goods as are hereafter specified I give to my ephew Cassibi]an Iurton 
twenty pounds Annuity per Ann. out of my Land in Higham during his lire to be paid 
at two equall payments at out Lady Day in Lent and lIichaelmas or if he be hot paid 
vithin fourteen Days after the said Feasts to distrain on any part of the Ground on or 
any of my Lands of Inheritance Item I give to my sister Kathcrine Jackson .during ber 
life eight pounds per Ann. Annuity to be paid at the two Feasts equally as above said or 
¢lse to distrain on the Ground if she be hot paid after fourteen days at Lindly as the other 
orne is out of the said Land Item I give to my Servant John Upton the Annulty of Forty 
Shil]ings out of my said Farine during his life (if till then my Servant) to be paid on 
lIichaelmas day in Lindley each ycar or else after fourteen days to distrain Now for my 
goods I thus dispose them First I give an C t pounds to Christ Church in Oxford where I 
bave so lon G lived to buy rive pounds Lands per Ann. to be Yearly bcstowed on Iooks 
for the Library Item I give an hundredth pound to the University Library of Oxford to 
be bestowed to purchase rive pound Land per Ann. to be paid out Year]y on Boo-ks as 
Irs. Brooks former]y gave an hundred pounds to buy Land to the saine purpose and the 
]ent to the saine nse I give to my Brother George Iurton twenty pounds and my watch 
I give to my ]3rother lalph Burton rive pounds ltcm I give to the l'arish of Seagrave in 
Ieicestershire whcre I ara now Iector ten pounds to be given to certain Feoffecs to the 
erpetual good of the said Pari.,'h Oxon* Item I give to my lïcce Eugcnia Iurton One 
undredth pounds Item I give to my Nephew lichard Burton now l'risoner in London an 
lmndredth ponnd to redeem him Item I give to the Poor of Higham Forty Shillings where 
ny Land is to the Poor of l'uneaton where I was once a Grammar Scholar three pound 
to my Cousin Purfcy of Wad]ake [Wadlev] my Cousin Pm'fey of Calcott my Cousin 
Hales of Coventry my lcphew ]3radshaw f Orton twenty shillings a picce for a small 
rcmcmbrance to Mr. Whitchall Icctor of Cherkby myne own Chamber Fellow twenty 
zhillings I desire my Irothcr George and my Cosen l'urfey ofCalcott to be the Oversecrs 
of this part of my 'ill I give moreover rive pounds to make a small Monument for my 
Iother where she is buried in London to my Brother Jackson forty shillings to my 
Servant John Upton forty shillings bcsidcs his former Annuity if he be my Servant till I 
die if he be till then my Servantl--RO]3ERT ]3URTOl--Charles Russell Witnes 
.--John Pepper Witncss. 

* $o in the Rebuter. " So in the Rcgiter. 



X] AOEOUNT OF THE AUTIIOR. 

An Appendlx to this my Will if I dic in Oxford or whilst I ara of Christ Church and 
with good Mr. layncs August the Fifteenth 1639. 
I Give to Mr. Doctor Fel] Dcan of ChrSst Church Fol'ty Shillings to the Eight Canons 
twenty Shillings a piece as a small remembrance to the poor of St. Thoma parish Twenty 
Shillings to Brasenose Library rive pounds to Mr. Rowse of Oriell Collcdge twcnty 
Shillings to Mr. Lleywood zzs. to Dr. Mctcalfe «xs. to Mr. Sherley «;s. If I bave any 
Iooks the University Library bath not let them take thcm If I bave any Books our own 
Library bath not let them take them I give to Mrs. Feil ail my English Books of 
] lusbandry one cxceptcd to ber Daughter ]Irs. Katherinc Fell my 
Six Pieces of Silver Plate and six Silvcr Spoons to Mrs Iles my Gerards Herball to Mrs. 
Morris my Country Farine Translated out of Frcnch 4. and ail my English Physick Books 
o ]Ir. Whistler the Rccordcr of Oxford I give twenty shillings to ail my fcllow 
Students M TM of Arts a Book in fol or two a piece a Mastcr Morris Treasurer or Mr 
Dean shall appoint whom I request to be the Overseer of this Appendix and give him for 
his pains Atlas Geografcr and Ortelius Theatrum Mond' I give to John Fell the Dean's 
8on Student my $iathematical Instruments except my two Crosse Stavcs which I give to 
my Lord of Donnol if he be then of the Hottse To Thomas Iles Doctor I[es his Son 
Studeut Salunteh ou Paurrhelia and Lucian's Works h 4 Tomee If any books be left let 
my Execuors dispose of them with ail such Books va are written with my own hands 
and half my Melancholy Copy for Crips hath the other half To Mr. Jones Chaplin and 
Chanter my Surve.ving Books and Instruments To the Servants of the Iloase Forty 
hi]lings ROB. BURTON--Charles Rnssell Witness--John Pepper Wimess'l_'his Will 
was shewed to me by the Tcstator and acknowlcdgcd by him some few days before 
dcath o bc hm lait ,Vill Ira Testor John Morris S Th D. l)l-cbcnda ' Eccl Chri' Oxoa 
l%b. 3, 1639. 
Probatum fuit Tcstamentum suprascriptum, &c. 11 ° 1640 Juramento Willmi Burton 
Fris' et Executoris cul &c. de bcne et fidehter administrand. &c. coram Magris 
Nathanaele Stephens Rectoro Eccl. de Drayton, et Edwardo Fariner, Clcricis, 
vigore commissionis, &c. 

The on]y work our author executed was that now reprlnted, wkich 
],robrbly was the principal employmet of his lire. I)r. Ferriar says, it was 
oriMnally published in the year 1617; but tkis is evidently a mistoEke;  tho 
th-st edition wa.s that printed in 4to, 1621, , copy of wkich is at present in 
the collection of John lSlichols, Esq., the indefatigablo illustrator of tho 
]listory ofLeivestershire; to whom, and to Isac Reed, Esq., of Staple Inn, 
this account is gr.ly ivdchte..d for its acccxacy. The other impressions of it 
were in 1624, 1628, 1632, 1638, 1651-2, 1660, and 1676, which lat, in the 
title-page, is clled the eighth editio- 
The copy from which the present is re-printed, is that of 1651-2; at the 
conclusion of which is the following addres: 
" To TtIE READER. 
"Be pleased to know (Courteous Ileader) that since the last Impression of this Book. 
the ingenuous Author of it is deceased, leaving a Copy of it exactly corrected, with several 
considerable Additions by his own hand; this Copy he eommitted to my care and custody, 
with directions to have those Additions inserted in the next Edition ; which in order to his 
command, and the lablicke Good, is faithfully pcoEormed in this last Impression.,. 
1t. C. (i. e. 11EV. CRIPP,.) 

* Orig4natln, perhap, lu a note, p. &lA, 6th edit. (p. 504 of the prenent), in whlch a book is quoted 
a having bceu « printed at Paris 1624 serin ycars aer Burton's first edition.  As, however, the editions 
armer that of 1621, are regularly marked in succeasion to the eigbth, priuted in 1676, there seems very little 
roaou to doubt that, In the notc above a]luded fo, either 1624 bas been a misprint for 1628, or sevm years for 
tares yeax. Thc numeroU t)o'aphical errata in other pm-t of tl¢ work strongly ltl tl latter uppoo 
ttom 



zccou, or rHS ,UHOR. xii! 

The followlng tcstimonies of carions authors will serve te show the estima- 
tion in which this work bas been held :q 

"The A«TOY Or IfE.^NCttOV, whereln the author hath piled up variety of nmch 
excellent lcarning. Scarce any bock of philology in out Iand bath, in se short a tire% 
passed se many editious.'---Fulr's |Vert]tins, fol 16. 

" 'Tis a bock o full of variety of reading, that gentlemcn who bave lest their time, 
are put te a push for invention, may furnish themseIves with matter for common or schoh- 
tical discourse and writing."---1VoooEs .Atllz Oxoninsis, vol. i. p. 28. 2d edit. 

"Iî you never saw IunTo.' vt, oN ME^cnoY, printed 1676, I pray look into i and 
read the ninth page of his Pfac% 'DemocEt te the ader.' There  something 
theoe which uches the point we are npon ; but I mention the author te you,  e 
plentes the most leae and the most I1 of sterng sense. The wi of Queen 
Aune's rein, and the beginuing of Geore the Fi h were net a ttle beholden te " 
ArcI&lop Herrig's Letter$, 12me, 1777. p. 149. 

"ltmor's A.«TOM¢ or lIrLcno, he (Dr. Johnson) said, was the only bock that 
ever teck him out of bed two hours sooner than ho wished te rise."tloswds Lift of 
Jolnson, vol i. p. 580, 8vo. edit. 

" ]URTON'S ANATOM Oit IELANCHOLY q a'valuable bock," said Dr. Johnson. "It is" 
perhaps, ovcrloaded with quotation. But there is great spirit and great power in what 
Burton says whca he writês frein  owa minoE"/b/d, voL il. p. 25. 

"It will bc no detraction frein the powers of ][ilton's original ffenius and invention, te 
remark, that he seems te bave borrowed the subject of L'.Allegro and Il Penseroso together 
x-ith some particular thoughts, expressions, and rhymes, more especially the idea of a con- 
trast between these two dispositions, frein a forgotten poem prefixed te the first edition of 
BvttTo's A^To or I[-LmCHOL, entitled, ' The Author's Abstract of Ielancholy; cri 
A Dialogue between Pleasure and Pain.' Here pain is melaucholy. It was written, as  
conjecture, about the year 1600. I will make no apology for abstracting and citing as 
ranch of this poem as will ho sngicient te prove, te a discerning reader, how far it had 
taken possession of 5lilton's minoE Thc measure wiLL appear te be the same; and that 
out author was at least an attentive reader of Burton's bock, may be already concluded 
from thc traces of resemblance which I bave incidentally noticed in passing through the 
L'Allegro and //Penseroso."After extracting the lines, lIr. Warton adds, "as te file 
very elaboratc work te whieh these visionary verses are no unsuhable introduction, the 
writer's variety of learning, lais quotations frein scaree and curions boo, Iris pedantry. 
sparkling wizh rude wit and shapeless elegancc, misceLLaneous marrer, intermixture of 
agreeable raies and iLLustrations, and, perhaps, above ail, the singularities of his feelings, 
clothed in an uncommon quaintness of style, bave contributed te tender it, evcn te modera 
rcaders, a valuable repository of amusement and information."Warton's ldilton. 2oE edil 
p. 94. 

"Tn ArTOM or IfL^CHO is a bock which bas been universally read and admlreoE 
This work is, for the most part, what the author himself styles it, ' a tente;' but itis a 
very ingenious one. His quotations, which abound in every page, are pertinent; but if he 
had ruade more use of his invention and less of his commonplace-book, his work would 
perhaps have been more valuable than itis. He is generally free frein the affected 
language and ridiculous metaphors which disn-ace most of the books of his thnc.  
Granger's .Biographical ttistor 9. 

ci BURTON'S ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY, a ])ook once the favourito of the Icarned and 
the witty, and a source of snrreptitious learning, though written on a regular plan, cousists 
chiefly of quotations: the author bas honestly termC ita tente. He coLLects, under every 
division, the opinions of a multitude ofwriters, without regard te chronological ordcr, and 
has toc cften the modesty te decline the interposition of his own sentiments. Indecd the 
bulk ofhis material generaLLy overwhehns him. In the course of his folio he has coutrived 
te treat a great variety of topics, that seem very loosely connected with the general snb- 
ject; and, like Bayle, when he starts a favourite train of quotations, he does net scruple 
te let the digression ontrun the principal question. Thus, frein the doctrines of religion 
te milhary discipline, frein inlaud navigation te the morality of danc'mg-schools» every 
tldng is discssed and determined.'--F«/ar'# lutrai, o.foern, p. 58. 



ACCOUNT OF THE AUTHOR. 

« The archnes which P,o, dlsplŒEys oeeasionallv, and hls inrlulencc ofplavhd di-e- 
Bions from the most scous discussions, often give hi's style an air of familiar c(nversation, 
rJotwithstanding the laborious collections which supply his text. He was capable of writ- 
ing excellent poetry, but he scems to bave cultivated thls talent too little. The English 
vers¢s prefixed to his book, which possess beautiful imagery, and great sweemess of vcrsi- 
cation, bave bcen frequcntly published. IIis Latin elegia¢ verts addresscd to his book, 
hew a very agreeable tura for raillery."--/-6id, p.  

' hcn the force of the subject opens hls own veln of pro.e, we discover valnable sense 
and brilliant expression. Such is his account of the first feelings of mclancholy persons, 
ritten, probably, from his own experieuce." [See p. 161, of the present edifiomJ--/bid. 
p. 60. 

a Dur]ng a pedantic age, like that in whlch Byavo.'s production appeared, it must 
havç been eminently sericeable to writers of many descriptions. Hence the unlemmed 
might furnish themselves with appropriate scraps of Greek and Latin, whilst men of letters 
would final their inquiries £hortemed, by knowing where they mght look for what both 
ancients and moderns hve advanced on the subject of human passions. I confess my 
inability to point out any other English author who has so largely dealt in apt and 
ori-,inal quotation."--3fanusoElt not o.[ t] lat Ceor.qe ,$teeven, F,ŒE., in li ¢ot)y o.f Tr 



DEMOCRITUS JUNIOR AD LIBRUI SUUI%I. 

Vmz liber, qualis, uou auslm dicere, foelix, 
Te nisi foelicem fecerit Alma die% 
Vade men quoeunque lubet, qucunque per oras 
Et Genium Domini f imitere tui. 
I bland inter Charite% mystmque salut 
MmRrm qemv, si tibi lector erit. 
Rur cola, bem, subeve palatia regain 
vbmbs, plid, te sine den ger. 
obilis, Rut si quis  foè insxet heros, 
Da te moEge, perlegat usgue lubet. 
Est qu Nobit, est quod desderet hero9, 
Gratior hoec foan cha plere test. 
i quh morosus Cato, tetricusque Senator, 
Hnc etiam librm foè de veg 
ive masttns, tutu te reverenter hRbo; 
Sed num; mmem non capiunt Aquilœe. 
on vat h temp fuum impedere nngis, 
Nec  cupio; par mihi lector erit. 
Si matrona ds casu divt istuc, 
lustfis domina, aut te Cmitissa legat : 
Est quod displioeat, plRRt quod foin  
Ingerere his noli te modb, pande men. 
At mvgo t dignabitur clya cha 
Tangere, sire sehedis hoereRt flla tuis: 
Da modo te facem, et qnoedam folia esse memeto 
Conveniant o quoe mas ap s. 
ieveroea ancla tuos aut alma puera 
Visu est ludos, annue, pande lubens. 
Die utinam hune ipse meus • {nain dilit is) 
 psens oet conspicidm he. 
lotus notusve mihi de gen tot 
Sire Rt in lud, ppita sire coleg 
Sire in Lycoeo, et nus evolverit ist, 
Si qnasdam mendas defit inspiciens, 
Da vevm Autho dices; n plima veUat 
Exp»n, quœe jam dispc sciat. 
Sire Melancholicm qsquam, eu bland Amao 
Aieus aut Ci, seu n comptm Eu 
Huc appellat, age et tutb te erede legentz, 
Mu tic foan nov lè nata leget. 
Qod fuag veat, quodque amplexabi,  
Pana fonds ro m pott. 
At si qu Medicus comm te sistet, amiee 
F cirptè, et te sine labe ger: 
veniet namque ipse me queue plufima scfiptls 
on leve idium quoe sibi foan ent. 
fliuis Causidic cht impingat  issu, 
il mihi vobm, pessima tba le  
Sit ni r nm, etj sine fude pefittt% 
T lega et for doctior de siet. 

• Hc ¢omle 61eta av5 ne malè cçt. 



seV DE|OCITUS ffUIOIt AD LIBRUM UTL 

;i quis eordatus, faci]ii, ]eetorque bentgnus 
Hue oculos verrat, quoe relit ipse legat ; 
Candidus i-noscet, [netuas nil, pande libcnter» 
Offensus [nendis non erit file tuis, 
Laudabit nonnu]L. Venit si Rhetor ineptus, 
Limata et tersa, et qui benè cocta petit, 
Claude eitus librum; nu]la hic nisl ferrea verba, 
t)ffendent sto[nachu[n quoe minùs apta suum. 
At si quis non eai[nius de plebe poeta. 
Annue ; na[nque istic plurî[na ficta leget. 
]os sumus è numero, nu]lus mihi spirat ApoL]os 
Grandilo¢juus Vates qui]ibet esse nequit. 
Bi Criticus Lictor, tumidus Censorque [nolestlts» 
Zoilus et Mo[nus m si rabiosa cohors: 
]inge, frerde, et noli tu[n pandere, turba [nalignis 
Si occurrat sannis invidiosa suis: 
l'ac fugia; si nu]la tibi sit copia eundi, 
Conte[nnes, tacitè sco[nmata quoeque feres. 
Frendeat, allatret, vacuas ganoitibus aur.s 
I[npleat, haud eures his placuisse nefas. 
Verum age si forsan divertat purior .hos.pes, 
Cuique sales, ludi, displiceantque.ocl, 
Objiciatque tibi sordes, lacivdue: dices, 
Lasciva est Do[nino et Musajocosa tuo, 
ee |iva ta[nen, si pensitet o[nne; sed esto 
Sit laclva licet paua, vita proba est. 
Barbarus, indoct6sque rudis spectator in istam 
Si [nessem intrudat, fuste fugabis eu[n, 
Fungum peUe procu] (jubeo) nain qu]d [nihi fuu,o 
Couveniunt stomacho non [ninus ista suo. 
Sed nec pelle ta[nen ; loeto omnes accipe vu]tu, 
Quos, quas, wl quales, iude vel uode viros. 
Gratus erit qu]eunque venit, g'ratissi[nus hoeps 
Quisquis erit, facilis diflicilisque mihi. 
]a[n si eu]pàrit, qu,da[n eu]psse juvabit, 
Cu]pando faciet [ne [neliora sequi. 
8ed si laudtrit, neque laudmbus efferar ull;.a, 
Sit satis hiice [nalis oppusuisse bohU[no 
I]oec suut quoe nostro p]acuit [nandare libell% 
Et quæ dimittens dieere ussit Herus. 



DEMOCRITUS JUNIOR TO IIIS B00K. 

PKE&PIIRSTI( rETI0kL T-KNSLTIONo 

Go forth my book into the open day; 
Happy, if ruade se by ita garish eye. 
O'er earth's wide surface take thy vagrant way. 
Te imitate thy master's genius try. 
The graoes three, the lIuses nine salure, 
Should those who love them try te con thy lçre. 
The country, eity seek, grand thro.e te boot, 
With gentle courtesy bumbly bov belote. 
Should nobles gallant, soldiera frank and brave 
Seek thy acquantance, bail their first advanoe 
From twitch of care thy pleasant rein may save, 
llay laughter cause or wisdom give perchauc 
Seine surly Cato, Senator austere, 
Haply may wish te peep into thy l)ook: 
Seem very nothing--tremble and revere : 
No forceful eagles, buttertties e'er look. 
ney love net thee: of them then little seek 
And wish for readers triflers like thyseff. 
Of ludeful matron watchful catch the beck, 
Or gorgeous countess full of pride and pe]f. 
They may say "pishi" and frown, and yet read ong 
Cry odd, and si]ly, coarse, and yet amasing. 
Should dainty damsel seek thy page te con, 
Spread thy best stores: te them be ne'er refuingffi 
Say, fair one, toaster loves thee dear as life; 
Would he were here te gaze on thy sweet look. 
Should known or unknown studeot, free'd frein strife 
Of lot,de and the schools, explore my book: 
Cry mercy critic, and thy book withhold: 
Be seine few errera pardon'd though observ'd: 
An humble author te implore makes bolŒEE 
Thy kind indulgence, even undeser'd, 
Should melaucholy wight or pensive loyer, 
Courtier, snug cit, or carpet knight se trim 
Out bloesoms cull, he'll find himself in clover, 
Gain sense frein precept, laughter frein out wlflm. 
Should lcarned leech with solemn air unfold 
Thy leaves» beware, be civil, aod be wise: 
Thy volume many precepts sa.e may hold, 
His well fraught head may tind no trilïing prize, 
Should crafty lawyer trespass on our grotmd, 
Caitiffs avaunt| disturbing tribe away| 
Unless (whlte crow) an honeat one be found; 
He'll better, wier go for u bat we say. 
Should seine rlpe scholax, gentIe and bénign, 
With candeur, care, and jud_gment thee perue: 
Thy faults te kind obIivion he'll consigu; 
lqor te thy merit will his i)raie refua 



Thou my'st be searched for polish'd words and verse! 
By flipit spouter, emltest of lrters: 
°£ell him to seul the in some mawkish verset 
My periods 811 re rough as nutmeg graters. 
The doggrel poet, wishiug thee to rend, 
Reject uot; let him gleau thy jets and stcriee. 
[lis brother I, of lowly emblin/ breed: 
Apollo grauts to few larnassian lories. 
Meuac'd by critlc with sour furrowed browÆ 
]iomus or Troilus or Scotch reviewer: 
lnfHe your heckio, grin and growl and vow: 
]ii-uatured foes you thus will find the fewer. 
Wheu foul-mouth'd seuseless rai]ers ery thee down 
Reply hot; fly, aud show the roguea thy stern: 
They are not worthy even of a frowu : 
Good taste or breeding they can never ]earn; 
Or let them clamour, turu a callous ear, 
As though in dread ofsome harsh donkefs brayo 
If chid by censor, frieudly though severe, 
To such explain and turu thee hot away. 
Thv rein, says ho perchance, is ail too free; 
Thy smntty lan'uage suits hot learned peu." 
]eply, Good Sir, throughout, the eontext see; 
Thought chastens thought; so prithee judge agah 
Besidea, lthough my master's peu may wander 
Through devious paths, by which it ought hot strtt,; 
is life is pure, beyoud the Ireath of slauder'- " 
So pardou gTant; 'tis merely bnt tas way. 
ome rugged tuffeau makes a hideous rout--- 
Brandish thy eudgel, threateu him to baste; " 
"I?he filthy ftmgus far from thee cast out; 
Such uoxious banquets noyer suit m.y tast« 
Yet, calm and cautious moderate thy re, 
Be ever eourteous should the case alow 
Sweet malt is over ruade by gentIe tire: 
Warm to thy friends, give ail a civil bow. 
Even censure sometimes teaches to improve, 
Slight frosts have ofteu cured too rank a cro 
So, candid blame my spleeu shal noyer more, 
For skilful gard'ners wayward branchea lop. 
Go thon, my book, and bear my words in mind; 
Guide fe at ouce, and pleaaat them you'll 



THE ARGUMENT OF TIIE FRONTISPIECE.* 

Ten distinct Squares ]ere eeen apart, 
Are.olned in one by Cutter's art. 

Old Democr]tus under a tree, 
Sits on a stone with book on knee; 
About him bang there many features, 
Of Cats, Dogs and such like creatures, 
Of which he makes anatomy, 
The seat of black choler te see. 
Over his head appears the sky, 
Ad Saturu Lord of melancholy. 

Te the left a landscape of Jealousy, 
Preseuts itself unto thine eye. 
A Kingfisher, a Swan, an Hem, 
Two fi..hting-cocks you may discern, 
Two rgaring BU]ls each other laie, 
Te assau]t coucerning venery. 
Symbols are these; I say no mta- 
Couceive the rest by that's afore. 

The next of solltarlness, 
A Portraiture doth well express, 
By sleeping dog, cat: Buck and Do 
I-lares, Couies in the desart go: 
Bats, Owls the shady bowers over, 
In melaucholy darkness hover. 
Mark well: lît be ot asit shou]d be» 
Blame the bad Cutter, and uot me. 

r th' under column there doth stand 
Imorato with folded hand; 
Down hangs his head, terse and petite» 
Seine ditty sure he doth indite. 
His lute and books about him 1ie» 
As symptoms of his vanity. 
If this de net enough disclose, 
Te laiat him» take thyself by th' nose. 
r/ypoconfrlacus leans on his arm, 
Wind in his side doth him much barre, 
And troubles him fu]l sors, God kuows, 
Much pain he bath and many woes. 
About him pots and glasses lie, 
Newly brought from'e Apothecary. 
This Saturn's aspects signify, 
You ee them portrafd in the sky. 

Beneath them kneeling ou his kuee 
A superstitious man you see: 
He fasts, prays, on his Idol fixt, 
Tormented hope and fear betwixt: 
For hell perhaps he takes more pain, 
Than thou dost heaveu itself te gain. 
A]as poor sou], I pity hee, 
Vhat stars incline thee se te be? 

Vil. 
But see the madman rage downrlght 
With furious looks, a ghastly sight. 
Naked in chains bound doth he lie, 
And roars amain he knows net why! 
Observe him ; fir as in a glass, 
Thine angry portraiture it was. 
]=[is picture keeps still in thy presence; 
Twt him and thee there's no differenc 

Borage and lrlellebor fl two scenes, 
Sovereign plants te purge the veins 
Of melancholy, and cheer the heart, 
Of those black fumes which make it smart; 
Te clear the braiu of misty fogs, 
Which du]l our senses, and Sou] clogs. 
"rhe best mediciue that e'er God ruade 
For this ulady if well sa'd. 

New lest of ail te fil] a place, 
Preseuted is the Author's face; 
And in that habit which he 
HIS image te the world appears. 
His mind no art can well express, 
That by lais writings yo, may guess. 
It was net pride, ner yet vain glory 
(Though others de it commonly,) 
Made him de this: if you must know» 
The Printer wou]d needs hase it 
Then de net frown or scoff et it» 
I)eride net, or detract a whit. 
For surely as thou dost by him, 
He will de the saine again. 
Then look upon't, behold and see 
As thou like'st it se it likes thee. 
And I for it wi stand in view, 
Thine te command, Reder, adieu. 

* These verses refer te the Frontlsple¢e, whlch s dlvtded lute ten eompartments that are hers evcrel]y 
eaplsiued. Tho author'l portrait, mention¢d in ths tenth itauza s copied In lage ix. 



THE AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT OF MELANCHOLY» a,oT. 

W'nen I go muslng aH alone, _ 
Thinldng of divers things fore-know 
When I build castles in tb air, 
oid of orrow and void of fear» 
Plesing m8elf with phantasvas swee, 
Methinks the time rune very fleet. 
AI1 my joys to this are folly, 
Naught so Beet as me]aeholy. 
When • lie waking all alone, - 
Itecounting whatI bave ill donc, 
lly thoughts on me then trannise, 
Fear &nd$orrow me surlrlæe » 
Whether I tarry till or go, 
Methinks the time moves very slow. 
AI1 my griefs to this are jolly, 
Nanght so ead as melancholy. 
When to myself I act and mfle, 
With pleasing, thought the time begl" % 
By a brook mde or wooà o green, 
Unheard, nneought for, or nnseen, 
A thousnd pleasures do me bles, 
And crown my Boul with happine$. 
All myjoye hesides are folly, 
None o weet as mel$ncholy. 
When I lie, it, or walk elone, 
I tigh, • grieve, making great mone, 
In 8 dark grove, or irksome den, 
With discontente and Furies theu, 
A thousand miserie at once 
ine henry heart and Boul entovc 
AI1 my griefe to thi arvjohy, 
None o our as melancholy. 
Methinl I hem', methinl I ee, 
Sweet music, vondro melody, 
Towne, palaces, and cities fine; 
Here now, then there; the world is mlne, 
Rare heautie, gallant laAie shine, 
Whate'er is lovely or divine. 
AIl othvr joys to this are folly» 
None Bo sweet as melancholy. 
Methinks I hear, methink I 
Ghosts, goblins, fiends; my fantay 
Presents 8 thouand ngly hapes, 
Headless bears, black men, and ape» 
Doleful outeries, nd fearful Bighta 
My end and dismal oul affrights. 
A_ll my griefe to this are jo|ly» 
Ione mo daxan'd la melancholy. 

Methinka I court, methtnl I klss. 
Methnk I now embrace my 
0 bled days, 0 sweet content, 
 Parae my te  spent. 
Such ough y t my fancy mov 
So may Iever be in love. 
i my joye  th e foHy, 
Naught eo eweet as melancholy. 
Wben I reconnt love'e nyfrights, 
My sighs and te, my wang nigh, 
ly jo fi; 0 ne hd rate 
I now repent» but 'tis too late. 
No eut  so had as love» 
So bitter to my so n prove. 
 my efs to this ejolly, 
Nanght so h  mncholy. 
F& and compauions get you gone, 
'T my desire fo be alone; 
Ne'er weB but when my thongh and I 
Do done  pvacy. 
No Gem, no tree like fo thé, 
'T my deHght, my o, my b$. 
 myjoys  th e foy. 
Nanght so sweet  mencholy. 
'Th my sole pe   one, 
I ara a best, a monter o» 
I  no Hght nor company» 
I find it now my 
Tbe eue  tu'd, my joye e gone, 
Fe, dhcontent, and soows corne. 
AB my efs  thls e joy, 
Naught so tierce  mncholy. 
 hOt cge Hfe th any 
I raht : u the world bg 
More joy, tu st  hugh and 
 plnt toys time  beZeF 
Do no O do uot trouble me, 
8o sweet content I feel and œe 
 my joys  t e foBy, 
None so ve  mncholy. 
 cnge my $te with any etch, 
hon n om l or dgh feh; 
My pa's pt ce, auooEer h 
I y notin t toent 
N despera I ha my e, 
Leud me a hter or a e; 
 my efs to thb are joBy, 
Naught «o damn'd  meI 



DEIOCRITU S 5UNIOR 
TO THE B.E&DEP 

ENTLE Reader, I presume thou ilt be very |nqfisitive to know wha 
antic or peonate actor this is, lhat so insoleatly tdes upon this 
eommon theatm, fo the world's iew, aogating another m's naine; whenco 
h i, why he doth il, and what he bath fo say; although, a Che ssid, 
Hmum  l,  nd, quis coactw t ? I ara  oe man bo, 
and my choo whether I wfil teH; who 
 rdy reply  that Egtiau lu Plutarch, when  cio fefiow wod 
needs kuow wht he had lu his bket, 
zem abscoam ? It w therefore oevere becae he abord hOt kuow wt 
w  il. Soek hot after that wch is hid ; ff the contents plea thoe, 
""and be for thy u, suppose the Man  the hIoon, or whom thou wilt to bo 
the Author ;" I would hot willingly be kuo. et  some so to ve theo 
satisçætion, which la more than I need, I will show s reason, both of this 
urçed naine, title, and subjt. And first of the naine of Demrit; lt 
any man, by reon of il, should be deoeived, expecting a pquil, s stire, some 
ridiculous treatiœe (as I myself shod have dons), me pmdigious tenet, or 
pamdox of the rth's motion, of infinite worlds, 
atomum oegne, in an infinite wte, so caused by an accidental oeision 
of mot in the sun, all wch Demritus held, Epicurus and their mr 
Lucippus of old intin, and ara laly revived by Copernicus, Brunus, and 
some others. Bides, il bath bn ways an ordinary cm, 
obœees, "for later im and imposto, to broh ny absd and insoleng 
fictions, under the naine of so noble  philopher  Demot, to ge them- 
selves cmdit, and by tt means the morv to be pect,"  artifioem 
uHy d% o qui armo ascrun -raxati[e sw. 'Tis no so with mo. 
« Non hic Centauro$, non rgons, Hayque 
Thou thyself ar tb subjec of my cou 
Gaadi cm's ntri ram beL Joy wd'ria e he s of my repoS. 
[y in,eut  no otherwiæ  u is nam tau erci lobelc, 
[eurius Britannic, use the me of eoey, SDemocrit Christian, &c.; 
althoh there be some other circutan for which I bave ked mylf 
der th vi, and some ciar rpect which I OEnnot so weH expr, 
nntil I bave set down a brief charter of t o Democrit wt ho w 
with an Epitome of his lire. 
Democ6tus,  he is dcribed by Hippoemt and Laertlus, w a ]ittle 
wearlsh old man, very melancholy by natte, ave from company   latr 
days,  d much given to solitariness, a famo posopher 

• Seneca In ludo lu mortem Claudtl Cesarls. b Ltb. de Cnrloslt[o. * Mod hoec ttbl usul slnt, quemvlm 
auetorem flngito. Wecker. « Lib. 10, e. 12. Multa à malè feriatie in Democriti nomine commenta dat 
obilittia, auctorltatisque eJus perfuglo uteutibus, • Mrtias, Ib. 10. epigr. 1. ¢ Juv. snt. l. 
• Auth. Pet. Besseo edlt. Colontoe, 16i6. h Hip. Eplst. Dameget. i Laert. lib. 9. • Hortulo eibi cellum 
$elea ibioae selpsam includea vizir solitarim, t Florut Ulympiade 80; 700 annh post Trolam. 



.ith Socrates, wholly addicted to his studies at the last, and to a private lire', 
'rote many exce_leut works, a great divine, accordiug to the divinity of tiloso 
çimes, an er.crt physician, a po:;ticiau, an excellcut mathcmutician,  Dia- 
eosmus and the test of h works do witn. He w much delightcd with tho 
tudi of husbaudry, ith Columcll and »Ren I find him ctcd by *Constan- 
tims and othe trtig of that subject. He knewthe naturez, difinoesofall 
bemts, plan, hes, birds; and,  some say, codd Ouudetand thc tuu and 
voioes of theoE In a word, he w omnfit»n ct, a geueral 
utudent; and to theintent he might botter contemplate, « [ fid it reid by 
me, that he put out h eyes, and was in s old age voluntarily blind, yet 
more than a Greeoe besides, and "wt of every 8uiect, ihil 
turoe. ds quo n scp." A man oî an exoellent wit, profond ccet ; 
:md fo attain knowledge thebetter in h younger yrs he trvelle to 
.md tAthens, to confer with learned men, «"admired of some, de3pised of 
othe." After a wandering life, he settled at Abdera, a town in Thrace, and 
w sent for thither fo be their law-makeçRecoMer, or tovn-derk as some 
will; or  othem, he w there bred and born. However it was, there he 
lived at lt in agarden in the suburbs, wholly bctaking himself to his studies 
and a privato lit, "'sving that sometimes he would va down to the haven, 
"d laugh heartily a such variety of rico objects wch thero he w." 
Such a one w Democrit. 
But in the mean rime, how doth thls conce me, or upon what reference do 
I usu th habit] Icoufess, decd, that to compa myoelfunto him for aught 
I bave yet id, wem both impudency an d arrogancy. I do hot presume to make 
an parallel, A nttat mhi mill trectL "pa m, nl sure, altum c 
pro,  ero. Yet thus much I will say of mysel and that I hop with- 
out all suspidon ofpride, or self-conoeit, I havc lived asilent, sedentary, li, 
private lit, mihi et musis  the lnivrsity,  long almost as Xenocrates 
A.thens, ad $ectamrè to learn wisdom as he did, penne,l up most par in 
my study. For I bave been brought up a sudent in the most flourishing 
eollege of Etrope, augustsino cogi), and can brag with *Jovius, almost, 
in e luca mlcilii Yacicani, toti orb cdebrimi, per 37 anaos 
opportun dMi;" for thiyyears I bave eontinued (having the use of 
good *libaes  ever he had) a holar, and wotHd be therefom loth, either 
by fiving  a drone, to be an unprofitable or unworthy member of so learned 
d noble a society, or to writo that which should be any way dhonourable to 
ch a royal and ample foundation. Sometng I have done, though by my 
profession a divine, yet urbi rapt itgenii,  he id, out of a running 
t, an unconsnt, unsettled mind, I had a ea dCsire (hot able to atmin 
a superficial skill in any) to bave some smattering in all, to be aliqu i omni- 
bus, nlus in sigul5 which «Plato commends, out OE him "Lipsi( approves 
and furthm, "as fit to be imprinted  ail curious wits, hot to be a sve of 
one seienoe, or dweH together  one subjec,  mos do, but to rove abro, 
ceumpr artium, to bave an our in eve man's boat, to crête of eve 

• Volucm voc et lingu intelligere se dicit Abder,tans Ep. Ilip. q Sabelllcus exempl., iib. 10. Ocis 
privavit, ut melius contemplationi operam dare sublimi vir inçenio, pr«,fundoe cogitfioniN &c. 
a, morMia, matheatic t[r diipli artittmqee omnittm peritiam ilebat. 
power to contrive of which he h not written.  Veni Athen et nemo m. novit. ld¢m contempt 
 tioni habit, • Solebat  porm am et ind% c. IlIp. Êp. Dmeg. w Peeo ri 
onem tare olebat Democrit. Juv. Sat 7. ffi Non sure dignus prtarc mtlla. 
• Chst Chur  Ox[ord. • Proefat. hist. • Keep of or llege librry, latcly vi¢cd by 
.  caiger. • Somebody in evething, nobody in each thing. 
. 8. Doa cupid et cuHu»is ingeni impendum, ut sit talis 
d elaboret, alia nn u¢ «ifi  tDbe grat de quocque cibo» e¢ pite  q 



Dcnocritus .» the Re¢der. 3 

though not with like success) I bave ever had, nd like  rangig spanieI, 
tht barks at every bird he secs, leaving his gaine, I have followe, l ail, saving 
that whieh I should, and m«y justly eomldain , aud trtdy, qui ub t, nt¢s- 
qu¢n est, n which  Gesner did in modesty, tt I bave read many books, but 
to little purpooe, for want of od method ; I have eonfusedly tumbled over 
divel authors in out libra6, with small profit fbr want of art, order, memoiçv, 
judgment. I never travelled but in map or eard, in wbich my uaoenfined 
thoughts have freely expatiated,  having ever beea eseialy dclighted with 
t.he study of Cosmography. J Satura w lord of my geaiture, culminating, 
&e., and Mat principal signifieator of mannem, in ptile eonjunetion with my 
ascendant; both fortunate in their houses, &e. I ara not or, I ara hot rieh; 
nildl es, nihll dt, I hve little, I want not.hing: ail my treure  in 
Minerv's tower. Greater preferment as I eould never get, so ara I hot ia 
debç for it, I hve  eomltenoe (us D from my noble and munifieeuç 
patrons, thougli I lire still  collegiate student,  Democritus in his gm'den, 
and lead a montie lire, ipse mgd tlwatrun, sequtered from thoeo tumults 
ald tmubl of the world, Et ta» in spe posus, (  he said) in me 
high place above you ail, fike Stoieus Sapiens, omnia soe, proeita 
t£aq vi», uo lut intuiu, I hear and e what is done abroad, how others 
t run, ride, turmoil, and mueerte themlves in court and oeuntry, £tr from 
those wrangling wsuits, aulw vaniaten, fo ambim, rire cum so : 
 laugh af all,  only seeure loEt my suit go ami, my ships perish, eo and 
OEttle misearry» trade deeay, I have no wife nor ehildren good or bad fo prode 
for. & mere spectar of other mea's forçun and adveutures, and hov 
act their parts, which methinks are dively prnted unto me  from 
commoa theatre or seene. I hear new news eve day, and those ordinary 
rumou of wr, plagues, rires, inundations, thefts, murde, mcr, meteors, 
comets, spectrnms, prodigi, apparition, of towns taken, cities besieged 
France, Germany, Turkey, Perzi Poland, &a, daily musters and prepa- 
ration, und such like, which these tempestuous rimes afford, bttles fought 
mny men slin, molmmachies, shipwks, piracies, and sea-fights; peaoe, 
lcagu, stratagem and fresh alarms. A vast eonfimion of vows, wish, 
action, edicts, petitions, lawsuits, plc, laws, proclnmations, oemplaints» 
grienees, are daily brought to our ea ew books every day, pamphlets» 
eurranto, stories, whole catnlogues of volumes of ail sorts, new paradoxes, 
opinions, schisms, hemsies, oentroversies in philosophy, religion, &e. ow 
corne idings of wedngs, maskings, mummelSe enteainments, jubiloes, 
embsi, tflts and tournaments, trophies, triumphs, revels, spor, plys 
then agnia,  ia • e shifed soene, tmon cheating tricks, robberies 
enormous villani in aH kinds, funerals, burials, deaths of prince, new di 
covees, expeditions, now comicl, then mgical matters. To-day we hear of 
new loMs d offioe created, to-moow of some grea men depooed, and then 
again of fresh honours conferred; one is let loose, another imprined ; one 
puoeheth, another breaketh : he thfives, his neighbour turns bankrupt: now 
plenty, then agnin dearçh and fmine; one runs, another rides, wrangles, 
laughs, wps, &e. Thus I daily hear, and such like, both privato and publie 
nes, amit the gallantl T and mksery of the wodd ; jollity, pride, perplexities 
and caoes, mplicity and villany ; subtlety, knavery, candour d integrity» 
mutlly mixed and offering themselves ; I b on privusprivatus; a I lmve 
till lived,  I now continue, statu quo pr£us, left to  soli life, and 
owa domestic disoentents : ving that ometimes»  yu ntr, as Dlogenea 

• lle that fs evevywhere ts nowhere. Iproefat. bibliotheeo 1 .mbo for'es et fortnati, Sça idem 
asterii domin juxta primam LeoItli regulam, k Hensi.  Calide OEbient, licie litigant 
 for% aut   co bon elua, de dote , patoo  non s socit. 



l)emoerltus fo the Reader. 

went into the clty, and I)emocr]tus te the haven te sec fashlons, I did for 
recreation new and then wa abroad, look into the world, and could net C}lOOe 
but ake seine little observation,  tan sa9 obsvator, ac mp 
Wr net  they did, te scoff or hugh at all, but with a ed 
 BHem p, Joeum vtfl mov0re multus.  
Ye wretched mlmi whe fond hts have been 
ow oRI tho objec of my mth and spleen. 
I flid sometlme ]augh and scoff with Lucian, and satlxqcaly tax with 
[enipp«, lainent with eraclitus, 8ometimes again I w »duti 
hinno, and then again, « ure l& jr, I w much moved te  that 
abt which I could net men In wch pion however I may symFathizo 
with him or them, 't for no such respect I shroud myself under hi nage 
but either in an unknown habit te ume a ttle more liberty and freedom of 
speech, or if you wl needs know, »r that reqon and only respect which 
ippoctes relates at large in his Epistle te Damegetus, xvhcrein he doth 
exp, howcoming te vit him one dy, he round Democritus  his garden 
at Abder in the subui-bs, *under a shMy ower, "th a book on hh kees, 
busy st his study, sometimes writing, sometimes walking. The subject of 
book w melancholy and matines; about him lay the carcq ofmany severl 
, newly by hi eut up and anatomiaed ; net that he difl contemn God'a 
crcaturcs,  he told ]Iippoctes, ut te find out the at of this atra , 
or melancholy, whence it l,roceeds, and how it w engenflerefl in men's bodies, 
te the intent he ight etter cure it in himscl and by his writivgs and oser- 
rations tteach others how te prevent and avoid it. rhich good intent of his, 
ippoctes highly comended: Democritus Juor h therefore old te 
imita, and becate he le it imFerfect, and it is new lest, çua 
o Docriti, te revive ain, prosecute, and finish in this trti. 
You have had a tenon of the naine. If the tltle and inscription offevd 
your 'aty, were it a 8ucient justification te accuse others,  cou]d produce 
n]any sober tates, even serinons themselves, which in their fronts 
ore fanttical names. owsoever, it is a kind of Folicy in thee days, te 
çfix a fantti title te a hook which is te he solfl;.for, as lark8 como 
do te a day-net, many vain reders will tmTy and stand ging Ie 8illy 
çenger at an antic picture in a painter's shop, that 11 net look at 
judlcious plece. nd, indeed, as Scaliger oseT, "nothing more vite 
a renfler than an argument unlooked for, unthought oÇ and ses better than a 
scule pamphlet," u aoei cun t clta * paIaum. "[any men," 
saith Gvllius, "are vc conceited  their inscriptions," «and ale ( • Pliny 
quotes out of Seneca) te make him loiter by the way that went in hte te 
fetch a midwife for his daughter, new ready te e do." For y rt, 
bave honourale precedeuts for this hieh I bave done: I will cite one for 
all, thony Zarg Pap. Episc., his atomy of Wit, in four sections, mem- 
bers, subsections, &c.,  be read  out bmries. 
If any man except against the matter or manner of treating of this ny 
bject, and will demand a rson of it, I can aEege more than one; I 'ite of 
melancholy, by being busy to avoid melancholy. There Ls no ter cause of 
encholy thau idleness "no better cure than busius," " * 

m ]'ot se aalraelous au observer as simple a uarrator. * ]3or. Ep. llb. I. xlx., 20. P Per. A langher wlth 
• petulant spleen.  Hot. lib. l. sat. 9. • Secundum moenia le©us erat f!'.o.ndosis populis opacus, 
viibusque sponte natis, tenuis prope aqua deflnebat, placide muranurans, ubi sedfle et domus Dem3eriti 
conspiciebatur, • lpso composlte considebat, super genua volumen haben et utrlnque alia Patentia 
parsta, dissee, aque anlmalia cumulatim strata, quorum viscera rimabatur, t Cùm mundtts exra 
se sit, et mente captus sit, et nesciat se languere, ut medelam adhibeat, m Scaliger, Ep. ad PatisOnem. 
Nihfl magis lectorem iuvitat quam inopina: um argumentum, ueque vendibflior merx est qu. petulaus litr, 
• L|b. xx. ©. 11. M|ras sequuntur insc]4ptionum festivitates, • Proefat. Nat. H|st. Patn obsetrleem par. 
turienti filioe accersent| moram injlcere possunt. " Anatomy of Poperv, Anatomy of lmmortalit), 
A.agei , Aaatou of Atimony &«  Cont. 1.  c. 9. lgun eat cura ehor quàm labor. 



i)emocrtus fo t ï,eer. 

holds : and howbelt, sttdtus lahor est ineptlarum, to be busy in toys is to 
small purpose, yet hear that divine eneca, aliud agere fuam iidl, better do 
to no end, than nothing. I wrote therefore: and busied myself in this playing 
labour, otiosaf, diligcatiâ ut v;2ar«m torporem.friandi with 
crob.ius, atoE. otium it utile verl«rem ne.qotium. 
Lect.orem delectando slmul arque moneudo. 
PeetS weud profit er delght 
And with the pleaing bave th" stctive 
ot ad le thé, fo 
T" lnfo the jndent» uor oKend the he- 
Sh g  vote. 
To this end I wHte, like them, saith Luclan, tat «recite to troe and 
dcc]aim to piila for want of audito :" as Paulus gineta ingenuou]y 
cnfseth, "not that anything w unknown or omitted, but to exewi 
tyse]Ç" which course if some took, I think it wou]d be good for thelr bodies, 
and much betr fr their sou]s ; or peradventure  othe do, for fme, to 
vhow yself (Scire tuum nih , n  scir«  sciat alr). I might be of 
Thucydides' opinion, ""to know a thing and not to express if, 
if he knew if hot." When I first took this task in and, 
imente 9tlo neçotium scei, this ] aimed at ; vd ut drem animum 
• bdo, to case my mind by writlng; for 
ind of impthume in my head, which 
and could iagine no tter evacuation than this. sides, ] ight hot well 
rcfiin, for ubi do, OEi d9ius , one mt needs scrah where if itch. 
I was not a litt]e offended with ts ma]ady, hall I sy y Itre « melan- 
choly," my ge or my lus 9 
tuvg with a scoion, I wou]d expel davum c[ao, dcomfo one wow with 
another, idleness wit, h idleness, ut  «â T/'m, mae an antidote out 
f that wich was the prie cause of y eaoe. Or as he did, of whom 
«Fe]ix Plater speaks, that thought he d some of Aristopan' o in 
be]]y, stffi cing r«c, cex, ca, coa, oep, oop, and for that OEuse stued 
hy»ic ven years, and tvelled over ost par of Euro to e 
To do myself good I turned over ch physians as Çur Hbxries wod afford, 
or my grivate fends ipa, and bave ken this 
Carden profesoeth he wrote his book, "De Consolatione" aftœe h son's 
death, to comfo himlf; so &d Tu]]y ite of the me subje th 
innt aer is daughter's departure, if it be is at let, or me imtoFs 
put out in his nage, ich Lpsins probaly 
I oen pedventure a with Iarius  Saust, « h that which othe hr 
or d o I felb and pcted myself; they get teir knowledge by books, 
I mine by elancholiing." Eœeo  b. Eomething I OEn spk 
ut of experience, mai[@ peti 
poet, Ha ignara nm[i »t coEre disco; I would elp othe ont of 
a feow-feeng ; and, as that uous ]açy did of oId, «being a leper 
ee]ç bestow a ber pion to build an hoil for lepe," I wiH end 
y rime and knowledge, which are y grst foxes, for t common 
good of aiL 
 but you ll ier that this is ]a«tum ag¢, an unn wor 
aen b ccta ao6 te me again and ag  other word& To 

exercitation causa, s ni no neqae id quod eentit exprimi perde t  M ncWet, b Jovi 
Yroef. Hist. * Erm. d Otium ofio doiorem dole aura oela, fObseat. L 1. s M. Joh. Rou 
out Protob. 0. M. Hr, M. GuthHdg &c.  Quoe illi mdlre et ]eere lenK em partira 
viril egome ails gi, quoe i]li ]iteri ego milindo dldiO, nc vos exitiate facta  cta çlur eint. 
t l)ido Virg. « Taught by at Power that itl 



• vhat purpose? "Nothing is omitted that may well be said," so thought 
Lucian in the like theme. How many excellent physiciens bave written just 
volumes and elalmrate tracts of this subject :No news here ; that wbich 
I bave is stolen from others, °])/c/tquv mihi mea pagiza, fur es. If tha 
eevere doom of *Synesi,zs be true," it is a greater offcnce to steal dcad men' 
labours, than their clothes/' hat shall become of most writers  I hold up 
my hand et the bar among others, and am guilty of felony in this kind, 
cojç.tetem eum, I ara content fo be pressed with the rest. 'Tis most truc, 
tenet insanabi mu]tos scribendi cacoethes, and "»there is no end of writing 
books, » as the Wise-man ibtmd of old, in this «oeribbling age, especially 
herein "'the number of books is without number, (as a worthy man saitb.) 
presses be oppressed," and out of an itching humour that every man bath to 
show himself, "desirous of faine and honour (scrbimus ilocti doctiq), 
he will write no marrer vh3t, and scrapo together it boots hot whence. 
"«Bewithed with this desire of faine, etiara wliis in morbis, to the dis- 
paragement of their health, and scarce able to hold a pen, they must say 
something, "and get themselves a naine," saith Scaliger, "though it be to 
the downtïall and ruin of many othem." To be counted writers, scriptores 
»alutentur, to be thought and held 1)olnmathes and 1)olyhistors, apud bnperitun, 
vulgus ob ventosev nmnen artis, to get a paper-kingdom : nulle spe quoetus sed 
amp famw, in this precipitate, ambitious age, nunc ut est sevculum, inter imma 
turam eruditionen ambitiosum et prceceps ('ris Scaliger's censure); and they 
that are scarce auditors, vix auditores, must he masters and teachers, belote they 
be capable and fit hearers. They will rush into all learning, togatam armatam, 
diviue, bureau authora, rake over all indexes aud pamphlets tbr notes, as our 
znerchants do strange havens for traflîc, write great tomes, Cure 
vera doctiores, sed loquaciores, whereas they are hot thereby better scholars, 
but greater praters. They commonly pretend publie good, but as "Gesner 
observes, 'tis pride and vauity that e-es them on ; no news or aught worthy 
of note, but the saine in other terres, fieferiarentur fortasse typograp]d, 
ideo »cribendum est aliquid ut se viz'isse testentur. _h_s apothecaries we make 
new mixtures eve T day, pour out of one vessel into another; and as those old 
Romans robbed all the cities of the world, fo set out their bad-sited Rome, we 
kim off the cream of other men's wits, pick the choice fiowers of their tilled 
gardens fo set out our own sterile plots. Castran alios 
graciles alieno adipe suffarciatt (so *Jovius inveighs). They lard their lean 
books with the fat of others' works. IneruditifuTes, &c. A fault that every 
writer finds, as I do now, and yet faulty themselves, b 2'oEum [iterarum homines, 
all thieves; they pilfer out of old wxters to stuff up their new comments, 
ct'ape Ennius dung-hills, and out of Democritus' pit, as I bave done. ]y 
which means it cornes to pass, "a that not o]dy libraries and shops are full of 
our putid papers, but every close-stool and jakes, Scribun carmina quev legun 
cacantes; they serve fo put under pies, to "lap spice in, and keep roast-meat 
from hurning. "Vvïth xm in France," saith Scaliger, "every man bath 
liberty to write, but few ability.  tteretofore learning was graced by judicious 
scholars, but now noble sciences are vilified by base and illiterate scribblers,', 
that either write for vain-glory, need, fo get money, or as parasites to flatter 
and collogue ith some great men, they put out bburra, quisuiliasqu ine. 



1)cmocrkus Go the eader. 

t£asque. Arr, ongst ao many thousand authors you shall searce find ne, ly 
rdi»g of whom you sha]l be any whit better, but mther much wo, quibts 
;.ur poti 9udn pitur, by which he h rather fected than any w 
erfecteŒEE 
So tha oentimes if falls out (which Callimachs taxed o old) a gat book s 
a great mLsehief. Cardan finds hult with Frenehmen and Gemans, for their 
scribbling to no purpose,  inquit ab ezdo deterreo, oe um aliu' 
inviant, he doth not bar them to write, so that it be some new invention of 
their own ; but we weave the saine web still, twist the me tope again and 
again; or if it be a new invention, 'tis but me bauble or y whieh idle 
fdlows write, for  idle fellows to rd, and who so eann invent ? "'Ho 
must have a barmen wit, that in this seribbling age n forge nothing. *Prinoes 
show their armies, rieh men vaunt their buildi»gs, soldiem their manhood, 
scholars vent their toys f' thcy must read, they must he whether they w 
or o. 
« Et qnodcnnqne mel char/h illevet, omnea ] at once ! sald and writ, all men mst know 
estietEt pueroa à furnOet an.redeunt ncire lacu  01d wiv d clildren  they ¢ome and go. 
« at a company of poets hath this year brought out," as Plny eomplalnJ 
to ssius Sinius. "rThis April eve day some or other have roeited." 
Vhat a eatah)e of new books ail this year, ail this age (I say), bave our 
Fnkfort biais, out domestie Mas brought out  Twice a year, " 
f«unt se ova inia et ostent, we stretch out wits out, and set them to 
sale, gno conats nihil agirons. So that which Gesner mueh dires, ff a 
speedy refi»r,nation be hot had, by some Prince's E, liets and ave Super- 
vioers, to restmin this liberty, it will m on in baitun. Qu' tant avus 
librum lll, who ean read them ? As already, we shall have a vt Chs 
and confusion of books, we are «oppreed vith them, Cour eyes he with 
reing, out fingers with turning. For my part I am one of the number nos 
u mus, (we are mere eiphem): I do hot deny it, I bave only this of 
Iaerobius to y for myselÇ Onne nt, nihil mm, 't ail mine, and nous 
me. As a good houoewitè out of divem floeees weaves one pieoe of eloth 
a bec gathers wax and honey out of many flowe and makes a new bundle of 
ail, E's ut aT in saltibus omnia libant, I bave laboriously "eollected tes 
Cento out of divers wrirs, «1 that d inuriâ, I bave onged no author5 
but given every man his own ; which Hierom somucheommendsin Nepotian; he 
st,ho not whole vernes, ges, traets, as me do now-a-days, eoneling the 
author's names, but stl said this was Cypanh, that Laetantius, that Hlariu¢ 
o said hlinutius Fex, soVietorinus, thus far Arnobhs : I cite ahd quote mine 
authors (which, howsoever me illitemte efibblers aceoant pantie«l,  a 
cloak of imoranoe, and opposite to their affected fine style, I must and wl 
uoe) sumpsi, non rrii ; and what Varm, lib. 6. de re st. speaks of bee 
mini maloEcæ nullius o vdlant faciu to'ius, I ean say of myoel 
Whom bave I injured ? The matter h theim most pax¢, d yet mine, appar 
un sumptum t (wMeh Seneca approves), aliud ta quàm un mptum 
 aTTara , whieh nature doth with the alent of our bodies eorporate, digç 

Inter tot mille volum Ina vx nnn. a t'Jns leetloe quls mcllor evadat, Immo pns n peJ. t Paling1 
What do any on ho reada such works, leam or know but drma and trig rhino. 
Stcrile oet  genlum quod  hoc p¢ntum prurit &e.  Cardan, proef, ad nsol. 
Hor. Hb. 1, t. 4. p Epist. Hb. 1. Masure etmmm proventum annns hic attuIit men Apt 
ullua fere dl quo on allquis recitavit, ffi Idem.  PHnpibus et dooribns deberandum reIinqno, 
arantur actorum furt et milli retita toilier, et tcmere ribendi libido eoceatur, aliter 
flnitum prosur • Onerabnntur Ingeni nemo legendls sucit, • Lis oDimur, ocull legendo 
anus volitando doigt. Fam. Strada }lomo. Luo'eti. • Quicquid nblque bene dictum fado meure, 
illud nnnc ei ad compdiu nunc ad fldem et auctofltatem ents ezpHmo verbi otaries auoEor 
m lent  bitror, e. $bzen ad Polycr4t. proL 
ct. flud r. est, ira Victofin,  hune mod ]oquut est Arnohi, 



8 

Democrus fo the l:eader. 

assimilate, I do concoquere quod hausi, dispose of what I take. I make 
pay tribute, to set out this my lIaceronicon, the method only is mine own. 
raust usurp that of f llrecker è Ter. ihil dictum quod non dictura 
vnetlwdus sola artifwem ostendit, we can say nothing but what bath been •ai.', 
the composition and method is ours only, and shows a scholar. Oribasius, 
2Esius, Avicenna, have all out of Galon, but to their own method, diverso stib,, 
non diversâfide. Out poets steal from Homer; ho spews, saith Elian, they 
iick it up. Divines tme Austin's words verbatim still, and out story-dressers, 
do as much ; ho that oemes last is commonly best. 
 donee quld Kran,Ins 
Pontera •or•que ferai melior.- --- 
Though there were many giants of old in Physic and lhilosophy, yet  say 
with Didacus Stella, "A dwarf standing on the shoulders of a giant may sec 
farther than a giant himself;" I may like]y add, alter, and see fitrther than 
ny predecessors ; and if is no greater prejudice ibr me to indite afer othe» 
than for ]ianus Montaltus, that famous physician, to write d torba 
after Jason Pratensis, Heurnius, Hildesheim, &c., many hot•es to run in a 
race, one logician, Due rhetorician, after another. Oppose then vhat thou 
AHatres Iicet usque nos et usque 
lt Gannitibus improb]s lacesaa& 
 soIve it thu.. And fr those other fau]ts of barbarism, °Doric dla]cct 
extemporanean style, tauto]ogies, apish imitation, a rhapsody of rag. gathered 
together from several dung-hi]Is, excrements of autbors, toys and ibpperics 
confusedly tumbled out, without art, invention, judgment, wit, ]earning, harsh, 
raw, rude, fantastical, absurd, insolent, indiscree, ill-composed, indigestcd, 
vain, scurrile, idle, dull, and dry; I confess all ('ris part]y affected), thou 
canst hot think worse of me than I do of myself. 'Tis hot worth tho 
reading, I yie]d if, I desire thee hot to ]ose time in perusin so vain 
subject, I shou]d be peradventure ]oth myself to read him or thec so writing ; 
'ris hot operoe pretium. Ail I sa)" is this, t]lat I bave b]3recedents for if, which 
Isocrates cal]s, perfugium  qu peccavt, others as absurd, vain, id]e, i]literate, 
&a onndli ali idmfecerun$; others bave doue as much, if may be more, and 
perbaps thou thyself, ovimus e$ qu te, &c. We have all Dur ïaults ; scimu«, 
et/urne veavt, &c. ; Cthou censurest me, so bave I doue others, and may do 
thee, Cedmv, s nue ¢qcem, &c., 'ris fez $albmis, uid F'o uo. Go now, 
censure, criticise, scofl and rail 
• lqautus sls usque Hcet, sls denIque ha•us: ] Wert thou a|l scoffs and llous, s ver3, Momus 
1on pote• In nugas dicere phtra vne  Than we ourselves, thou canst hot sa)" worse 
|pse ego qum  
Thus, as ]aen women scold, bave I cr[ed whore lïrst, and in some men's 
censures I ara aïraid  have over•hot myself Laudare se van, tuperare 
as ] do hot rrogate, I will hot derogate. P'mu8 ves'ûm non sm, ec imus, 
I ara noue of the best, I ara noue of the meanest of you. As I ara an inch, 
or so many feet, aD many par•sauge, after him or him, ] may be peradventuro 
su •ce belote thce. ]e if therefore as if is, well or ill, I have essayed, put 
myself upon the stage ; I must •bide the censure, I may hot esc•pe if. If is 
zno true, sylus irum arguer, out style bewrays us, and as "hunters flnd their 
ame by the trace, sois a man's genius descried by his works, Mu/t te2is ex 
rmone quàm lbamets, de norib ominum judlcams ; if was old Ctato's 
rue. ] Il•ve laid myself open ([ know if) in tllis tre•ri•e» turned mine inside 
• Prier. ail Syn{ax. med.  Untll s later ag sud s happIer Io{ produce somethIng more traly 
 In Lue. I0. tom. 2. Pigmel G|gantum humeris Impositi plusqu•m ipsi Gigantes vident. 
aranearum textus Ideo meHor quia ex se fil• gignuntur, laee noster Ideo vlilor, quia ex allenls hbamus 
al»es. Lipslus •river•us dialogist.  Uno absurdo dato mille sequuntur, • lou dub 
lectores hic fore •tu]tos, o Martls] 13 2. • Ut veaatoree feram " v,tiglo impreeeo, vit . ._mUltos 
tcttl&. Ltps. rtlti 



.Democrtua o 1 l?d. 
o-tward : I shall be cenred, I doubt hOt; for, to y tt wlt 
ihil orosius lominum judii, tbeoe Js augbt so çeevish  en judg- 
men; yet thh is some comfo, ut Fata, c j, o oeur aro 
• "ario  our palate 
te$ mihl eonvivoe prope dientlre vldenr [ Three tç I hav diting af my 
ocvnt vo mult div 9alato, &c. equirlng eh to atify  
 th erent food. 
Our writings a as so many dJses, our readc ests, our booku ]ike beauty, 
that whicb one admis another rej; so are wo approved s men's fancie8 
are inclined. ro capt &cto habent  fa ldli. That which is most 
plsing to one is aracum i, most harsh fo another. Quoi nin, 
senteiæ,  many men, so many minds: that which thou condemnest 
commeuds.  Quod petis, id sa est injure acu db. Ho respecÇa 
matr, thou art wholly for words ; he lov a loese and free style, thu 
all for neat oempositio stmng nes, herboles, allegories; he desires a fine 
frontispiece, euticg pioEm-es, such as *Hieron. atali the jesuit bath t fo 
the DominioE, fo draw on the readcFs attentio which thou rejectest; that 
which one admires, another explodes as most absurd d ridiculous. If it be 
hot pointblank to his humour, his method, his conceit, d quidfm'san wnm, 
qd is ani»w mnceperit, si quæ dictio, &a If aught be omitted, or added, 
which he likes, or disles, thou ar nandium paæ l«tn, an idiot, 
a, ullus es, or pgiarius, a trier, a trivant, thou art an idle fllow; or 
cloe it is a thing of mere dust, a collection without wit or invention, a ve 
toy.  ælia s putant omn quoe jam facta, c de saleoEs cogitant 
• trata; so men are vMued, their labours vilified by fellows of no worth them- 
lves,  things of nought, who oeuld hOt bave done so much. Unuqui 
abunoe se suo, evm-y man abounds in his own senoe ; and whil each 
Iarticar party  so affccd, how should one please alll 
• Qaid demi quid non demi Renuls tu quod jubet 
.at coues mmt I chute 1 
Vhat hot 1 What both wod ortier you refm 
How shall I hope to express mylf to each man's humour and  oenceit, or to 
give satisfaoEion to all'l Some undersnd too little, some too much, qui simi- 
li in gens 1.ibs, atq in salutats in ir.unt, non cvgitan 
quas, s uoE voEus induti Mnt, as "Austin obsees, hot mgarding wha, 
but who write, "n b auo cdebri, hot vMuing the metal, but 
stamp that  upon it, Cantham azpldunt, nm* quid in eo. If he be hot rich, 
in great place, pote and brave, a gtat doctor, or full fraught with grand titles, 
though never so well qualified, he is a dunoe; but, as *Baronius bath if of 
Cardinal Caraffs wo»ks, he is a mere hog that mjec any nmn ibr his povey. 
ome are too paial,  friends to overwoen, others corne with a prejudiceto 
carp, vfy, detrt, and off; (qui de me forsan, qu&uid est, ni cmptu 
contemti dant) some as b for honey, somo  spiders to ffather 
poisom Vhat shall I do in this caœe As a Dutch host,  you corne to 
inn  Gerny, and dislike your rare, diet, lng, &c., relflies  a surly 
tone, " ali tibi ras diversium,"  you le hot ts, gct you to other 
inn : I resolve,  you like hot my writg, go rd metng e]oe. I do hot 
much esem thy oen'e, ke thy course, ig not as thou wilt, nor as I ll, 
but when we ve both don% that of PPlini Sendus fo Trajan wiH prove 
true, "Every m tty labour takes no exoept the mattcr, subjt, ocoE- 
sion, and some commending fvouri happen fo it." If I be tzed, xploded 
¢Hor. • Hot. * Anges. fol. 1607. • $Iurctm.  Lipsius. t Hot. ! Fi non potes 
t quod qnlsque copra,, cat un. lure.  Lib. l. de o., cap. Il. • Ermus. * Annal Tom. 3. 
d a»num 360. t porc iBe qui sacerdotem ex amplitudine redituum sordide demetit, • Erm. di. 
 Èplst. lib. 6. CuJusque ingeum nou eatim emergit» ni materiœe fautor» oi% commdaorquo 
onti, 



 0 ])omocrltu to t]t eac]. 

by thee and some such, I shall haply be approved and eommcnded by othe 
and so bave been (zpt qr). and may truly y with « ovius in like 
, (abs vbo jacntbt) ioum om, tm,  rum 
wbium familtatem et amitm, 9ratasçue 9rats, et ulttm "beao 
latt,n  sure i ous,  I have been hououred by me 
worthy men, so bave I been vilified by others, and shaH 
publishing of this book, (which • Ptb of Persius' tires), edRum libtm 
coinoE mlra Iti, atue av  coep«unt, I may in me sorg 
apply to this my wor The fi$, second, and third editions were suddeuly 
goue, eagerly oead, au,l,  I bave id, uoç so much approved by m as 
ornfully rejd by othe. But if w Democritus h totgune, lm ad»zb 
r«tii et *irri ibit. 'Tw, ueoE's rate, that superintendent of wi, 
harning.judgment, tad sturem , the bt of Greek and Latin write,, 
in Plngarch's opinion; "tha oenoed corrector of vice,"  =Fabius 
him, "ami painthl omuiscious philosopher, that it so exoellently and admir- 
ably well," uld hot pleaoe ail pai, or espe censure. ov is he vilified 
by "Calila, Agelliug Fabius, and Lipsius himlt hh chier propugneri 
 a7,«e pnitsa, ith the me Fabiug many childish tracts 
sentences he bath, serrezilar«tus, toe uegligen ofteu aud oem, as Agellius 
obrves, oratio varis  ptrita, dicac et i,ptæ sen,iæ, e,mdi'» pbeia, 
an homely shailow writer  he is. I» tib inas ftidia abet, mith 
+ Lipus; and, as in ail his other workg so especially in h epLstles, aliœe in 
ar9uti  i,*ptli ocpantur, intat alicubi,  pam comtus, 
ciâ rerum hocci, hej umbles up mauy things toget, her immethodically, after 
the Stoic çhion, rum ordinav, ¢nulla acct«muvR, & If Seneca be 
th lashed, and many famous men that I couhl naine, what shaH I expectI 
]ow shall I that ara riz =mbra tanti pldlosopld, hope to plel "o man 
 ablute (r Ermus holds)to satisfy ail, excep antiquity, prescription, &c., 
set a bar." ut  I have pved in SeneoE, this will hot always take place, 
how shall I evade I 'Tis the oemmon doom of ail wri, I must (I say) 
abide it; I oeek hot applauoe; "Non eo ventosæ vensu?a )l; again» 
on sum adeo iorm, I would no be  vilified. 
  laudatua abund 
un ftit m tibg lector, ero. 
I fcar goo mca's censur, and to thek vourable acccptanoe I subit my 
labours, 
 ¢ et n m¢ipiorum 
Contemno. 
Aa the barking of a dog, I securdy cou,cran hose malicio and scuoeile 
obloqui, floutg caluuuesof rile and detractors; I score he test. 
therefore I hve id, p mzR me, I have said. 
Oe or gwo thin yeg I w dessous tohave amended ifI oeuld, 
£he manner of haudng t my subjeet, for which I must apologise, lX, 
and upoa berger advice give the friendly rder notioe : if w hot mine in.ne 
 pstitu my mso h nglish, or to divuige serra JIioe, but  have 
exoed this more contact in Latin, if I cod have got ig pdnted. Any 
scule pampe¢ h dcome to out mercenary tione 
 euduntque libll 
 quor   sia nuda cacar; 

q Proef hlst. • Laudarl • laudato ]ans est. * Vit. Persil. * Minuit prentis famsm. * Llpsl 
Judic. de Seueca  Lib. 10. Plurimum studiÇ m rerum coitionm, omnem studiorum mateam, 
&c., mulm  eo proband rouira anda, a Suet. Arena aine lce. 
de n. • ix iquis n ablut ut alteri per omnia sa*isfacia h ni longs tporia p,'càptio, mo 
]udi,-di libeat religione quadam imoe ccupffit. • Hot. p. L lib. 19. auè te fridè lau 



Democrtus te tle Reaaer. 

11 

',u in Latin they will net deal ; which is one of the ressens «Xicholas Car, in 
his oration of the paucity of English writers, gives, that se mauy flourishing 
wits are smothered in oblivion, lie dead and buried in this out nation. Another 
inain fault is, that I have net revised the copy, and amended the style, which 
new flows remissly, as it was firs conceived; but my leisure would net permit; 
Feci nec quodpotai, c quod volui, I confcss it is neither as I would, nor as if 
should be. 
• Cùm rclegoscrlpslsse pudet, quia plurima ccrno I When I peruse this tract which I bave writ, 
Me quoque quoe fueraut judice digua liuL I ara ab.h'd, and much I hId unfit. 
t quod gravssimum, in the marrer itself, many t.hings I disallow at this 
rxsent, which when I writ, çVon eadem est eetas, non me; I wou|d 
williugly retract much, &c.» but 'ris too late, I can only crave pardon now for 
what is amiss. 
I might indeed, (had I wisely doue) observed tha precep of the poet, 
nonumque pre»mtur in armure, and have taken more care: or, as Alexander 
the physician would have doue by lapis lazuli, fifty rimes washed before it ho 
used I should have rcvised, corrected and amended this tract; but I had hot 
(as I said)that happy leisure, no amanuenses or assistants. 1)ancrates in 
*Lucian, wanting a œervant as ha went ri-oto Memphis to Coptus in Egypt, 
took a door bar, and ai'ter some superstitious worda pronounced (Eucrates the 
»elator was then present) ruade it staud up like a serving-man, fetch him water, 
turn the spit, serve in supper, and what work ha would besides; and when ha 
had done that service ha uesired, tmned his man to a stick again. I have no 
such skill to make new man at my pleasure, or means to hire them ; no whistlo 
fo call like the master of a ship, and bid them run, &e. I have no such 
attthority, no such benefact,,rs, as that noble *Ambrosius was to Origan, 
allowing him six or seven amanuenses to write out his dictates; I nmst for 
that cause do my busine myself, and was therefore enforced, as a bear d,th 
ber whelps, to bring forth this confuoed lump; I had hot rime to lick it into 
form, as she doth her young ones, but aven so to publish it, as it was first 
written quicquid in buccam venir, in an extemporean style, as J[ do commonly 
ail other exercises, affadi quicŒEuid dictavit genius meus, out of a co,fused 
company of notes, and writ with as small delibera¢ion as I do ordinarily speak, 
without ail affectation of big words, ïustian phrases, jingling terres, tropes, 
atrong lines, that like Acesta's arrows caught tire as they flew, strains of wit, 
brave heats, eh)glas, hyperbolicaI exornations, elegancies, &c., which many so 
much affect. I ara aquee potor, drink no wine at ail, which so mucb improves 
our modern wits, a luose, plain, mde writer, ficum vocofwum, et lOorem ligo- 
hem, and as free, as loose, idem ca].amo quod in mettre, kI call a spade a spade, 
animis hcec scrib9, non auribus, I respect marrer hot words; remembering tha 
of Cardan, ve'ba propter res, non 'es propter verba: and seeking with Seneca, 
quid scribam, no»t quemadmodum, rather what than how to write: for as Philo 
thinks, "trie that is couver:saut about marrer, neglects words» and those tha 
excel in this art of speaking, have no protbtmd learning, 
m Verba nitent phaleri ai nulla verb& medulla 
Iutu habeu.-- 
sldes, it was the observation of that wie Seneca, "* when you see a fel]ow 
careful about his words, and neat in his speech, know thi for a certainty tha$ 

• Aut artls lnscl! aut qu.stul maç|s quam litcrts student. ab. Cantab. et Lond. Fxs. 1676. « Ovi& 
de pont. Eleg. 1. ». t Hor.  Tom. 3. Philopud. cepto peu'.o, quum en quo4d dixis, 
effeclt ni ambare uam ha mam par &c. * Ebi eccl, hist. 0. 6.  Stan 
e in o,  he me vers  Vg.  Non dcm à mmo expoeteN minlmoque poe t Styl 
hic nuli proeter parrhm.  Qui reb se ex.cet, verba negli et qui clet tem dicendi 
nam dilplinam habet reco, m Palingenius. Wor may be rlendent with oament, but 
ey conln no maow within. - CuJunquc orafionem vid ot et cit» scito um  
 oupat,  scDt ufl Hdum. Ept. lib. I. 21. 



man's mind is busied about toys, there's no solidity in him. 'on es oer" 
¢wntu rlri con¢innitas: as ho said of a nightingale, vo' es, prtet.¢rea 
&c. I ara therefore in this point a professed disciple of °Apollonius a scholar 
of Socrates, I neglect phrases, and labour who'fly to informa my reader's under- 
standing, hot to please hi ear; 'ris hot my study or intent to compose neatly, 
which an orator requires, but to express mysdf ladily and plainlf..as i 
happeus. So tllat as a river runs ometimes precipitate and swiït, then ctuti an 
slow; now direct, then per a»bapes; now deep, then shallow; now muddy, 
then clear; now blad, then narrow; doth my style flow: now serious, thctt 
light; now comioEl, tlmn stirical; now more elaborate, then remiss, ss tho 
t,resent subject required, or as at that time I was affecteoE And if thou 
vouchsafe to read this treatise, if shail seem no otherwise fo thee, than the 
way to an ordinary travciler, sometimes fair, somctimes fotfl; here champaign, 
there inclosed; barren in one place, better soil in another: by woods, groves, 
hills, dales, plains, &c. I shall lead thee pf ardua motium, e lv.bricc 
vallium, e roacida cepilum, e *gleboaa camporum, through variety of objects 
that which thou shalt like and surely dislike. 
For the matter itself or method, if it be fatdty, consider I pruy you that of 
Columella, 2V ihil per.fecum, au à singulari consummaum industr, no man 
can observe all, much is defective no doubt, may be justly taxed, altered, and 
avoided in Galen, Aristotle, those great masteoE 2Boni venatoris (P one hold) 
pluresferas calere , non omnes; he is a good huatsman, can catch some, not 
ail; I bave done my endeavour. Besides, I dwell not in this study, 2Von hic 
aulcos du¢imus, non hoc ptdvere mua, I am but a smatterer, I confess, a 
trange]; «here a-d there I pull a flower; I da easily grant, ff a rigid ceasurer 
should criticise on thia which I bave writ, he should hot find three sole faults, as 
Scaliger in Terence, but three hundred. So many as he bath done in Cardan's 
subtleties, as many notable errors as "Gul. Laurembergius, a late professor of 
ostocke, diseovers in that anatomy of Laureatius, or Barocius the Yenetian in 
,Sacro boa«s. And although this be a sixth edition, in which I shotdd bave beeu 
more accurate, corrected ail those former escapes, yet it was ¢nagni laboris 
opus, so difficult and tedious, that as carpenters do tind out of experience, 'ris 
nmch better build a new sometimes, than repair an old bourse; I could as soon 
write as much more, as alter that which is written. ]X aught therefore bo 
amiss (as I grant there is), I require a friendly admonition, no bitter invective, 
",b'in mu.sis ao¢ii Charites, 'uria omnis abeso, otherwise, as in ordinary 
controversies, funem contentionis nectamus, aed cui boew  We may contend, 
and likely mi.use each other, but fo vht pm])osei We are both scholrs, aay, 
-t Arcades m-ni)o, I loth young Arcgdians, oth alike Inpir'd 
Lt cantare parea et respontlere paratL To lg and anawer as the oug requir'd. 
f we do wrangle, ht shall x¢e get by iti Trouble and wrong ourselves, 
make sport to others. If I be convier of an error, I will yield, I will amencL 
,bi quid bonis movibus, si quid eritatl dissenum, in sa, cris val humanis 
lltr£s OE ¢ru dictum si, d ¢te dicum eso. Ia the mean rime 3 requirea favour- 
able censure of ail fatdts omitted, harsh compositions, pleonasms ofworoE, 
tautological repetitinns (though Seneca bear me out, unc]uara dmls diciur, 
9uod zuncluam sis dlcur) perturbations of tenses, numbers, prierez' fults, 
&c. ]Iy translations are sometimes rather paraphrases than interpretatious, 
n ad verbum, but as an author, I use more liberty, and that's on]y takea 
which w to my purpose. Quotations are often inserted in the text, wh/eh 

• Philostraua, lib. 8. vit. Apol. lgegl|gebat oratorlara facultatem, t genltda asperaal)atttr eJus pr0fea. 
orea, quod lmguam duntaxat, non autem meutem re,lderent eruditiorem. * flic euim, quo4 
enec de Ponto, boa herbam, ciconia larisam, 
nvr. • .Non hic ¢olonus domicilium habeo, sed topirii 
Iambe.. , _vra bia m/li auabjh torea L&tgrentii demonàtravi, cc. • l'halo de Gon. t Vh'g. 



1)emoc[u« fo tire eadcr. 13 

makes tho style more hars, or in the margin as it happened. Greek authors, 
Plate, llutarch, Athenoeus, &c., I bave cited out of their interpreters, becauso 
the original was net se ready. I bave mingled sac'fa rophanis, but I hopo 
neC prophaned, and in repetition of authors' names, ranked them per accxlens» 
Lot according te chronology ; sometimes eotericks before Ancients, as my 
memoa T suggested. Seine things are here altered, expunged in this sixth 
edition, othrs amended, much added, because many good *authors in ail 
kinds are corne te my hands since, and 'ris no prejudice, no such 
or oversight. 
= lmquam ira qulcquam bene eubductî ratlone ad vitam fait 
Quia ras, oetas, usus, semper allquld apportent novi, 
Aliquid moneant, ut illa quœe scire te credas, nescias» 
Et quoe tibi put'ris prima, in exercendo ut repudis. 
le'cr was aught yet st flrst contrlved se fit, 
Iut use, age, or omething would airer 
Advise thee better, and, upon pcruse, 
llake thee net say, and what thou takest refuse. 
YIt I ara new reolved never te put this treatise out again, fie quld ms, 1 
will net hereafter add, alter, or rctract ; I bave donc. The last and gre,tcsg 
exception is, that J:, being a divine, have meddled with physic, 
• Tantumne est ab re u otll tlbl, 
Alicna ut cures, caque nihil quœe ad te attlnent[ 
Which Ienedemus objected te Chreme.; have I se much ]eisum, or ]ittl 
busines of mine own, as te look after other men's m.tters xvhich concern me 
net? What bave I te de with physicl Quod medicorum es$ lromittar.$ 
nedic. The Lacedemonians wcre ,race in counsel about state matters, a 
debauched fellow spake excellant well, and te the purpose, his speech was 
generally approved: a grave senoEtor steps up, and by ail means would hve 
repealed, though good, because d«]wnestabatur iessi»w auctore, it had no bctter 
an author; let seine good mn relate the saine, and then it should pass. This 
counsel was embraced, factu-m es, and it was registered forthwith. /$ sic bons 
senentia nansi$, malus ancrer muaus et. Thou suyest as much of me, sto- 
machosus as thou art, and grautest, peradventure, this which I have written in 
physic, net te be amiss, had another donc it, a professed physician, or se; but 
why should J: meddle with this tractl ttear me speak. There be many othcr 
sttbjects, I de easily grant, both in humanity and divinity, fit te be treated of, 
of which had I writtcn ad ose»gaionem only, te show myself, 1 should have 
rather chosen, and in which I have been more conversant, I could have moe 
willingly luxuriate.i, and better satisfied myself and others; but tht st this 
rime I was ftally driven upon this rock of melancholy, and carried away by 
this by-stream, which, as a »illet, is deductcd from the main channel of my 
studies, in which I have pleased and busied myselî st idle hours, as a subjec 
most necessary and commodious. ot that I prefer it before divinity, 
which I de cknowIedge te be the queen of professions, and te which all thv 
test are as handmaids, but that in divinity I .aw no such great need. For had 
I written positively, there be se many books in that kind, se many commen- 
ttors, treatise% pamphlets, expositions, sermons, that whole teams of oxcn 
canner drav them; and had I been as forward and ambitous as seine others, 
might bave haply printed a ser.mon st laul's Cross, a sermon in St. MoErie's 
Oxon, a sermon in Christ-Cl]urch, or a sermon before the right honourable, 
right reverend, a sermon before the right worshil)ful , a sermon in Latin, in 
]nglish, a sermon with a naine, a sermon without, a sermon, a sermon, 
But I bave been ever as desirous te suppress my labours in this kind, as others 
bave beo te press and publish theirs. Te bave written in controversy had 
been te eut off an hydr's head, "li$ limera genera, one begets another, sa 
* Frambcsarms, Sennertus, Ferandus, &c. • Ter. Adelph. • Heaut. Act. 1. acen, 1. • Gelliu ilb. 
al b. -lt Indc ctcn quedam fit, qu lmredo etiam ligat. Cardaa. 



16 

De,no¢'us o t eacr. 

bi» characters, "That our posterlty, O fiend Policles, shall be the bettcr 
his which we bave writen, by correcin and recifyin wha is armss 
them.lves by our examples, and applying our precepts and cautions to their 
own use." And as that great captain Zisca would bave a drum ruade of 
skin when he was dead, because he thouzht the very noise of if would put 
enemies to flight, I doubt hot but that these following lines, when they shall 
be recited, or hereafer rend, will drive away melancholy, (though I be gone) 
au much as Zisca's drum could terrify his foes. Yet one caution let me give 
by the way fo my present, or my future tender, who is actually melancholy, 
that he rend hot the "svmptoms or prognostics in this followJng tract, lest by 
applying that which le rends to himself, aggravating, appropriating things 
geuerally spoken, to his own person (as melancholy men for the most part do), 
he trouble or hurt himself, and get in conclusion more harm than good. 
.I advise them therefore warily fo peruse that tract, Lapides loquiur (so saJd 
• Agrippa de oct. Phil.) et eavean$ lectrres  eerebrum ils excullat. The test 
[ doubt hot they may securely read, and fo their benefit. But I ara ovcr- 
tedious, I proceed. 
Of the necessity and generality of this vhich I have said, if any man doubt, 
I shall desire him to make a brief survey of the world, as Cyprian adviseth 
Donat, "supposing himself fo be transported fo the top of some high mouu- 
tain, and thence to behold the tumults and chances of this wavering world, he 
cannot chuse but either laugh st, or pity it." S. Hierom out of a strong 
imagination, being in the vilderness, conceived with himself, that he then saw 
them dancing in Rome; and if thou shalt either conceive, or climb fo see, 
thou shalt soon perceive that all the world is mad, that if is melancholy, dotes; 
that it is (which Epichthonius Cosmopolites expressed hot many ycars since in 
map) ruade like a fool's head (vith that motto, 'apu helleboro dlgnum) a crazed 
head, eavec s¢ultorum, a foors paradise, or as Apolloni;s, a commou prison of 
gulls, cheaters, flatterers, &a, and needs to be reformed. Strabo in the ninth 
book of his geography, compares Grcece fo the picture of a man, which 
comparison ofhis, lic. Gerbelius in his exposition of Sophianus' map, approves; 
the breast lles open from those Acroceraunian hills in Epirus, to the Sunian 
promontory in Attica; Pagœe and Magœera are the tvo shoulders ; that Isthmus 
of Corinth the neck; and Ploponnesus the head. If this allusion holds 'ris 
sure a mad head ; hlorea may be hIoria, and to speak what I think, the 
habitants of modern Greece swerve as much from reason and true religion at 
this day, as that Morea doth from the picture of a man. Examine the rest 
in like sort, and you shaR find that kingdoms and provinces are melancholy, 
cities and fmilies, all creatures, vegetal, sensible, and rational, that all sorts, 
sects, age% conditions, are out of tune, as in Cebes" table, ornro,s errorem 
bibun, before they corne into the world, they are intoxicated by error's cap, 
from the highest to the lowest have need of physic, and those particular actions 
in Seneca, where f.ather and son prove one another mad, may be general; 
Porcius Latro shall plead against us alL For indeed who is hot a fi»ol, melan- 
choly, mad -- Qui nil wliur inepte, who is hot brain-sicki Folly, melan- 
choly, madness, are but one disease, Delirium is a common naine to all. 
Alexander, Gordonius, Jason Pratensis, Savauarola, Guianrius, hIontaltus, 
coufound them as diffring secundum mag eg dnua; so doth David, 
lasaL xxxvii. 5. "I said unto the fools, de.al hot so madly,"and 'twas rot 
old Stoical paradox, o»nes stultos insanire, rall fools are mad, though some 
madder than others. -nd who la hot a fool, who is free from melancholy 

rPart l. sect. 3. œeeProef. lectorL tEp. 2. 1.2. ad Donatum. Paulisper te erede snbdncl In ardui mo.tis 
verticem celsiorem, speculare iude rerum jcentium racles, et,ocults in al|versa porreetis, fluctuantiz 
turblne lntueri jam simul aut ridebis aut misereberis, &c. Controv. 1.2. cont. 7 & I 6 
• Horatiua • ldem Hor. 1.2, Satyr& . Damaippu Stoicus prob&t omaes sttos e. " 



l)emocrtuo to the Igeader. 1 "i 

Who is hot touched more or less in habit or disposition ? If in dispofition, 
"ill dispositions beget habits, if they persevere," saith "Plutarch, habits either 
are, or turn to diseases. 'Tis the mme which Tully maintains in the second 
of his Tusculans, onnium insiFientum animi in morbo sunt, et perturbatorum, 
fi»ols are sick, and ail that are troubled in mind : for what is sickness, but as 
°Gregory Tholosanus defines it, "A dissolution or perturbation of the bodily 
league, which health combines:" and who is hOt siek, or ill-disposed? in 
vhom doth hot passion, anger, euvy, discontent, fear and sorrow reign  a, Vho 
labours hot of this disease 7 Give me but a little leave, and you shall see by 
wbat testimonies, confessions, arguments, I will evince it, that most men are 
mad, that they had as much need to go a pilgrimage to the Antieyroe (as in 
u Strabo's rime they did) as in our days they run to Compostella, our Lady of 
Sichem, or Lauretta, to seek for help ; that it is ]ike to be as pro.pcrous a 
voyage as that of Guiana, and that there is much more need of hel]ebore than. 
of tobacco. 
That men are so misaffected, melancholy, mad, giddy-headed, hear tho 
testimony of Solomon, Eed. il. 12. « And I turned to behold wisdom, mad- 
uess and folly," &e. And ver. 23 : « All his days are sorrow, his travel grief, 
and lais.heart t«keth no test in the night." So that take melancholy in what 
sense you will, properly or improperly, in disposition or habit, for pleasure or 
for pain, dotage, diseontent, fear, sorrow, madness, for part, or ail, truly, or 
metaphorieally, 'tis ail one. Laughter itself is madness aecording to Solomon, 
and as St. Paul hath if., "Worldly zorrow brings death." "The healoEs of 
the sons of men are evil, and madness is in their hearts while they lice," 
F, cel. ix. 3. "Wise men themselves are no better," Ecel. i. 18. "In the 
multitude of wisdom is mueh grief, and he that inereaseth wisdom inereaseth 
sorrow," ehap. ii. 17. He hated lire itself, nothing pleased him: he hated 
his labour, ail, as Che eoneludes, is « sorrow, grief, vanity, vexation of spirit." 
_And though he were the wisest man in the wodd, sactuarium sapientiœe, and 
had wisdom in abundanee, he will hot vindieate himself, or justify his 
actions. "Surely I ara more foolish than any man, and have hot the under- 
standing of a man in me," Prov. xxx. 2. ]3e they Solomon's words, or the 
words of Ar, the son of Jakeh, they are eanonieal, l)avid, a man aftcr 
God's own heart, eonfesseth as mueh of himself, Psal. xxxvii. 21, 22. « Sa 
foolish was I and ignorant, I was even as a beast belote thee." And eondemns 
ail for fools, Pal. liii. ; xxxii. 9; xlix. 20. ]le eompares them to "beasts, 
horses, and mules, in which there is no understanding." The Apostle Paul 
aeeuseth himslf in like sort. 2 Cor. xi. 21. "I would you would surfer a 
little my foolishness, I speak foolishly." «The whole head is siek," saith 
Eay, « and the heat* is heavy," cap. i. 5. And makes lighter of them than 
of oxen and ases, « the ox knows his owner," &e. : rend Deut. xxxii. 6 ; 
Jer. iv. ; Amos, ifi. 1 ; Ephea v. 6. "13e hot mad, be hot deeeived, foolish 
Galatians, who bath bewitched you " tIow often are they branded with this 
epithet of madness and folly ? :No word so fiquent amongst the fathez of 
the Chureh and divines ; you may sec what an opinion they had of tho world, 
and how they valued men's action. 
I know that we think far otherwise, and hold them most part wise men that 
are in authority, princes, magistrates, arieh men, they are wise men born, all 
politieians and statesme:a must needs be so, for who date speak against them  
knd on thc othcr, so con'upt is out judgmet, we csteem wise and hone.t 

• Tom. 2. Sympos. IIb. 5. e. 6. Anlml affectlones, si dlutluœe lnhoereant prnvoœe geuernnt hab!tns, • Llb. 
28. cap. 1. Synt. art. mit. Morbus nihil est alittd qttam dissottttio quoedam acpertttrbatio foederis In eorpo-e 
existentis, sicut et sanit8s et consentientis ben¢ corpot-is consummatio quoedam.  Lib. 9. Geogr. Plurem 
otim gente uavlgabaxt ldAtt¢ uitat i ¢.au.. • Eccle& L 2t • Jure luereditario saFere Jubentm'. 
EuFlormio 



18 

Denwertus to tl.e Eead«r. 

men fools. Which Demoeritus well signified in an epitle of his to II ippocrates: 
"the " AbdelStes account vitue madness," and so do most men living. Shall 
I te]l you the reason of it  «Fortune and Virue, Wisdom and Folly, their 
seeonds, upon a time contended in the Olympics; every man thought that 
Fortune and Folly would have the worst, and pitied their cases; but if fcll 
out otherwise. Fortune was blind and cared hOt where she stroke, nor whom, 
without laws, Ando.batarum instar, &c. Folly, rash, and inconsiderate, 
esteemed oz little what she said or did. Vitue and Wisdom gave l,lace, 
wero hissed out, and exploded by the eommon peol,le; Folly and Fortune 
adr.*ired, and so are all their followers ever sinee : knaves and tbols commonly 
rare and deserve be«t in worldlings' eyes and opinions. 3Iany good men bave 
no better rate in taeir ages: Aehish, 1 Sain. xxi. 14, held David t0r a mari- 
man. Elisha and the rest were no otherwise esteemed. David was derided 
of the common people, t's. ix. 7, " I am beeome  monster to many." And 
generally we are accounted i?ools for Clu5st, 1 Cor. xiv. "We fools thought 
his lire madness, and his end without honour," qsd. v. 4. Christ and his 
Apostles were ceusured in like sor, John x. ; ]Im-k iii. ; Acts xxvi. And so 
were ail Christians in *Fliny's time, fuerunt et alii similis demeutla, &c. And 
OElled hot long after,  tesaniae sectato'es, everso'es h«»ninum, polluti noatores, 
fanatici, canes, alejïci, venefwi, Gulili homunciones, &e. 'Tis an ordinary 
thing with us, to account honcst, dcvout, oa'thodox, divine, religious, plain- 
dealing men, idiots, asses, that cannot, or will r, ot lie a,d dissemble, shift, 
flatter, accomnwdare se ad eum loeum ubi nati surir, make good bargaius, 
supplant, thrive, patroeds inserz'ire ; solennes ascendendi nwdos apI,'eheulere, 
l«,jes, mores, consuetuxliws rectè observare, candidè laudare, ftiter defendere, 
sententlas am291ecti , dubitare de tullis, credere o'mnia, accipere orang, zihil 
reprelendere, cceteraque ua Frmotionem /erunt et sectritatem, uoe 
ambage foelicem 'eddunt hominem, et verè salientem al»Ud nos ; that cannot 
temporise as other men do, hand and take bribes, &e. but fear God, and 
nmke a eouscience of their doings. But the Holy Ghosg that -knows better 
how to judge, he ealls them fools. "The fool bath said in his heart," 
Fsal. liii. 1. "And their waya utter their folly, '° lsal, xlix. 14. "For whag 
tan be more mad, than for a little worldly pleasure fo procure unto themselves 
eternal punishment " ,s Gregory and others ineulcate unto us. 
Ye8 even all those great philosophers the wofld bath ever had in admiration, 
vhose works we do so much ezteem, that gave preeepts of wisdom to others, 
inventors of Ars and Sciences, 8oeratcs the wisest man of his tinae by the 
Oracle of Apollo, whom his two scholars, Flato and °Xenophon, so much 
extol and magnify with those honourable titles, "best and wisest of ail mortal 
men, the happiest, and most just;" and as +Alcibiades ineomiarably com- 
mends him; Achilles was 8 worthy man, but ]3racides and others were as 
worthy as himself; Antenor and /estor were as good as Fericles, and so of 
the test ; but none present, before, or after 8ocrates, z'mo vetecum eque 
eozm qui hune #uni, were ever such, will match, or eome near him. Those 
seven wise men of Greece, those ]3ritain Druids, Indian ]3rachmanni, thio- 
pian Gymnosophists,/Iagi of the Fersians, Apollonius, of whom lhilostratus, 
3Von cloctus, sed ho.tus sapie» wiso from his cradle, Epicutas so much dmired 
by hiz 8eholar Lueretiuz: 

• Ald tlq°s vlrts, Inanla & ror e. dr. ._ ¢Çaln 
I11 id tkiam. 8ed proer expectaonem  evsç Auuax stult]t m eam 
& pl bine bet ctor stui, • Non oet rpondend st oeund 
...... am. -2R.7. 
t Ltb. 10. ep. 97.  A. ep. 178.  Quis nlel m op &c. 
tan foeHcste oe  manpare upnlici [   fine Phoedonis 
....  . . " 'mftaiclno " 
crat noatro qmdem ucso o quos expe ua opms 
enop. 1. . e d,ctia crafi ad finem,  [ ocr qu om opt foe .... - 



u e hnum ienlo sUpertt, et one Whose wit exee' the wlts of m  . 
cit 1¢ xor u oeieri oI. s he s sing doth obscure  sr, 
Or hat so much £cuowu Epocl 
* Ut voE hana det stirpe «at 
All those of whom we rd such »hyperbolical eulogiums,  ŒE Aristotlc, 
that he w wiom itself  the abstract, Ca micle of nature, breathing 
libraries,  Eunapi of Longinus, lights of nature, giants for wit, quint- 
esnoe of wit, diviue spirits, gles lu the clouds, fM[en from hveu, gods, 
spiris, lamps of the world, dictars, llarang ga»t s futura rum: 
monarchs, miracles, superintendents of wit and lrning, ocoenus, p]nix, 
auroe contes, taturoe ai. 
etd oui detlor orbi 
Submis defert cib perium. 
As [ian wriç of Pmtagoras and Gorç, we may y of them all, fanfum  
pn$ibus abfut, ntum à r£ç l»ue, they were chfldn in respect, 
intnts, hot eagles, but kites; novioes, illitemte, EunucId sapnœe. And 
although they were the wes, and most admired  the age, as he oeuoed 
Alexander, 1 do them, there were 10,000 in h army  worthy capmins (had 
they en in place of comnd),  va[nt a mse; the were myrds of 
men wiser n those days, and yet all short of what they ought to be. "c- 
tauti% in his book of wdom, proves them to be dizzards, fools, ses, mad- 
men. so full of absurd and ridictflous tenets, and bmin-sick positions, that to 
his thinking never any old woman or sick person doted worse. "Dcmocritus 
took all from Leucipp, and left ith he, "tbe inheritance of  fvlly to 
Epicuts," tinsanni dun saeniœe, &a The like he holds ef I*lato, 
Astippus, and the rcst, making no derenoe, "betwixt them and beasts, 
savg that they could speak." Theodoret in hls tmc, e cur. gré. aè. 
manitstly evinoes  much Çf Socrate vhom though that Oracle of Apo[lo 
confirmed to  the wisest mau then livg, and saved him from p[ague, 
hom 2000 yt bave admired, of whom some will as soon speak evil as of 
Christ, yet eca, he was an illitemte diot, as Aristopnes calls him, 
irr  ait&, as his masr totle terres him, scurra AtHcus,  
Zeno, an enemy to al[ as and science, as Athœeneus, to philophers and 
tmvellem, an opionative s, a caviller, a k]nd Çf pedan; for his manners, as 
Theod. Cyrensis derib him, a  sodomiçe, au atheisç, (so couvtct by &nytus) 
iracuus  ebr, dax, &a a pot-companion, by Pto's own confession, a 
sturdy drinker; and that of all othe he w mos sotth, a very madman 
in his actions and opinions. Pyhag,»r was part philopher, part magician, 
or pat witch. If you desim to hear more of AœeolloM, a great wise man, 
sometime paral[eled by Julian the apostate to Christ, I reir you to thaç 
lrarned tract of Euoebius agatnst mmcles, and for them all to Lucian's 
car, Icaro»ni2s, ecyoman: their acçions, Çpinions in genera[ 
were so proous, absurd, ridiculou whlch they brched and maintaine 
their boo and elaborate treates were full of dotage, which Tly ad At 
long sinoe observed, liranru»; scr2or in libis su, their liv ing 
opçosite to thcir words, they commended povey to others, and were most 
covetous themles, extolled love and pcaoe, and yet mecud o anoth,r 
with vent hae and malice. They cod give I,cepts for vcroe and pe» 



0 

Democritus te le t:,eadcr. 

but net a man of hem (as *Seneca tells them home)could moderate his 
affections. Their music did show us .flebiles wdos, &c. how te rise and fall, 
but they cou]d net se contain tbemselves as in adversity net te make a lame]t- 
able toue. They will measure ground by gcometry, set down limits, divide 
and subdivide, but canner yet l,rescribe quantum homini sotis, or keep within 
compass of rea.son and diseretion. Thev can square cireles, but understand 
net tho stato of their own seuls, descrie rght lines ami erooked, &c. but 
know net what is right in this lire, quid in vitâ rectwn sit, igwrant; se tbat 
as be said, Nescio an Aticyra ratio ils destiner omner*. I think ail the 
nticyroe wiil net restore them te their wits, "if these men new, that held 
Xenœeelotus heart, Crates liver, Epictetus lanthorn, were se svttish, and had 
no more brains than se many beetle-, what shail we thiuk of the commonalty'| 
what of the rest? 
Yea, but will you infer, that is trce of heahens, if they be conferred with 
christians, 1 Cor. iii. 19. "The wisdom of this world is foM£shness with God, 
earthly and dcvilish," as James calls it, iii. 15. "Thcy were vain in their 
imaginations, and their foolish heart was full of darkness," Rem. i. 21, 22. 
" When they profcssed themselves wise, became fools." Their witty works 
are admlred here on eartb, whilst their souh are tormented in hell tire. In 
seine sense, Cht'istiani C'assiani, Christians are Crassians, and if compared te 
that wisdom, no better than fools. Ques est s«plens ? Solu ])eus, + Pythgoras 
replie-% "God is only wise," Item. xvi. Paul deterlnines "only good," as 
Austin well contends, «' and no man living can be justified in hLs sight." 
"God looked down fivm beau'en upon the ehildren of men, te see if any did 
understand," Psalm liii. 2, 3. but alI are conpt, err. I-Loto. iii. 12, "-None 
doth good, no net one." Job aggravates this, iv. 18, " ehold he round no 
stedfastness in his servants, and laid fi,lly Ul)on his angcla," 19. «' ltow ranch 
more on them that dwcll in houses of cl:ty " lu this seuse we are all fools, 
and the Scpture alone is arx Minervoe, we and our writings are shallow and 
imperfect. But I de net se mean ; even in our ordinary dealings we are no 
botter than fools. "Ail out actions," as a Pliny told Trajan, "upbmid us of 
folly," our whole course of lire is but matter of laughter : we are net soberly 
wisi; and the world itself, which ought at least te be wise by reason of his 
antiquity, as °Hugo de Prato Florido will have it, se».Ter stultizat, is every day 
more foolish than other; the more it is whipped, the worse it is, and as a child 
• vill still be crowned with roses and flowers." We are apish in if, asid blpedes, 
and every place is full inverso'um Apulerum, of metamorphosed and two- 
leggcd asses, inversorum b'ilenorum, childish, puerilnstar binuli, tremulâ partis 
dor»»tle»tis in ulnâ. Jovianus Pontanus, Antonio Dial, brings in seine laughing 
at an old man, that by reason of his age was a little fond, but as he admonisheth 
there, We nireris nî hosies de hec sene, marvel net at him only, for tota hwa 
civltas delirat, ail our town dotes in like sort, «we are a company of fools. 
Ask net with him in the poet, SLam'oe hune intem2s»iœe insaniœelU e agltn 
scnem ? Wbat madness ghosts this old man, but what madness ghosts us all 
For we arc ad unum otaries, all mad, semel insanivinus omnes, net once, but 
always se, eS semel, et mul, eS senper, ever and altogether as bad as he; and 
net senex bis2)uer , delira anus, but say it of us ail, semper 2mme/, young and old, 
all dote, as Lactantius proves out of Seneca; and no difference betwixt us and 
children, saving that, majora ludimus, et gratdlorlbus 2)ui, is ' they play with 
babies of cloute and sueh toys, we sport with greater baubles. We canner 

* CJeneca Sels rotunda mctirt. ed non tUlIDI an]mura, • Ab Kberibus sapientta |actat! cmcutire non 
pnsunt. «Cor Xcnodoi & Jecur Cratctis. f Lib. de nat. boni. chic profttndisslmm Sophim fodinœe. 
« Pancgyr. Trsano omne aciones exprobrare stultitiam videntur, • Ser. 4. In demi Pal. Mundu qui 
oh sntiquitatem deberet esse sapiens, semper stu!tizat, et nullis flage|l|s &lteratur, $ ut puer cuit rosi  
i-bt cruari. *'lsaaum te otarie» vucri, cl4mautque ltcll.e. HI'. • 'lautu bulr 



Democitu to t ed«r.  l 

acctse or condemn one another, being faulty ourelves, ddiramt 
you talk idly, or   Iitio upbraided Demi, 
mad out ownselves, and if 
velly so,  Vita eg ftu,  sat. 
Vhea * Socrat hd takea cat pai to fiad t a wi man, and to that 
purpo had cod with philophe, poets, artifices, he concludes a men 
were fools; and though it proced m both anger and much en, yet h ail 
companies he would only pfe it. When *Supputi in Pontan had 
tveed ail over Euro to coafer with a wiæ man, he reted at lt without 
his eand, ad could find none. Can concu th him, "Few there are 
(tbr aught I can perive) weH in their t" o doth Tully, "I ste vve- 
thing to be doav foolhhly and unadvhed]y." 
Ille sinorsum, hic dexor, un uquo 
rror, s vari udit pib orang. 'T the sme eor 
 They dote  but not a «, « ,,, .«, hot in the me kinJ, 
"One is covetous, a cond lcious, a thd ambition, a foth envio," 
&c.  Damasipp the Stoic bath we flhtrad in the poet, 
Dlpit omu uv ac t  And they wo call you fooÇ with eql clm 
Iay pl  ample title to e naine. 
'Tis an hbred malady in eve one of , them is sinaum stitiœe, a 
semha of folly, "wch 
tum, and infinily vi  we ouelves e verally addicted," ith 
« Balthazar Ctilio: and cannot so Hy be rooted out, if tes such ft 
hold,  Tly holds, altœe rad itiœe, "so we are bred, and so we con- 
tinue. Sone y thcm be two mMn defects of wit, eor, and ioranoe, to 
which ail othc oee reduced ; by iorance we know hot tbin ne, by 
eor we know them fAsely. Iomnce  a privation, eor a positive act. 
From iorance com vice, from error, heresy, &c. But make how many 
kinds you will, divide and subdivide, few mvn are fe, or that do not impge 
on some one nd or other. "S umçue agta s$$os it  he that 
examines his own and other men's actions sha find. 
• Chaton in Luc,  he wittily feins, w conducted by Iereu fo such 
a place, where he ght see ail the world at once; after he had suoEcicnt]y 
view«l, and ]ooked about, Iercm T would needs ow of m what he had 
observed : He told him tt he w a vt multitude and a promiscuo, the 
habitations ke moles, the men as emmets, "he oed lrn eities like so 
many hives of be, whcrein every boe had a sting, and they d nought else 
but sting ove another, oeme dominoeng ke hocts bigger than the test, 
some e fitching wps, others as droaes." Over thcir heads were hoveg 
a oenoed company of peurbations, hope, fcar, anger, avae, ioranoe, 
&a, d a multitude of dises hging, wch thcy still pulled on thcir pas. 
Some were bmwling, so fighting, dg nning, sollici ai, c 
lan, for toys and tEfles, aud such momentary thin. Their towns and 
provhces mere fanions, rich against poor, oor against ch, nob against 
artificer, they against nob, and so t roEt. In conclusion, he condced 
them Mi for madmen, foo, idiots, ass, 0 
O fools, O mmen, he exclaims, ia 
endeavoum, mad actions, mad, mad, mad, « 0 oeclum i & infum, 
a ddy-hded age. Hemctus the posopher, out of a o meditation 

t Adelph. act. 5. scen. 8. l'I'ully Tuse. 5. forfune, hot wfsd'ot, govetns out Iive. • Plato Apolcim 
8ocratis. I Ant. diai. m Lib. 3. de sap. pauc! ut video sanoe mentis surir.  tu3tè & incaute omia 
agi video. * Iusania non omnibus edem, EraSm. chiL 3. cent. I 0. nemo morinllum Qui non aiiqua in re 
desipit, licet alius allo morbo laboret, hic ]ibidinia, llle avaritioe, mbl{ionis, vidiæ. I Hot. 1.2. sat. 3. 
 Lb. 1. de aultco. Est in unoquoq; nostrum emlnarum lquo titi, quot si quando excltetr, in 
infinitum fscilè excrescit, • Primaque lux vie prima erroris erat. • Tlbullus, stttlti pretoezunt d'.s 
their wits are • wool-gathertng. 8o foob cornmonly dote. * Dhd. contemh Tom. 2.  Catultts. 



22 Democrltus to t£e Reader. 
of men's llves, fell a weeping, and with continual tests bewailed thelr miry, 
madness, and fully. Dcmocritus on the other aide, burst out a laughing, the 
whole life seemed fo him s ridiculous, and he wa so fier carried with this 
ironical passion, that the citizeus of Abdera took him tobe mad, and sent 
thercfore ambassadors to IIippocrates» the physician, that he would exercise 
his skill upon him. But the story is set down af large by Hippocrates, in his 
eplstle to Damogetus, which because it 
will insert verbatim almost as itis delivered by Hippocrates himself, with ail 
the circumstances belonging unto it. 
When Itippocrates was now corne to Abdera, the people of the city came 
flocking about him, some weeping, some entrcating of him, that he would do 
his best. After some little repast, he went to sec Democritt«, the peoplc fol- 
lowing him, whom he found (as before) in his garden in the suburbs ail alonc, 
"sitting upon a stone under a plane tree, without hose or shoes, with a book 
ou his knees, cutting up several beasts, and busy af his study." The multi- 
tude stood gazing rouml about to sec the congress. IIippocrates, after a little 
pause, saluted him by his naine, vhom he resaluted, ashamed almost that he 
could hot call him li_kewise by his, or that he had forgot it. Hippocrate. 
demanded of him what he was doing: he told him that he was " 
cutting up several beasts, to fin01 out the cause of madness and melancholy." 
tippocrates commended his work, admiring his happiness and leisure. And 
why quoth Democritus, have hot you that leisure Because, replied Hippo- 
erates, domestic affait hinder, ,,ecessa T to be done for ourselves, neighbours 
friends; expenses, diseases, frailties and mortMities which happen; wffe, 
children, servants, and such businees which deprive us of out rime. At this 
speech Democritus profusely laughed (his friends and the people standing by, 
weeping in the meaatime, and lamenting his madness). Hippocrates asked 
the reason why he laughed. Ite told him, st the vanities and the fopperies of 
the rime, to see men so empty of ail virtuous actions, to hnnt so far after gold, 
having no end of ambition; to take such infinite pains for a little glory, and to 
be favoured of men; to make such deep mines into the earth for gold, and 
many rimes to find nothing, with loss of their lires and fortunes. Some to 
love dogs, others horses, some to desire to be obeyed in many provinces, and 
yet themselves will know no obedience. "Some to love their wives dearly st 
tirst, and after a while to forsake and hate them; beget¢.ing children, with 
much tare and cost for their education, yet when they grow to man's estate, 
°to despise, neglect, and leave them naked to the world's mercy.  Do no 
these behaviours expres their intolerable folly  Vhen men lire in peste, 
they covet war, detesting quietness, °deposing kings, and advancing others in 
their stead, murdering some men to beget children oftheir wives. How rnany 
strange humotu are in men! When they aro poor and needy, they seelr 
riches, and when thcy have them, they do hot eujoy them, but bide them 
under ound, or else wastefully spend them. 0 wise Hippocrates, I laugh a 
such things being donc, but much more when no good cornes of them, and 
when they are done to so iii purpose. There la no truth or justice founa 
amongst them, for they daily plead one against another, a the son against tho 
father and the mother, brother agaiust brother, kindred and friends of the 
saine quality; and ail this for riches, whereof after death they cannot be pos- 
sessors. And yet notwithstanding they wfll defame and kill one another, 
$ramspaansentemsmdisaeamsperap|demv`adepa1]|damac|en . 
barb.hbru." auper genibus habentem.  De furore, mania,, meancholio ,,,°:- u- c:a" tm.prom.Boa 
]Io.mB|b[L glgnatllr, fiat, crescat, ©umulctur, minuatur 
De opera perosus, sed fellis bili$q • naturam diquirens • 
• ' ........ oument  aervi tui be- 
qutum rigide postulas, & tu nullum proestas aliis, nec ips| Deo. • 
• l'ueros amant, mox fastldiunt.  Quid hoc ab lnsania deest 
larente fratrea, cires pe-petao rixantur, & inimiciti abànt. 



Democrltus te the Rcader. 23 

commit all unlawful actions, contemning God and men, friends and count T. 
They make great aceount of many senseless things, esteeming them as a great 
part of their treasure, statues, pictures, and such like movables, dear bought, 
and se eunningly wrought, as nothing but speech vanteth in them, "and yet 
they hate living persons speaking te thcm.* Others affeet ditficult things ; 
if they dwell on tirm land they will remove te an Lland, and thence o land 
again, being no way consant te their desire.. They commend courage and 
strength in wars, and let themoelves be eonquered by lust and avarice; they 
are, in hrief, as disordered in their minds, as Ïhersites was in his body. And 
new, methinks, O most worthy Hippocrates, you should net reprehend my 
laughing, perceiving se many fooleries in men; ffor no man will mock his 
own folly, but that whieh ho seeth in a seeon,l, and se they justly mock one 
another. ïhe drunkard ealls him a glutton whom he knows te be sober. 
]Iany men love the sea, others husbandry; briefly, they canner agree in their 
own trades and professions, mch less in their lives mAd actions. 
When Hippoerates heard these woxals se readily uttered, without premedi- 
tation, te declare the world's vanity, full of ridiculous eontrariety, he ruade 
answer, that neeessity eompelled men te many such actions, and divers wills 
ensuing frein divine permission, that we might net ho idle, being nothing is 
se odious te them as sloth and negligenee. 15esides, men canner foresee future 
events, in this uncertainty of human atairs i they would net se marry, ifthey 
eould foretel the causes of their dislike and separation ; or parents, if they 
knew he heur of their ehildreu's death, se tenderly providc for them ; or an 
husbandman sow, if he thought there would be no increase ; or a merehant 
adventure te sea, if he foresaw shipwa-eck ; or be a magistrate, if presently te 
be deposed. Alas, worthy Demoeritus, every man hopes the best, and te that end 
lac doth it, and therefore no such cause, or ridiculous oecas;on of laughger. 
Demoeritus hearing this poor excuse, laughed again aloud, perceiving ho 
wholly mistook him, and did net well understand what he had said eoneernlng 
perturbations and tranquillity of the mind. Insomuch, that if men would 
govern their actions by discretion and providence, they would net declare 
themselves fools as new they de, and he should bave no cause of laughter; but 
{quoth he) they swell in this lire as if they were immortal, and demigod., for 
want ofunderstanding. It were enough te maire them wise, ifthey would but 
eonsider the mutability of this world, and how it wheels about, nothing being 
firm and sure. He that is new above, t«»-morrow is beneath; he that sate on 
this side to-day, to-morrow is hm'led on the other: and nog eonsidering these 
matters, they tkll into many ineonvenienees and troubles, eoveting things of no 
profit, and thirsting after them, tumbling headlong into many ealamities. Se 
that if men would attempt no more than what they eau bear, they should lead 
c9ntented lives, and leaxaaing te know themselves, would limit their ambition, 
s they would pereeive then that nature hath enough without seeking sueh 
superfluities, and unprofitable things, whieh bring nothing with them but 
grief and molestation. As a fat body is more subjeet te diseases, se are 
rieh men te absurdities and fovleries, te many easualties and cross incon- 
venienees. There are many that take no heed what happeneth te other 
by bad conversation, and therefore overthrow themselves in the samo 
manner through their own fault net foreseeing danget manifest Theso 
are things (O more than mad, quoth he) that give me matter of laughter, 
by sutïering the pains of your impieties, as your avarice, envy, malice, 
eormous villanies» mutinies, unsatiablo de.ires, eonspiraeies and othet 

• ldola laalimats amant, an|ma odlo hnbcnK sic ptiflcil. * Credo dem vos duoent è more 
ltu$. 8m stultitiam perspicit nemo, sed ter sitem deridet, gDcnique sit finis querend 
œeeque habe plus» pu metu m & finire lbortm cipi» ptk quod veb ue. HuE, 



1)emoert te rite eader. 

incurable vicee ; hcsides your  dissimulation and hypocrisy, bea:ng deadly 
hatred one te the other, and yet shadowing it with a good face, flyig out lute 
ail filthy lust, and transgressions of ail laws, both of nature and eivility. 
1Iany things whieh they bave left off, ai'ter a while they fall te again, hus- 
bandry, navigation ; an.l leave ag'ain, fickle and inconstant as they are. 
When they are young, they would be o|d; and old, young.  Princes commeml 
a private lire; private mcn itch after honour: a magdstrate commends a qtfiet 
lit ; a quiet man would be in his office, and obeyed as he is : and what 
cause of all this, but that they know net themselves Seine delight te destroy, 
one te build, another te sioil one countT te em'ich another and himselt: 
In all these things they are like childrcn, in whom is no judgmeut or counsel, 
and resemble beast saving that beasts are better than they, as being con- 
tented with nature.  When shall you see a lion bide gold in the gTound, or 
bull contend for better pasture XVhen a hoar is thlcsty, he drinks what will 
serve him, and no more ; and when his belly'is full, eeaseth te eat : but meu 
are immoàeratein both,msin lust--they covet carnal Colmlation at set rimes; mea 
always, ruinating thercby the health of their bodies. And doth it net de- 
serve laughter te see an amorous fool torment himselffor a wench ; weep, howl 
for a mis-shapen shtt, a dowdy sometimes, that might have his choice of the 
finest beauties? Is there any remedy for thi.s in physic | I de anatomise and eut, 
up these poor beasts, "te see these distempers, vanities, and follies, yet such 
prooï were better made on ma's body, il" my kind nature would endure it : 
"who frein the heur of h£s birth is most miserable, weak, and sickly; when he 
sucks he is guided by others, when he is grown great 1,ractiseth unhappincss 
° and is sturdy, and when old, a child gain, and repenteth him of his lii'o 
past. And here bcing interrupted by one that brought books, he fell 
again, that ail were mad, c'trelea% stupid. Tu prove my frmer speeches, 
look into courts, or private bouses. PJudges givejudgment according te thcir 
own advantage, doing manifest wrong te poor innocents te please others. 
lotaries alter sentences, and for money lose their deed. Seine make fals 
monies; others counterfeit talse weights. Seine abuse their parents, yea cor- 
rupt their own sisters; othcrs make long libels and pasquils, defaming men 
of good lire, and extol such as are lewd and vicious. Seine rob one, seine 
another: «magistrate make laws against thieves, and are the veriest thieves 
themselves. Borne kill themselves, others despair, net obtaining their desires. 
Seine dance, sing, laugh, feast and banquet, whilst others sigh, langmish, 
mourn and lainent, having neither meat, drink, ner clothea "Seine prank up 
their bodics, and have their minds full of execrable vices. Seine trot abou 
"te bear false witness, and say anything for money; and though ju,lges knov 
of it yet for a bribe they wink at it, and surfer false contracts te prevail 
against equity. "Vomen are ail day a dressing, te pleasure other men abroad, 
and go like sluts at home, net caring te please their own husbands whom 
they should. Seeing men are se fickle, se sottish, se intemperate, why should 
net I laugh at those te whom 'folly seems wisdom, will net be cured, and 
perceive it not 
It grew late: H_ippocrates lefç kim; and no soonr waz he corne away, but 

a Astutam vapldo ervas sub peetore valpem. ]Et cure vtdpe posîtus partter Vlplnarler. Cretizandum 
tmm Crete.  Qui fl[ Mecnas ut nemo quam aibi sortem, Se ratio dederil aeu sofa objecerit, 
tcntus vivat, &c., I-Ior.  Diruit, alilicat, mutat quadrata rotundi. Trajanus pontera atruxit super Danu. 
bium, quem uccessor ejus Adriauus atatim demolivit, • Quî qu|d in re ab infantibus differunt, quibua 
mena & cnaus tne ratione tnest, quicquid  his offert volupe est !  Idem Plut.  Ut insanioe causam 
disquh'am bruta macto & 8eco, cure hoc potius in hominibus investig&ndum esset. Totus  nativ|tate 
rn.orb.us est.. * In vigore furibundus, qaum decrescit insanabilis. » Cv,rian. a 
¢rmma JuIi¢turu, &e_ t Tu pessimu omnium |atro es, as a thlef tOld îexandêr în Caurt?a. Qui ed î, 
foras Judex, quod intus operatur, Cyprian. r Vttltùs magna curs magna animi iiuria. &m. Martel. 
• Horrenda res est, vix duo verba sine mendac|o proferuntur : & quamvis solenniter boraines ad veritatem 
dicendam invitentur, peJerare tamen non dubitant, ut ex dccem toetibus via unus verum dicat. Calv. in 
 Juhn Serra. 1.  balientiam inauiam esse Uicunt. 



Democrtus o the Receler. 25 

all the citizens came about flocking, tu know how he liked him. e told them 
in brief, that notwithstanding those small negleets of his attire, body, diet, 
"the world had net a wiser, a more learned, a more honest man, and they 
were mueh deeeived tu say that he was mad. 
Thus Demoefitus esteemed of the world in his time, and this was tbe caus 
of his laughter: and good cause he had. 
• Olim Jure quldem, nunc plns Demurrite ridel 
Quin rides l vita hoec nunc magè ridcula et. 
]:)emocrRus did weli fo laugh of old, 
Good cause he had, but new much more ; 
'his lire of ours is more ridiculous 
Than th of his» or long before. 
:bTever su mueh cause of laughter as new, never su may fools and madmen. 
'Tis net une 'Democritus will serve turn bu laugh in these days; we havc nov 
need ofa "I)emocritus tu laugh at I)emocritus ;" une jester tu tout at anotheG 
une fuel tu tiare at another: a great stentorian I)emocritus, as bi i as thag 
hodian Colossus. For new, as ZSalisburiensis said in his time, totus mun- 
dus histrionem agit , tbe wbole world plays the fuel; we hve a new theatre, a 
new scene, a new comedy of errors, a new company of personate actors, 
volupiw sacra (as Calcagninus willingly feigns in his Apologues) are celebrated 
all the world over,  where all the aetors were madmen and fools, and every 
heur changed habits, or took that which eme next. He that was a mariner 
to-day, is an apotheeary to-morrow; a smith une while, a philosopher anotber, 
in Ais volupiw htdis; a king new with his crown, robes, sceptre, attendants, 
by and by drove a loaded ass before him like a carter, &e. If DemocTitus 
were alive new, he should sec strange ,lterations, a new company of countertit 
vizard% whiffiërs, Cumane asses, maskers, mummers, painted puppet% outsides, 
fantastic shadows, gnlls, monsters, giddy-heads, butterflies. And su many 
of tbem are indeed (if all be truc that ][ bave read). For when Jupiter sud 
Juno's wedding was solemnized of old, the gods were all invited tu the feast, 
and many noble men besides: Amongst the rest came Cl'ysalus, a ]Persian 
prince, bravely attended, rieh in golden attires, in gay robes, with a majestical 
presence, but otherwise an ass. The gods seeing him corne in sueh pomp and 
state, rose up tu give him place, ex habitu koeinem metientes; but Jupiter 
perceiving what ho was, a light, fantastie idle fellow, tumed him and his 
proud followers into butterflies: and su they continue still (for aught I know 
tu tbe contrary) roving about in pied coats, and are called chrysalides by tho 
viser sort of men: tbat is, golden outsides, drones, tiies, and things of no 
worth. ]lultitudes of sueb, &c. 
Sultos avarvs» sycophantas profl|gos."" 
][any addltlons, much inerease of madness, folly, vanity, should Democritu. 
observe, were be new tu travel, or could get leave of Pluto tu corne sec fashions, 
as Charon did in Lueian tu visit our cities of ]loronia Ps, and Moronia Foelix : 
sure I think he would break tbe rira of his belly with laughing. %çifore i 
terr deret Deraocritus, seu, &e. 
A satirical Roman in his tirer, thought all vice, folly, and maduess wcre ail 
a full sea bOmne in t'oecipiti vitium stetit. 

• Slquldcm saplentlse Sttœe admlratlnç me eomplevlt, offendl sap{enfl.«Imum vlrum, qui saIvos test 
omn homin reddere, • E Groec. eplg.  Plures Democr[fi nunc non sufficiunt, opus Demeure qui 
Democtum rideat. Erg. Moa. ffi PoIycrat. lib. B. p. 8 e Petn. * Ubi otaries deliraban omnes 
in,ni, &c. hoe naut cr phiIosophus; hodie faber,  phamaco]n; hic mode regem et mto 
telHtlo, tiar & sceptre ornat, nc vfli amict centico, inum clitellartum pellit.  Calc- 
ninus AI. CD'saI è tes sure div manlcato plo oe ti ci¢uuN ls a]iu & nullius 
¢onstli &e. mo to lnien sn dil, &c. s Sed hominis levi[atoe Jupiter perspiclens, ai 
tu (lnquit) «to bombllio, &c. protq ; vti$ illa manlcata in al versa e$ & murales inde Chrylid 
vocoEnt hujodi homin  You wl mect ¢oveto ¢-ols and prigal sycophan everywher 
• Juven.  Juvcn. 



26 .Democrtus fo the Reader. 
 osephns t.he isLoran xeth h couutmen ews for bgglng of their 
vioes, publishing their flhes, and that they did connd amont themselv 
who shod be most notofio in vlanics; but we flow higher  madne 
r beyond them, 
" Mox da oglem vltloslorem," 
And yct with m to  unknown, 
O sons sha mrk thc coming c thclr own, 
and he lacer en (yon now whose o«l i s) s like  be wo. 'Ts nol. 
to be decd, the wx'ld lrs every da L uunt , e t«fu, 
hbs, lw, cusms, mne, bu hot vice, no dsees, no he sympoms 
of folly and madne, they are still the sam And  a river, we sec, keeps 
the like naine and place, but not water, and yet ever runs, T Litur et 
in om volg um; our rimes and psons alter, vioes are the mme, and 
ever will be; look how ightingales ng of ohl, oecks crowed, kine lowed, 
sheep bltcd, sparrows chirped, dogs barked, so they do still : we keep our 
due stHl, play the fooh still, c dumfinit Orme; we are of the me 
humours and inclinations  our predeoeo were; you shall rirai  aH alpe, 
much af one, we and our sons, et ti mrum, oe qui nascuntur ab l. And 
so shall our posterity continue to the last. But to speak of rimes psent. 
If Democrit were alive now, and should but see the supetition of out 
age, our "religious madnoe% as ' hletemn calls it, Rdiffsam insanm, so many 
pmfess Chtians, yet so few imltato of Christ; so much talk of relion, so 
much ience, so little conscience; so much knowledge,  many prche, so 
little pmctice ; such vaety of sects, such bave and hold of all sides, 
obvia sgt S,a, &c., such absurd and ridiculous traditions and 
nmnies: If he should meet a Capuchin, a Fmnciscan, a Pharisai Jesuit» 
a man-serpent, a shave-crowned [onk in his robes, a begng Friar, or 
their three-crowned Soverei Lord the Pope, poor Peter's sucoeor, s 
sewm Dd, to depose kings with hh foot, to tread on empero" necks, make 
them stand barefoet and bare-legged at his gat, hold his bridle and stip, 
&c. (O that Peter and Paul wcre alive to e thisl) If he should oboerve 
a rince creep so devoutiy fo kiss his toe, and the Pd-cap Cardinal, 
poer rish priests of old, now Prces' compauions; what would he y 
Cum  etitur sttltit. Had be met me of our devout 
going barefoot to Jelem, our lady of Lauretto, ome, S. Iago, S. Thorax' 
Bhfine, fo creep fo thoee oeuuteffeit and magg,,t-ten reliques; had he beeu 
present af a ms, and seen such ksing of œaxes, crucifixes, cg, duck- 
ings, their several attires and ceremonics, piures of ints, indgenoe 
pardons, vigils, tg, fts, crossing, knocking, kneeling at Ave-[ari, 
Lells, with many such ;jun OEi spoeta p, *pmyg  gib- 
berish, and mumbng of bea,ls. Had he heard an old woman y ber pmycrs 
 Latin, their spg of holy water, and going a prooession, 
« $lnedt monachom alna mille  
Qd morem veoE cc idolaq ¢ult 
The brevrles, bulls, hallowed bs, exorcism pioEes, curious cro, 
ables, and baubles. Had he read tbe Golden gend, the Turks' Aloerau, o 
Je" Talmud, the Rabbç Comments, what wod he ve thought 
* De Ho Jud. 1.8. . I1. Inlqnltaf voevemlnem lafenç laque di $ino$ terrien habe# quiœ 
pcjor sit.  Hor. d Lib. 5. Epist. s.  Hor. * Supersti:io t sanus error. « Lib. 8. hist. 
Iclg.  Ln. s Father Agelo, te Duke of oeux,.goin befoot Oer tbe AI s 
m Sa cul Inhxen" racer quoe pati superstitlosi, inveni. m decora honti-m  ma»ffnm:-'P tRome,liber, t 
dmHia s ut nemo fuerit dubltur furere  oe cure pauciorib fert en .....  
de eo dnlgeuis, oblationlb voti solutionib jns nois, somniis hori or an 
lenis campanis simulachs mis purtoriis mit orei»* « ,_ .' .._   ¢anti. 
nnctombu del hcb crucb apm ce- thub Inca-*-*:---    rur 
legen» &c. alcus de act Rom. Pnt. lemg ectacl  the a- "  uti 
"  pooe.  Th. e. 



Democrt«s o Ue Rea(ler. 

27 

dost thon thhlk ],e might bave been affected? Y[ad ]me more particularlv" 
examined a Jesuit's lifo amongst the rest, he should have seen an hypocri'e 
profe poverty, mand yet possess more goods and lands than many princeps, to 
bave infinite treasures and revenues; teach others to fast, and play the gluttoas 
themselves; like the watermen that row one way and look another. Vow vir- 
ginity, talk ofholi»ess, and yet indeed a notorious bawd, and famous fornicator, 
lascvumpecus, a very goat. lIonks by professior, u such as give over tho 
world and the vanities of it, and yet a .tlacldavelian roui °interested in ail 
manner of state: holy men, peaco makers, and yet composed of envy, lust 
ambition, hatred, and malice; fire-brands, adu/ta patq loestiz, traitors,  
sassinats, ]îz iur ad aslra, and this is fo supererogate, and merit heaven for 
themselves and others. Had he aeen on the adverse side, some of our nice 
and curious schismatics in another extreme, abhor all ceremonies, and rather 
lose their lires and livings, than do or adroit anything PapLsts bave formerly 
used, though in things indifferent, (they alone are the true Church, sal terræ, 
cure snt omnium insulsssimt. Formalists, out of fear and base flattery, like so 
many weather-cocks turn round, a rout of temporisers, ready to embrac and 
maintain all that is or shall be proposed in hope of prelbrment: another 
Epicurean company, lying ai lurch like so many vultures, watching for a 
prey of Church good and rcady to rise by the downfal of any: as P Lucialt 
said in like case, what dost thou think Democritus would bave done, had ho 
been spectator of these thingsl 
Or had he but observed the common people follow like so many sheep one 
of their fellows drawn by the horns over the gap, some for zeal, some tor fear, 
q.u5 se cunque tapir tempestas, to credit all, examine nothing, and yet ready 
to die before they will adjure any of'those ceremonies to which they haro 
been accustomed ? others out of hypocrisy frequent serinons, knock their breasts, 
tarn up their eyes, pretend zeal, desire reformation, and yet professed usurers, 
griFers , monsters of men, harpies, devils in their lives, to express nothing less. 
Vhat would he have said to see, hear, and read so many bloody battles, so 
many thousands slain af once, such streams of blood able fo turn mills: unius 
cb noœamfuriasoEue, or to make sport for princes, without any just cause, 
" for vain titles (saith Austin), precedency, some wench, or such like toy, or 
out of desire of domineering, vain glory, malice revenge, folly, Inadnea," 
(goodly causes all, rb quas universus orbis blis et cœedibus misceatur,) whilst 
statesmen themselves in the mean time are secure af home, pampered with all 
delights and pleasures, take their ease, and follow their lusts, hOt considering 
what intolerable misery poor soldiers endure, their often wounds, hunge; 
thirst, &c., the lamentable cares, totnents, calamities, and oppressions that 
accompany such proceedinga, they feel hot, take no notice of if. So wars 
are begun, by the persuasion of a few debauched, hair-brain, poor, dissolute, 
hungTy captains, parasitical fawners, unquiet Hotspurs, restless innovators, 
green heads, to satisfy one man's private spleen, lust, ambition, avarice, &c.; 
tales çapiunt scelerata n roel-ia causæ. Jlos homnum» proper men, well 
proportioned, carefully brought up, able both in body and mind, sound, led 
ike so many «beasts fo the slaughter in the flower of their years, pride, and 
full strength, without all remorse and pity, sacrificed fo lluto, killed up as 
so many sheep, for devils' food, 40,000 af once. Af once, said I, that were 
tolerable, but these wars last alway and for many ages; nothmg so familiar 

! Dura slmu|ant apernere, aeqn|slvernnt s|bi 30 annorum apat|o bis centena milllalibrarurn annn&. Arno!d. 
mEC qunm interdiu de virtute loquuti unt, ero in latibuli cIune agitant labore nocturno, Agrypps- 
 ! Tim. iii. 13. But thev hall prevail no longer, their rnadness shall be known to all rnen. . Benignitatis 
inus olebat esse, nunc htltm ofltcin& curi& Romans. Budoeu. • Quid tib! vldetur facturus Democritus 
si horum spectator contigtaset ? * Ob inanes dltlonum titalos, oh prereptum Iocum, ob interceptam 
nulierculam, vel quod e stultitia naturn vel e malitia, quod cupitto dominandi» libido nocendi &c. , Bel. 
lum rem plane belluoe nain voc&t Morus. Utop. lib. 2. 



emocr;tus fo the J2eader. 

as this hacking and hewing, massacres, murders, desolations--gnoto cve[um 
dangore remugit, they cure hot what mischief they procure, so that they 
enrich themselves for the present; they will so long blow the coais of con- 
tention, till ail the world be consumed with tire. The «siege of Troy l:.sted 
ten yem, eight months, there died 870,000 Grccians, fiç0,000 Troj.ns, at the 
taki»g of the city, and after were slain 27fi,000 men, women, aud childre 
of ail sorts. Ctesar killed a million, "l[ahomet the second Turk, 300,000 
persons ; Sicinius Dentatus fought in a hundred battles, eight rimes in single 
combat he overcame, had forty wounds before, wa.s rewarded ,vith ! 0 crowns, 
triumphed nine rimes for his good service. 1. Sergius had 32 wounds; 
Scoeva, the Centurion, I know hot how many; every nation had their 
1 [ectors, Scipios, Cmzars, and Alexanders! Ont 'Edward the Fourth was la 
26 battles afoot: and as they do all, he glories in if, 'is related fo his honour. 
t the siege of Hierusalem, 1,100,000 died with sword and famine. Ai the 
battle of Cannas, 70,000 men were slain, as *Polybius records, and as many 
ai Battle Abbey with us; and 'ris no news to fight from sun to sun, as they 
did, as Constantine attd Licinius, &c. t the siege of Ostend (the devil's 
academy) a poor town in respect, a sraall fort, but a great grave, 120,00t 
me lost their listes, besides whole tontons, dorpes and hospitais fuil of raaimed 
s,»ldiers; there vere engines, fire-works, and vhat.seeve the devil eodd 
Jurent to do mischief with 2.500,000 iron bullets shot of 40 pounds weight, 
three or four millions of gold consume& "'Who (saith mine author) cau 
be sufl]ciently amazed at thctr flinty hearts, obstinacy, fury, blindness, who 
vithout any likelihood of good sawcess, hazard poor soldiers, and lead them 
without pity to the slaughter, which may justly be called the rage of furims 
beasts, that run without rcason upon their own deaths :" Tqu/s mdus 9enius, 
q,we fttria, quee lotis, &c.; wha* plague, what fnry brought so devilish, so 
brutish a thing as war first into men's minds Who ruade so soft and peace- 
able a creature, born to love merey, meekness, so to rave, rafle like beasts, 
and run on to their own destnwtion  how may nature expostulate with man- 
kind, 1.Eo te divinum aninm[finxi, &c.  I ruade thee an harmless, quiet, a 
divine creature: how may God expostulate, aml ail good men  yet, horum 
fit«ta (as :one condoles) tantm admirantur, et heroum umero habent: these 
are the brave spirits, the gallants of the morld, these admired alone, tfiumph 
alone, have satues, crowns, pyt'amids, obelisks to their eternal lame, that im- 
"raortal genius attends on them, hâc itur ad astra. XVhen Rhodea ,vas besieged, 
fossoe urbis adaveribus repletoe surir, the ditches were full of dcad carcasses: 
and as when the said Solyman, great Turk, beleaguered Vienna, they 
level with the top of tbe wall This they mak a spol of, and will do it 
to their friends and confederates, against oaths, vows, promises, by treaebery 
or othcrwise; • dolus an zirt 1 quis in hoste ruizat I leagaxes anti 
laws of arms, (r sil, ent leges in" arma,) for their advantage, o»nna jura, div6ut, 
Iumana, proculcata plrumque surir; God's and men's laws are trampled 
nnder foot, the sword alone determines ail ; fo satisfy their lns$ and spleen, 
they tare hot what they attempt, say, or do, "Rarafidez, probitasue viris qui 
tastra se,luuntur. Iqothing so common as to bave « "athcr fight against the 
son, brother against brother, kinsman against kinsman, kingdom against king- 
dom, province against province, christians against christians :" a quibus 
noEuam cogitatione]'uert lces, of whom they never had ofiènce in though*., 

 Munster. Cosmog. 1.5, e. 3. E. Dlct. Cteten, t OEovlus vit. e.  Cine. * LII,. 3. 
 Hist. of the siege of ten fol. .  Erm  beo. Ut iaidum iud animal benevolenti 
nature tm fe vrdoE  mum et piciem.  Rich. Doth. Pft. BeA etvoE 
 Jovius. a Dol pe In Jtia propri beHom netia. TeuL • Tly. ffi Lum • Pater 
In fili affinis  a, amic  micum, &c. Ro cure rion re ro coit oput 
poço In mutuam çicte beur r solete enum. 



D«ocrft o te Rder. 29 

word or deed. Infinite treasurcs consumed, towns burned, flourishing citics 
sacked and linated, twdqz ani»tus merninisse ]wrret, goodly countries 
depopulated and left desolate, old inhabitants expcllcd, trade and traffic 
decayed, maids deflowcred, irgln nondt«m t/lam jugatoe, et com 
posit epltoebi; chute matrons cry out with Andromache, * Conct«bitum x 
cogar pari ej, Œt«i in,ferait IIoetorent, they shall be compelled peradventure 
tolie th them that erst killcd their husbands : to see rich, poer, sick, sound, 
lords, servants, eodent o»tnes i»tcont»wdo cti, oensumed all or maimed, &c. 
Et quiu gau scelere animus audet, et Trversa ns, saith Cyprian, and 
whatever torment, misery, mischie hell itself, the dcvil, fury and rage 
can iuvcnt to their owa ruin and destruction ; so abominable a thing  Cwar, 
as GerbeSus concludes, adeo fœeeda et abo»ti»n res est bellam,  q«o hominu 
coes, vast, &c., the sCOUle of God, cause, effect, fruit and punishment 
of sin, and hOt tou.ra hu»tani ge»is, a Tertullian calls it, but raina. Had 
Demritus becn preut af the late civil wars in France, those abominable 
wars llaque mat.ribus d«stata, "awherc, in lc than tcn years, ten thou- 
sand meu wer consumed, saith Colliius, 20 thousand churches overthrown; 
nay, the whole kiltgdom subvertcd (ma" Richard Dinoth adds). So many 
myriads of the commons were butchcoed u]), with sword, amine, war, tanto 
odio t«tr[que ut barboEri ad abhorrenda»t launam obstupce, with such 
tral hatred, the wodd was amazed at it : or at our late Phamalian fields lu 
the time of Henry the Sixth, betwixt the boxes of Lancter and York, a hun- 
dred thousand meu slain, Toue writes; tanother, teu thousand mili we 
rooted out, "That no man can but marvel, saith Comine, at that barbamus 
immanity, ferai madncss, committed betwixt men of the saine nation, lan- 
guage, and religion." gQuisfar, 0 ds? "Why do the Gentiles so furi- 
ously rage," ith the Prophet David, Psal. il. 1. But we may ask, why do 
the Christiaus so furiously rage?  Ar»ta volunt, qre poscmtt, rapiun 
q juvtus?" Unfit for Gentils, much lcss for us so to tyrannize,  the 
Spaniard in the West Indics, that killed up in 42 years (" we may believe 
 artholomœeus à Casa, the own bishop) 12 millions fmea, with stupend and 
exquisite torments ; neithcr should I lie (said he) if I said 50 mlions. I omit 
those French massacre¢ Sicflian evenson, tthe Duke of Alva's tyrannie, 
our gunpowder machinations, and that ibm'th fury, as kone cMls it, thc Spanish 
iuquisition, wch quite oboeuls those ten pemccutio, t--soEUr rot,» Mars 
impi be. Is hot this "mmdas]h.rios, a mad world, as he terres it, 
insatum llum? are hot these mad men, as Scaliger oencludes, qui 
prœelio erbd orte, isaniœe suœe »tia» pro TeTetuo reste »dinçumt 
Tosterltati; which leave m iqucnt battles, as perpetual memorials of their 
madness to all succeeding agcsI Would this, thilk you, have eorced our 
Democritus to laughter, or rathcr ruade him turn his tune, ter lfis tone, and 
weep with = Heraditus, or rather howl, "roar, and tear his hair in oemmm- 
tion, stand amazed; or as the poets feign, that iobe w for grief quim 
stupified, and turned to a stone? X bave hot yet id the worst, that which 
is more absu and » mad, in their tumfloE, seditions, civil and unjust wars, 
« quod stuhè sdTitur, imTiè yeritur» miserèfititur. uch wars I me ; for 

* Libanii dcclam, b h'a enim et furor Bellonoe consultorea, &e., dementes sacerdotes surir. * Bellum 
quasi bellua et ad omnia scelera fuxor immissus, d Gallormn decies centum mi|lia cecidcrunt. Ecclesim'um 
20 millia fundamentis excisa, • Belli eivilis Gai. 1. 1 hoc ferai| bcllo et ooedibus omnia repleverunt, et 
regnum amllissimum à fundamenti. pcne everterunt, p|ebis rot myrlades gladio, bel]o, faine miserabiliter 
perierunt. "[" Pont. ldutertLç, rComineus. Ut nullus non execrtur et admiretur crudelitatem, et b.tr. 
baram iusanlam, quœe inter homines eodem sub coelo natos, ejusde m llnguoe, sanguixds, religion|s, exercebamr. 
s Lucan. :[: Virg. " Bishop of Cuseo, an eye-witncss.  Resd blcterml of his stupend cruclties. 
 Hensius Austriaco. ! V|rg. Georg. "lrnpious war rages throughout the whole world."  Jansenits 
Gallobelgicxs 1.536. Mundus fm'iosus, inscript|o librl, § Exercitat. 250. serra. 4. n Fleat Heraclitus an 
rideat Demoritu,% oCurœe leves loquuntur, ingentes stul)cnt, • Ana amens Calio, nec at rationie in 



3O 

Democritua to the Ieader. 

al] are hot fo be condemned, as those fantstieal anabaptists vainly conceive. 
Out Chrtian tactics aie ail out as neeesary as the oman acies, or Grecin 
phalanx; to be a sohlier is a most noble and honourable profe.ion (as the 
world is), not to be spared, they a:e our best walls and bulwarks, and I do 
therefore acknowledge that of *Tully to be most true, "Ail out civil afiairs, 
ail out studios, ail otu" pleading, industl T, and commendatiou lies under the 
protection of warlike virtues, and whensoever there is any suspicion of tumult, 
ail our arts cease;" wars are most behovefifl, et belhores agricolis civitati su 
utiliores, as TTyrius defcnds: and valour is much fo be commcnded in a wiso 
man ; but they mistake most part, aufer'e, trucidare, 'apere, falxs nominibus 
"rtuent vocant, &e. 'Twas Galgacus' observation in Tacitus) they terre thcft, 
murder, and rapine, virtue, by a wrong name, rapcs, slaughters, massacres, 
&e. jocus et ludus, are l«tty pstimes, as .udot.icus lïves notes. "'They 
commonly call the most hair-brain blood-suckers, strongest thieves, the most 
desperate villains, treacherous rogues, inhuman murderers, rash, cruel and 
dissolute caitiffs, courageous and generous spirits, heroical and worthy Cal 
tains, n brave men at arms, valiant and renowned soldiers, possessed with a 
brute persnasion of false honour," as lontus Hutcr in his Bul'guudian history 
complains. Iy means of which it cornes to pass that daily so many volunta- 
ries offer themselves, leaving their sweet wives, children, fSends, for aixpenco 
(if they can get it) a day, prostitute their lires and limbs, desire to enter upon 
breaches, lie sentinel, perdue, give the first onset, stand in the fore front of the 
battle, marching bravely on, with a cheerfLfl noise ofdtms and trumpets, such 
vigour and alacrity, so many banners ztreaming in the air, glittering armours, 
motions of plumes, woods of pikes, and swords, variety of colours, cost and 
aagnilicence, as ifthey went in triumph, now victors to the Capitol, and with 
uch pomp, as whcn Darius' army marched to meet Alexander af Issus. Void 
of ull fear they run into imminent dangers, cannon's mouth, &c., u$ vulneribus 
$eisfeum lwstlum hebeten, saith Darletius, to get a naine of valour, honour 
and applause, which lasts hot neither, for it is but a mere flash this £tme. and 
like a rose, intra diem unum exinguitur, 'tis gone in an instant. Of 15,000 
1,roletaries slain in abattle, scarce fifteen are recorded in history, or one alone, 
lhe General perhaps, and after a while his mad their names m'e likewise blot- 
ted out, the 'hole battle itself is forgotten. Those Grecian orators, summa v/ 
i'agenil et eloqueniœe, set out the renowned overthrows at 2'herernopylœe, Sala- 
mis, JIarathon, Micale, 2[antlnea, C]wrooea, Plata. The Romans record 
their battle at Cannas, and I-'harsalian flelds, but they do but record, and we 
scarce hear of them. And yet this supposed honour, popular applause, desire 
o immortality by this means, pride and vain-glory spur them ou mmy rimes 
rashly and unadviscdly, to make away themselves and multitudes of other. 
Alexander was somT, because thcre were no more worlds for him to conquer, 
he is admired by some for if, aninwsa vo videtur, et reçU, 'tvas spoken likea 
l'rince; but as wise «Seneca censures him, 'twas vox niquissima et sultissima, 
"twaa spoken like a ]edlam fool ; and that sentence ,hich the saine "Seneca 
appropriates to his father lhilip and him,  apply to them all, Z'on minores 
fiére pestes mortaliu»z quàm inundatio, quàm conflagratl'o ' quibus, &c. they did 
as much mischief to mortal men as tire and water, those merciless elements 
when they rage.  Which is yet more to be lamented, they persuade them this 

Pro Mnres. Omea xybanoe res, la dl omn fors]aus et lndusa ]atet in tute]a et prldio 
clhcoe rtut et simul tue cpt suspicio tumultùs t ico noaoe conticescunL  S. 1. 
Crudelimos toeoue lao foimos habe propuator fldiim duc haben% b 
iuione douati.  Eob He. Quibu* o   vi plet, non  juvat t«t ort 
t.e put tam, q non ueveri a. ¢ LiU. 10. vit. Snperbeg. d 1, btior 
LabitL q qui in pri oecident. E de p. Pem. l. 3. 1. 3. . Im LacnU de 
l.om t Urç. Idem Ai b. . de Pth. Judicat la sol bs «--- -- . - 
dt. nef. Hb 2 c I Nat qt Hb 3 «te,-* ...... us, qmmproeHo 
 P  L. dea rg. 1.1. c. & 



D mocitus to t I,.r. 31 

laellish course of life is holy, they promiœe heaven to such as ventlre their 
lires bdlo sacro, and that by these bloody wars, asPersians, Greeks, and Romans 
of old, as modern Turks do now their commons, to encourage them to fight, 
caoent ioEdiciter. " If they die in the ficld, they go directly fo heaven, and 
hall be c;monized for sailts." (O diabolical invention !) put in the Chroni- 
cles, in perpetuan 'ei me»wrlmn, to their eternal memory : when as in truth, as 
• some hold, if were much better (since wars are the scourge of God f,,r sin, 
by which he punisheth mortal men s peevishness and folly) such brutish stories 
were suppressed, because ad wrum instituti mem nihil habent, they conduce hot 
at all to manners, ox good life. But they will have it thus nevertheless, and 
so they put note of "divinity upon the most cruel and ernicious plague of 
human kind," adore such men with grand titles, dcgrees, statues, images, 
honour, appland, and highly reward them for their good service, no greater 
glory than to dio in the field. o Af»icanus is extolled by Eunius: lIa, and 
aHerculez, and I know not how many besides of old, were deified; went this 
way to heaven, tlmt were indeed bloody butchers, wicked des.troyers, and 
troublers of the world, prodious monsters, hell-hounds, feral plagues, devour- 
ers, common executioners of human kind, as Lactantius truly proves, and 
Cyprian to Donat, such a.s were dcsperate in wam, and l,recipitately ruade away 
themselves, (like those Celtes in Damascen, with ridiculons valour, ut dedecoro- 
sure putarent muro uenti se subducere, a disace to run away f,r  ratten 
wall, now ready to fall on their heads,) such as will hot rush on a sword's point, 
or seek to shun a cannon's shot, are base cowal'ds, and no valiant men. 
which means» J[adet orbis mutuo anguine, the earth wallows in ber own blood, 
• ,bvit anwrferri e scelerati insania belli ; and for that, which if it be done in 
private,  man shall be rigorously executed, "and which is no less than mur- 
der itsêlf; if the saine fact be done in public in wars, it is calld manhood, and 
the party is honoured for it." P,rosperun etfvelix scdus, virtus vo¢atur. 
We measure all as Turks do, by the event, and most pmi, as Cyprian notes, 
in all ages, countries, places, scevitice nagnitudo impunitatem sceleris acquirit, 
the foulness of the fact vindicates the ofinder.  One is crowned for that 
for which another is tormented: llle crucen sce'is pretiura tulit, hic diadema ; 
ruade a knight, a lord, an earl, a gtat duke, (as °A'ippa notes) for which 
another should bave hung in gibbets, as a tcrror to the rest, 
__ « t et tamen airer, 
Si feciet idem, caderet aub judlce moram." 
A poor sheep-stcaler is hanged for stealing of victuals, compelled peradven- 
turc by necessity of that intolerable cold, hunger, and thirst, to save himself 
from starving : but   greag man in office may securely rob 'hole provinces, 
undo thousands, pill and poll, oppress ad l-ibitum, fle, grind, tyrannise, enrich 
llimself by spoils of the common8, be uncontrollable in his actions, and after 
all, be recompensed with turgent titles, honoured for his good service, and 
no man dare find fault, or  mutter at it 
How would our Democritus bave been affected to sec  wicked caitiff, or 
" fool, a very idiot, a funge, a golden ass,  monster of men, to bave many 
good men, wise men, learacd men to attend upon him with all submission, as 

s Quonlam be]]s acerblsslms De! flage]]s unt qulbus homInum pertlnaciam punit, es perpetuî obllvlone 
• epeliends potius quam memorioe msndanda plerique judicant. Rich. Dinoth. proef, his'.. Gai|.  Cru- 
entam humani generis pestera et perniciem divinitati not ins|gniunt.  Et quod dolendum, spp]ausum 
habent et occursum viri raies.  Herculi eadem porta ad coelum patuit qui magnam generis humani 
partem Ierdidit. 'irg. 'neid. 7. b Homicidium quum committunt sinffali, crimen est, quum 
-ublicè ge«ltur, virtus vocatur. Cyprlanus. • Senecs. Successful vice i ca]led virtue.  Juven. 
• le vanlt. cient. de princip, nobilitatis, tJuven. Sat. . g Psuss rapit, quod Nstta reliquit. Tu. 
pcimu omuium lstro ,*% as Demetrins the Pirate told Alexander In Cuytius.  Non ausi mutire, &c. 
.:sop. qmprobum et stultum, si divitem multos bono viros in ervitutem habentem, oh id duntaxat 
quod e! ¢ontingat aurorum uumimatum cumalas, ut aœeleaàice et adàitamea aumimatum, ttoru 



3 

D'mocritu o the Reder. 

an appendix fo his riches, for that respect alone, because he bath more wealth 
and money,  and fo honour him with divine titles, and bombast epithcts," to 
smother him with fumes and eulogies, vhom they know to be a dizzard, a fool, 
a covetous wretch, a beast, &c., "because he is rich?" To see sub exuviis 
leonis onagrum, a filthy loathsome carcase, a Gorgon's head puffed up by para- 
sites, assume this unto himself, glorious titles, in worth an infant, a Cuman 
ass, a painted sepulchre, an Egyptian temple? To sec a withercd face, a 
diseased, dcformed, cankered complexion, a rotten carcass, a viperous mind, 
and Epicurean soul set out with orient peads, jewels, diadems, peoEumes, 
curious elaborate works, as proud of his clothes as a child of his new coats; 
and a goodly person, of an angel-like divine countenance, a saiat, an humble 
mind, a meek spirit clothed iu rats, beg, and now ready to be starved  To 
see a silly contemptible sloven in apparel, ragged in his coat, pnlite in speech, 
of a divine spirit, wise? another neat in clothes, spruce, full of courtesy, 
empty of grace, wit, talk nonsense 
To see so many lawyers, advocates, so many tribunals, so little justice ; so 
many mastrates, so little care of common good ; so many lavs, yet nevr 
more disorders; Tribunal litium segetem, the Tribunal a labyrinth, so many 
thousand suits in one court sometimes, so violently followed 
tissimum swp juri proesidentem, mpium religioni, imperitissimum eruditioni, 
otiosissimum labor, monstrosum humanitati? to sec a lamb 'exccuted, a wolf 
pronounce sentence, latro armigned, and fur sit on the bcncb, tbe judgo 
severcly punish others, and do worse himself, eundnf, wtumfacere et punire, 
°apinant pletere, qmm sit ipse rapttn" ? Laws altered, misconstrued, inter- 
preted pro and con, as the ° Judge is ruade by friends, bribed, or otherwise 
affected as a nose of wax, good to-day, none to-morrow; or firm in his opinion, 
cast in his  Sentence prolongcd, changed, ad arbitrlumjudicis, still the saine 
case, "r one thrust out of his inheritance, another çalsely put in by £vour, 
fdse forged deeds or wills." lwisoe leges negliguntur, laws are made and not 
kept; or if put in execution,  they be some silly ones that are punishe& As 
lmt case it be fornication, the fatber will disinherit or abdicate his child, quite 
cashier him (out, villain, begone, come no more in my sigl,t); a poor man 
is miserably tormented with Ioss of his estate perhaps, goods, fortunes, good 
naine, for ever disgraced, forsaken, and must do penance to the utmost; a 
Inortal sin, and yet make the worst of i., nunquid aliud.feclt, saith Tranio in 
the "poet, nlsi quodfaciunt summis nati generbus ? he hath donc no more than 
what gentlemen usually do. ° ffeque novum, lue mirum, neque secus quam 
«Iii so&nt. For in a great person, right worshipful Sir, a right honourable 
Grandy, 'tis hot a venial sin, no, hot a peccadillo, 'tis no offence at all, a coin- 
mon and ordinary thing, no man takes notice of it; ho justifies if in public, 
and peradventure brags of it, 
«t Nain quod tarpe bonis, Titlo, Seloque dccel)at 
Crispinum" 
For what wouid be base in good men, Titius, an(] Seius, became Crlspinus. 
 Many poor mon, younger brothcrs, &c., by reason of bad policy and idle 
education (for they are likely brought up in no calling), are compelled to beg 
er steal, and tben hanged for theft; than which, what can bc more ignominious, 
on mimts enim turjeprincipi multa supplicia, uàm medico multa fnera, "ris 

• Eorumq detestantttr Utopienses lnsanlam, qul divinos honores Ils impertiunt, quos sordidos et avaro 
anoscunt; non alio respecte honorantes quam quod dites sint. Idem. iib. 2. i Cyp. 2. ad 
Donat. ep. Ut reus innocens pereat, sit nocens. Judex damnat foras, quod intu operatur, m Sidonius 
Apo.  Salvianus 1. & de providen, o Ergo Judicium nihil est nisl publics merces. Petronius. Qeid 
faciant ]eges ubl SOja pecunia regnat ? Idem.  Hic arcentu hoereditatibus liberi, hic donatur bonis alienia, 
falsum consuiit, alter testamentum corrumpit, &e. Idem. q Vexat censurà columbas, • Plaut. mostel. 
• Idem. t Juven. Sat. 4.  Quod rot sint fures et mendlcl, rnagistratuum cuip flt qui ma]os imltatur 
prcel)tore. % qui discApuios libentiu verbernt auam docent. Mot n Utou. llb. i. 



Denwc'ilus o tle Reler. 33 

tbe governor°s la, dt. Libenliù.ç verbcr, quàm docent, as schoolm-ters do 
ther oerrect the pupils, thm tcach them when they do am. " They 
lmd more need provide there should be no more thiev and beggam, as they 
ought th goed policy, and take away the oions, than let them run on, 
they do fo their own destrtmtion : root out likÇwise the OEuses ofangling, a 
multitude of lawye, and oempose ntrovemies, li ltr  sr, by 
me more compendious mns." emas now for eve y and tfle they ga 
to law, rmug litib ianum fom,  s {nv&n dcdantium 
they are ready to lmll out one another's throats; and for commodity ""to 
squeeze blood," saith Hicmm, "out of their bmther's beaU," deçame, lie, 
dgmce, bkbite, rail, br false wit.ne, swr, fomwear, fight and ngle, 
spend their goeds, liv, foune, fiends, undo one another, to enrich an 
hay adroite, that preys upon them both, and ces 
Xantippe; or me corrupt Judge, that e the "Kite  p, while thv 
mouse and frog foght, caied both away. Genely they prey one upoa 
another  so many ravenous birds, brute beasts, devom'ing fishes, no mediu 
n  aut captantur a captant; a cva  antur, a 
qui erant, either deoeive or be deceived ; r othem or be to  pieces 
themselv; like so many buckets in a well, as one seth another alleth, one's 
empty, another's fidl; h in la a ladder to the trd ; such are o orna 
pmceedin. What's the market A place, acoeg to Anacbamis, where 
they cozen one another, a tp; nay, what's the world itoe  a A vt chs, 
a confimion ofmanners,  fickle as tbe a, domlium ianm, a trbulen$ 
troop f@ of impurities, a ma of walking spirits, goblins, the theatre of hyp 
cy, a shop of knave, flatte, a nurse of vfllany, the scene of babbling, 
the schoel of giddine, the academy of ce ; a waare, i vel lg 
dura, sut as aut sucmbas, in which kl or be kiHed; wherein eve m 
la for himself,  private ends, and snds un h own d. o charity, 
"love, friendship, fear of God, Mliance, affinity, conninity, cistianity, 
oentain them, but if they be any ways offended, or that string of commodity be 
touched, they all foul. Old ends become bitter enemi on a sudden for 
ys and small offences, and they that emt were wng  do all mural offic 
of love and kindness, now revile and persecute one another  dth, with more 
than Vatinian tred, and wHl not be reoencHed. So long  they are behove], 
they love, or may beste each other, but when there is no more good  b 
expected,  they do by an old dog, bang him xp or hier him : which tCa 
mts a eat decom, to use men like old sh or broken gles, which 
are flung  the dungh; he could not find in his h fo sert an old o much 
less fo tu away an old seant: but they instd of reoempenoe, revile him, 
and when they bave ruade him an tment of the villany, 
cond Emperor of the Turks d by Aoemethes B, make h away, or 
instd of rewa, hate him to death,  Sius w ed by Tiberius. In a 
word eve man for his o ends. Out mmum boeum  oemmodity, and 
the dde we adora Des a, Queen money, fo whom we daily offer 
fioe, which steers our hs, hand affections, all: tbat mo powegtd 
godde, by whom we are rear, depsed, elevated, *esemed the le 
rommandr of out actions, for which we pray, , ride, , oeme, labour, 

= Decernuntur furl gravis et horrenda .upplicia, quum potiu$ provldendum multJ foret ne fures sint, ne 
tmiquam tarn dira furandi sut pereund| Bit necessitas. Idem. » Botertts de augment, urb. lib. 3. cap. 
• t: fraterno corde sangulnern eliciunt, • Milvus tapir ac deglubit, b Petroni de Crotone civlt. 
• Quid forum  locus quo alius aiium circumvenit, a Vstum chaos, larvarum emporium, theatrum 
hypocrislos, &c. • Nemo coelum, nemo jusjurandum, nemo Jovcm plttris facit, sed omnes apertis oculi$ 
hona sus cornputant. Perron. tPlutarch, vit. ejus. Indecorum animatis ut calceiB uti sut vitTiS quœe uld 
fracts abJicimus, nain ut de meipso dicam, nec bovem senem vendideram, nedum hominem natu grandem 
]aboris socinm, • Jovius. Cure innumera illius beneflcia rependere non posset aliter, inter/ici ussit. 
" Beneflcia eo uque Iœeta sunt dura videntur oivt posse, ubi multum antevenere pro gratia odium reàtr. 
Ta Paucis chaxior oet rides quam pectmia. SI.  l13ma fere vota et cunct &c. 
D 



34 Democrtus te the Re«der. 

and contend as fishes de for a crumb that falleth into the water. It°s net wortlh 
via-tue, (that's boum theatrale,) wisdom, valeur, learning, honesty, religion, or 
any sutïieieney for whieh we are respected, but qnoney, greatness, ofee, 
honour, authority ; honesty is aceounted folly ; knavery, poliey;  mon admired 
out of opinion, net as they are, but as t]ley seem te be: such shifting, lying, 
eogging, idotting, counterl, lotting, temporizing, flatterie,g, cozening, di.sem- 
bling, "that of neeessity one muet highly offend God if ho be conïormable t« 
the world," Cretir« cure Crete, "or elze lire in eontempt, disgrace and 
misery." Cee takes upon him temperanee, holiness, another austerity, a thh'd 
an affected kind of aimplieity, when as indeed ho, and ho. and ho, and the test 
are '" *hypocrites, ambidexters," out-sides, se many turning pietures, a lion on 
the cee side, a lamb oa the other.P Jov woul'3 Dcmoeritus bave been affeeted 
te sec these things! 
Te sec a man ttwa himself into ail shapes liko a etmelion, or as Proteus, 
omnla trans.fornars sese in miracula rerum, te set twenty paoEs and persons at 
once, for his advantage, te temporize and vary like ]Iercm T the Planer, good 
with good; had with bad; having a several face, garb, and character for every 
one he meets; of ail religions, humours, inelinations; te fawn like a spaniel, 
mentitls et mimicls obsequiis, rage like a lion, bark llke a cul fight like a dragon, 
sting like a serpent, as meek as a lamb, and ye$ again grin like a figer, weep 
like a crocodile, insnlt over seine, and yet ot.hers domineer over him, here 
eommand, there crouch, tyrannize in one place, be baffied in anothe; a wiso 
man st home» a fool abroad te make other- mela'y. 
Te sec se much difference betwix$ words and deeds, se many parasanga 
betwixt tongue and heart, men like stage-players act variety of parts, Ogive 
good preeepts o others, soar alofe, xvhilst they themselves grove] cil tho ground. 
Te sec a man protest friendship, kiss his hand, quer ¢nallet runeaua 
vider«, "smile with an intent te de misehief, or cozen him whom ho salure% 
« magnify his friend unworthy with hyperbolical eulogiums; his enemy albeit 
a good man, te vilify and disgraee him, yea ail lais actions, with the utmost 
that livor and malice ean inverti. 
Te sec a servant able te buy out his mazter, him that carries the mate more 
worth than the magisgrate, whieh Plato lib. ] 1, de leg., absolutely forbids, 
:Epietetus abhors. A home that tills the land fed with ehaff, an idle jade 
bave provender in abundance; him that makes shoes go barefoot himself hita 
thaç oeils meat almost pined; a toiling duadge starve, a drone flourish 
Te sec mon buy smoke for wares, castles builç with fools' heads, mort 
like apes follow the faslfions in rires, gestures, actions: if the king laugh» 
all laugh  
a, • 12ides majore chachlnno 
Concutitur» flet ai l&chr.vmas eaaspexit amiiL" 
"*Alexander stooped, se did his courtiers; All,honsus turned his head, and se 
did his parasites. "Sabine Poppea, Tero's wife, wore amber-eolomd hai; 
se did all the t'oman ladies in aax instant, ber tazhion was heirs. 
Te sec mon wholly led by affection, admired and eensured ou of opinion 
without jud-mae,,t: an ineoasiderate mulçitude, like se many dogs in a village, 
i Et genna t tormam rena peeunla donat, qaantum qalsque ana nammorurn aervat te arcs, tanturn 
habet et fldei, m lqon à periti/t sed ab ornattt et vulgi vocibus habemur excellentes. Cardan. 1.2. de 
cons. • PerJurata sue postponit numiaa lucr 5Iercator. Ut tecessariurn ait vol Deo displiccr vol a 
homtnlbus eontemni, vexart, negligL * Qui urios simulant et Baechanalia Viv-  e, . b 
airelles vol centauria, eursum homines, deorsttm eouL q Proec,,,; .... ; ...... "-- .. P tragelapho 
lmlvens" terrent vttia mancipm. --; Eneas Sil-. a A rrideè'i''ûtï ¢,anh-Pr°.m.tunt'vmndiritpSiut interim fa, llant. 
Cyp. ad Donatum. * Lïe and hate ar.e like the two ends of a perspective glaas, the Cee mnlti " . 
ether mtkes less. linistri locupletiorea ils quiuus ministratur net-vus : ....... phes. the 
" ." q..e.a c.es aiiis faeit. Jucen De yotl langht 13e isshaken bystill ......... ' .calceat te 
aise wnen ne nas oeneld the tears o! his frtend '* Bodin lib 4 a^ «nh ¢.ter mggnter : e weepa 
- - . - - • •. - -  • -p..-, cap. . ffi Phniu.s L  " 
¢atlloa habmt aucctaeo exta4e tactum ut otaries l, ue11 £onaa oloreta i11tt,a affectareat. 7. cap. ;L 



l)emcr[tus fo te Reader. 35 

if one bark all bark withotta cause: as fortune's thn turns, if a man be in 
favour, or commanded by some gatone, all the world applauds himl rif in 
dJ%,race, in an instantail hate him, and as afthe sun when he is edipscd, 
thatersttok no notce, now gaze and stm. upon him. 
To see a man "wear his brains in his belly, his guts in his head, an 
hundd oaks on his back, f devour a hundmd oxen af a meal, nay more, 
fo dcvour bouses and towns, or as those anthmpol,hagi , °to eat ono 
another. 
To seo a man roll himself up like a snowball, from base beggary to right 
o-shipful and righthonourable titles, unjustly to scrêw himself into honours 
and offices; another f starve his genius, damn his soul to gather wealth, 
,vhich ho shall hoten jeT, which his prodigal son melts and consumes in an 
instant2 
To see tho ..,sl, of our rimes, a man bend all his forces, means, 
tilne, fortunes, to be a tvourite's tavourite's favourite, &c., a parasite's parasite's 
parasite, that may scorn the servile wodd as having enough ahady. 
To seo an hirsute beggar's brat, that lately fed on scraps, crept and whined, 
crying to ail, and for an old jerkin ran of errands, now rutile in silk and satin, 
bravely mounted, jovial and polite, now scorn his old friends and tmiliars, 
,eglect his kindred, insult over his betters, domineer over ail 
ïo see a scholar crouch and clep to an illitcrate pensant for a ments meat; 
a scrivener better paid for an obligation; a lalconer receive greater wages than 
a student; a lawyer get more in a day than a philopher in a year, better 
rewmxt for an hour, than a scholar for a twelvemonth's study; him that can 
 paint Thais, play on a fiddle, curl hair, &c., sooner get prcfcrmcnt than a 
1,hilologer or a poet. 
To see a fond mother, like 2Esop's ape, hug her child fo dcath, a «witt,»l 
xvink at his wife's honesty, and too perspicuous in all other affail; one stulnble 
at a straw, and leap over a block; rob Peter, and pay Paul; scrape unjust 
sums with one hand, purchase glat manors by corruption, fraud and cozen- 
age, and liberally to distribute to the poor ,vith the other, give a remnan 
to pious uses, &c. Penny wise, pound ibolish; blind men j udge of colours ; 
wise men silent, fools talk ; «l]nd fault with others, and do worse themselves; 
+ denounce tlmt in public which he doth in secret aud which Aurelius ¥ictor 
gives out of AugusttLs, severely censure that in a third, of which he is most guilty himself. 
To sec a poor fellow, or an hid seant venture his lifê for his new toaster 
that will scarce give him his wages afyear's end ; A countt T colorie til and 
moil, till and drudge for a prodigal idle drone, that devours all the gain, or 
l.seiviously consumes with phantastical expences; A noble man in a bravado to 
encounter death, and for a small flash of honor to cast away himself; A world- 
ling tremble afan executor, and yetnot fear hcll-fire; To wish and hope for 
immortality, dcsire f be happy, and yetby all means avoid death, a neccssary 
1,assage to bring him to if. 
To see a fool-hardy fellow like those old Danes, qui dcollarl nalunt quam 
verberari, die rather than be punished, in a sottish humour embmce death with 
dacrity, yet °scoru to lainent his own sins and mictoEes, or l dearest friends' 
delrtures. 

• Odit damnato$. Sur. • Agrlppa ep. 28. l. "L Quarum eerebrm est In vene, Ingenlum In pafinlœe. 
l'sal. They car up my people  brcad, b Absumit hoeres cuba tor serva tenture clavibus, et 
cro stinguet pavimeutis superbo, pvntiflcum potiore oenis. Hot. * Qd Thaidem pinger luflare 
tiblam, crispa cn. • Doct ec«are lacunar. « Tuliius. Est entra proprium stuititioe altorum 
c«ere viti obltvtsct suom. Idem Aristippus Charidemo apud Loetauum. Omnino stultitioe cusdam e 
ato, &c.  Execri pabiice quod occtè t. Salvtan itb. de pro. acr ulcisceud vltt qutb ipsi 
• chementer ludulgent. "Adamus ecci. htst. cap. 212. Siquis damnatus fueri ]oet ee gloria est: nain 
I,hrym et planctum Caq ne compunctionum genera quoe ao ubria eecm ira abot D 
nec ro ecca nec ro dct c  c ce 



To sec wise men degraded, fools prefurred, one govern towns and eities, and yet 
a silly woman overrulea him st home; * Command a provinoe, and ye hia o 
ervanta or ehildren prescribe lawa fo him,  Themistocle on did in Grâce; 
"« What I wfll (said he) my moher wl, and what my moher will, my father 
dogh." To e hors ride in a coach, men dw ig ; do devo their 
; towera build mons; children rule; old men go fo sehool; women 
wear the beehea; shoep dem&ish towns, devour men, &e. And in  word, 
the wodd tued upside downward. 0 ivet De»wcritl 
 To inaist in eve pfieular were one of Herculeç labour, ther( 
many ridiculoua instanoE%  motea in the sun. Quantum t in rebus 
(How mu(a vanity there ia in thingsl) And who oen speak ofalll Crimi 
ab u dce omis, take thia for a taste. 
But these are obvio fo sense, trivial and well known, eoEy to be discerned. 
tow would Democritus have been moved, h he sn + the secre of their 
heasl If every man had a window in hia bret, which Momus would haro 
had in Vulcan'a man, or that which Tully so much wished it were written in 
ve man'a fœehead, Qu uisç  relâ sdiret, what he thought ; or 
that if could be effccted in an instant, which Mercm T did by Charon in Lucian, 
by ouchg of his eyes, to make him d mel et dntul rumor et suwos. 
Spes homnnm c, morbos, votumque labor ] a Blind hopes and sh, their thoughta and affai 
È pim toto viitant oethcre eur." Whispe and rumom and those fl)ng r." 
Tha be could bicum obducta8 ora.8 eclude et s«rda cdium rac, 
which  Cyprian desired, on doors and Iock¢ shot bol, m Lucian'a Gallua 
did with a feather of hia il: or Gygea' invisible ring, or some rare pempec- 
tire glma, or Otoustlc, which would ao multiply specie¢ that a man might 
hr and oee all ai once ( Iartianus Capella's Jupiter did in a apr which 
Ira held  his hand, which did prient unto him all t.hag wm daily done upon 
the faoe of the earth), oboervo euckolds" horns, forgeries of alchemists, 
l&ilosopher' stone, new pmjec¢om, &a, and all those worka of darkne, 
tbolish vow¢ hors, fem'a and wishes, wha a deal of laughter would if haro 
afforded He should have aeen windmills in one man's head, an hornet nest 
in another. Or had he been pent with Icaromenippus in Lncian af Jupite:s 
whisperg place, and heard one pmy for ra, another for fair weather; ono 
for hia s, another for his fathea dth, &c. ; "to ask that ai d'a hand 
xvhich they are abmhed any man shod hear :" How would he have been 
confounded SVould he, think you, or any man eloe, aay thut these men were 
well in their wits  sani esse hominis quis sanus jure Ore ? Çall ail 
he hellebore in the Antieyroe cure these meni o sure, "$an acre of belle- 
bore will hot do if." 
That whieh is more fo be lamented, they are mad like Seneea blind woman, 
and 1 hot aeknowledge, or soek for any cure of if, for pa vident nwrbum 
s«um, omn amant. If out leg or arm offend us, we eove by all ruons 
sible fo redress if; *and if we bour of bo&ly disco, we send for a physieian ; 
but for the dissea of the mind we take no notice of them :* Lust harrowa us 
on the one side; en, anger, ambition on the other. We ara torn  pia by 

* Orbi dat lezes foras, vlx famnlum reglt sine strepitu dotal, tQuicqnid ego volo hoe vnlt mater mes, 
et quod mater vult, facit pater, • oves, olim mite peeua, nunc tare indorniturn et edax rit hominea devorent, 
&c. Morua Utop. lib. 1. b Diversos variis tribuit natar& fttrores. "]" Dernoerit. ep. proed. Hos dejerante 
et potantea deprehendet, hos voraente illoe IItigautea, lnsidiaa mollentea, saffragantes, venen& miceatea, in 
amicorum acettsationern subscribentea, boa gloria, fdlos &rnbitione cupiditate, mente cptos, &c. i Ad 
Donst. ep. 2. 1.1. 0 ai posses in specula subliml constitutu &c. k Lib. 1. de nup. Pifilol. in qua quhl 
singull natlonum populi qnotidianis rnotibus agitareut relucebat. I 0 Jupiter contin.-,at rnihi &urum hre- 
diras, &c. Muitos da. Jupiter, anno% Dementia qua.nt& est horninum, turpiima vota diis iususurrnt, ai qui 
admoverlt &urem, conticescunt; et quod scire hommes nolunt, Deo narrant. Senec. ep. 10. 1.1.  Plautua 
$1eneeh. non poteat hoec res Hellebori Jugere obtinerier. - Êoque gravior morbus quo imotior periditan tL 
 Qu loedunt oculos, featinas demere; ai quid est &nirnum, differs cm'andi tempus in annum. Hor. o Si 
caput, crus doler, brachinrn, &c., medlcum accersirnus, tette et honeste si par etimn indttstri4 in aliit| 
Inorbis poaerct, ux. Job. Fcleau Jeauita. lib. 2. de hum. affe, morborumque cura. 



Democrgt.u to the A',ead. 3' 

out passions, as so many wild horses, one in disposition, another in habit; ono 
is melancholy, another mad; rand which of us ail seeks for help, doth acknow- 
ledge his error, or knows he is sick  As that stupid fellow put out the candiÛ 
beeause the biting fleas should hot find him; he shrouds himself in an unknown 
laabit, borrowed titles, because nobody should discern him. Every man thinks 
with himself, Egomet videor mihi sanus, I ara well, I cm wise, and laughs at 
others. And 'ris a general fault amongst them ail, that « which out forefathers 
laave approved, diet, apparel, opinions, humours, customs, manners, we derid 
and reject in our rime as absurd. Old men account juniors ail fools, when they 
are mere dizzards; and as to sailors, terroeue urbesue 'ecedunt-- they 
more, the land stands still, the world bath ranch more wit, they dote them- 
selves. Turks deride us, we them; Italians, Frenchmen, accounting them light 
laeaded fellows; the French scoffagain at Italians, and at their several customs; 
Greeks have condemned ail the world but themselves of barbarism, the world 
as much vilifies them now; we account Germans heavy, dull fellows, explode 
many of their fashions; they as contemptibly think of us; Spaniards laugh at 
ail, and ail again af thcm. So are we fools and ridiculous, absurd in out 
actions, carriages, diet, apparel, customs, and consultations; we "scoff anti 
point one at another, when as in conclusion all are fools, "*and they the 
veriest asses that bide their ears most." A private man if he be resolvcd with 
himself, or set on an opinion, accounts all idiots and asses that are hot affected 
as he is, "nil 'ectum, nisi quod placuit sibi, ducit, that are hot so minded, 
t (quodque volunt hontbws se ene vdle putant,) ail fools that think not as h 
doth: he will hot say with Atticus, Suant quisque sponsam, mihi meam, let 
every man enjoy his owa spouse; but. his aloa¢ is fMr, suus amor, &c., and 
scorns all in respect of himself, °will imitate none, laear none *but himself, as 
lliny said, a law and example to himself. And that which ttippocrates, in his 
epistle to Dionysius, reprehended of old, is verified in out rimes, Quisque i 
alio supeoEuum esse cemset, ipse quod 7wrt habet nec cufat, that which he bath 
hot lfimself, or doth hot esteem, he aeeotmts superfluity, an idle quality, a mere 
foppery in another: like Esop's fox, when he had lost his rail, would have ail 
lais tëllov¢ foxes eut off theirs. The Chinese say, that we Europeaus bave one 
eye, they themselves t,vo, ail the world else is blind: (though  Sealiget 
aceounts them brutes too, merum pecus,) so thou and thy seetaries are only 
wise, others indifferent, the test beside themselves, mere idiots and asses. 
Thus not aeknowledging out owa errors and imperfections, we seeurely deride 
others, as if we aione were fie, and speetators of the test, aceount.ing it an 
excellent thi,g, as indeed it is, Alienâ qvtimum frui insaniâ, to make our- 
selves merry with other men's obliquities, when as he himself is more faulty 
than the test, mutato nomine, de tefabula narratur, he may take himself by the 
nose for a fool; and which one calls maxbnutrt stultiliae specimert, to be 
ridiculous to others, and not go perceive or take notice of it, as Marsyas was 
when he contended with Apollo, non intelligens se deridiculo haberi, saith 
++ Apuleius; 'ris his own cause, he is a convicted madman, as  Atstin well 
infers "in the eyes of wise men and angels lac seems like one, that fo out 
thinking walks with his heels upwards." So thou laughest at me, and Iat the% 
both at a third ; and he returus that of the poet upon us again "ttei mihi 
insanire m aiunt, quum iTsl ultr5 insaniant. We accuse others of madness, 

rEt qlaottlsqli|sqUe arnên es[ qtl êontra o pes[ medlm requ{ra val oeote se oat  elllt 
 &c. Et nos tamen oeos e negamus. Incolum medicum recant. «ens oet stultitiam prisc 
exprobrat. Bnd. de affec, lib. 5. q Sen pro sttis babent Juven. Balth. Coet. 
oech.  Omnium sttilml qui auc studiè test. at. Menip. 
t Pro. • Stim aplun tatlm nclun neminoe reverent, nemm itan, Ipi bl exemplo. 
Plin. ept. llh. 8. ,N alti sapée concedi ne dlre deatur. Aip. Omnis orbis perchio 
a ernls ad Lu$itiam.  2 Florid. w Au,st. Qual in occis 
  oc sapient et angelom q sibi pe aut c psion dominante. 



38 Denwcrlus fo the Rende. 
of folly, and are the veriest dizzards ourselves. For if ]s a grcat s]gn and 
property of a fool (which Eccl. x. 3, points st) out of pride and aelf-conceit. 
to insult, vilify, condcmn, censure, and call other men tools (,Vo v/demus 
manKzœe quod à tergo est) to tax that in others of which we are most iaulty; 
teach that which we follow hot ourselves : For an inconstant man to write of 
constancy; a profane liver preseribe rules of sanctity and piety; a dizznrd him- 
elf make a treatise of wisdom ; or with Sallust fo rail downr]ght st spoilers 
f countries, and yet in * office to be a most grievous poler himself. Thia 
argues weakness, and is an evident sign of such parties' indiscretion. Pcca$ 
uter nostrûm cruce dgnus ? "Who is the fool now" Or else Iradventure 
in some places we are all mad for company, ami so 't]s uot seen, S«ties erroris 
et dementiw, pariter absurditatem et admirationem tollit. 'Tis with us, as if was 
of old (in "Tully's censure af least) with C. Pimbria in Rome, a bold, hair- 
brain, mad fellow, and so esteemed of ail, such only excepted, that vere as 
aad as himself: now in such a case there is "no notice taken of it. 
• ' Nlmltmm Inann pan¢t vldeatnr ; e quod I *' When ail are mad, where ail are like opprest 
lqaxima pars hominum morbo jactatar eodcm." Who can disccrn ont mad man from the re.st 
]3ut put case they do perceive it, and some one be rnanifestly convicted of 
madness,  he now takes notice of his folly, be it in action, gesture, speech,  
vain humour he bath in building, bragging, jangling, spending, gaming, 
courting, scribbling, prating, for which he is ridiculous to others, %n which he 
dotes, he doth aeknowledge as much : yet with all the rhetoric thou hast, thon 
canst not so recall him, but fo the contrary notwithstanding, he xvill persevere 
i his dotage. 'Tis amabl£s insania, et wntis gratisslmus error, so pleasing, 
so delicious, that he d cannot leave it. tic knows lais error, but will hot seek 
to decline if, tell him what the event will be, beggary, sorrow, sickness, d£- 
gmce, shame, loss, madness, yet ""an angry man will prefcr vengeance, a 
l.scivious his whore, a thief his booty, a glutton his belly, before his welfare." 
Tell an epicure, a covetous man, an ambitious man, of his irregular course, 
wean him from if a little, pl  occlistis andci, he cries anon, you bave 
undone him, and as ta "dog to hiz vomir," he returns fo if again; no per- 
suasion will take place, no counsel, say what thou canst, 
u Clame Iicet et mare coelo 
 Conftmda. surdo narra.%"' 
dcmonstrate as Ulysses did to EIpenor and Gryllu, and the rest of 
eompanions, "those swinish men," he is irrefragable in his humour, he will be 
a hog still; bray him in a mortar, he will be the saine. If he be in an heresy, 
or some perverse opinion, settled as some of out iomaorant 1)apists are, eonv]nee 
his understanding, show him the several follies and absurd fopperies of that 
seet, force him fo say, ves vincor, make if as elear as the sun,  he will err 
still, peevish and obstinate as he is; and as he said s/ in lwc erro, libenter 
erro, nec hune errorem aoEerri mihl volo; I will do v. I bave donc, as my 
1,redeoessors bave donc,  and as my frieuds now do: I will dote for eompany. 
Say now, are these men mad or no, //eus age 'espoede ? are they ridieulousi 
cedo uemvls arbitrum, are they sance mentis, sober, wise, and discreet  bave 
they eommon sense i -- * uter est insmtior horura ? I ara of Demoeritus' 

* Oovernor of A|ch y Csesar's apo|ntment..  une ltafls paenlum t inslentlnm rba. n. 
Pro Roio Amcrino, et qu inter omn constat innilmu$, nisi mier eos, qui ip qoque 
Nee t cure insanlentib fer ni o1 relinque Peoni. t Ouoni ....... -"" 
ultitloe qua me lnsanire pu. • Stultum me fateor, lient concedere v Atone 
$co vi proui Irund vam ; foe pr, pis ]am, ambitio hor 
Op &?., om c et accm. Ca. 1.2. de con. terov. vi 11 +A]tho,, .... 
Clem. A]ex. . ou peueb efiamsl er ffi -rly  $_ ..... 



l)enocrttus o t/e leaer. 39 

opinion for my lart, 1 hold them worthy to be laughed st; a company of 
brain-sick dizzards, as mad as °Orestes and Athamas, that they may go "ride 
tho ms;' and ail sali along to tho Anticyroe, in tho "ship of fools" for com- 
pany t.ogether. I need hot much labour to prove this which I say otherwiso 
than thus, mako any solemn protestation, or swear, I think you will believo 
me without an oath; say st a word, are they fools  I refer it to you, though 
you ho likewise fools and madmen yourselves, and I as mari to ask tho ques- 
tion; for what aid out comical Mercuryl 
,t q Justum ab lnJustis petere inslplentla est. 
I'll stand to your censure yet what thik you t" 
]3u forasmuch as I undertook at first, that kingdoms, provinces, famille.q, 
• vere melancholy as well as private men, I will examine them in particular, 
and that which I have hitherto dilated at random, in more general terres, I 
will particularly insist in, prove with more special and evident arguments, tes- 
timonies, illustrations, and that in brief. "Vunc accip« quart deslpiarg omnez 
oeçu« ac tu. ]Iy first arment is bon'owed from Sotomon, an arrew drawn 
out of his sententious quiver, Pro. iii. 7, « Be hot wiae in thine own eyes." 
And xxvi. 12, « Seest thou a man wise in his own conceit  more hope is of 
a fool than of him." Isaiah pronounceth a woe against such men, chap. v. 21, 
« that are wise in their own eyes, and prudent in their own sight." For hence 
we may gather, tbat itis a great offenco, and men are ranch deceived that 
think too well of themselves, an especial argument to convince them of folly. 
]Iany men (saith ° Seneca) « had been without question wiae, had they hot 
had an opinion that they had attained to perfection ofknowledge already, even 
betbre they haxl gone half way," too forward, too ripe, lrveproperi, too quick 
and ready,  cit5 lrudentes, cit5 pii, cit5 mariti, cit patres, cit5 sacerdotes, cit5 
omnes o]ficii capaces et curiosi, they had too good a conceit of themselves, anti 
that marred all; of their worth, valour, skill, art, learning, j ud¢qnent, eloquence, 
their good parts; all their geese are swans, and that manifestly proves them to 
be no better than fools. In former rimes they had but seven wise men, now 
you can scarce find so many fools. Thales sent the golden Tripos, which the 
fishermen found, and the oracle commanded to be " given to the wisest, to 
]ias, ]ias to Solon," &c. If such a thing were now found, we should all fight 
for if, as the three goddesses did for the golden apple, we are so wise: we have 
women politicians, children metaphysicians; every silly fellow can square a 
circle, make perpetual motions, find the philosopher's stone, iuterpret 
Apocalypses, make new Theories, a new system of the world, new logic,.new 
lhilosophy, &c. IVostra urique 'egio, saith "letronius, "our country s so 
full of deified apirits, divine souls, that you may seoner find a god than a man 
amongst us," we think so well of ourselves» and that la an ample testimony 
of much folly." 
])Iy second argument la grounded upon the like place of Scripture, xvhich 
though before mentioned in effect, yet for some reasona la to be repeated 
(and by llato's good leave, I may do it, "¢ "¢ ' '* i, ,) ,, Fools 
(saith David) by tesson of their transgressions," &c. sal. cvii. 17. J:Ience 
]usculus infers all transgressors must needs be fools. So we rend Rora. il. 
« Tribulation and anguish on the seul of every man that doeth evil ;" but ail 
do eviL And Isaiah, lxv. 14, "My servants shall sing for joy, and "ye shall 
cry for serrow of heart, and vexation of mind." 'Tis ratified by the common 
aunsent of all philosophers, "DLhonesty (saith Cardan) is nothing else but 



4 0 /)emocrtu to tT Rea-. 

folly and madnes, • Probu qui no5iscum vivk  Shew me an hone man, 
» l i wn stuk, 'ris Fabius' aphorism fo the saine end. If nono 
hon, noue wise. then all foola. And well may they be  accounted: for 
who will aoeount him othee, Qui  a.t i occiat, u»n ' 
par in om ? that gooe backward aH his lire, wtward, when he  
bound to the east ? or hold him a wise man (saith "Muaculus) "that ptfem 
momentary ple fo eteity, that apenda hh mter'a goods in hia absenoe, 
forthwith to  condemned for it " euqnt sat qui gbi n pit, 
who will y that a sick man ia wise, that ts and drinka to ovvrth]w the 
temmtum of hia body? Can you count him wise or discet that wod 
milgly bave  health, and yet will do nothing that ahould procure or con- 
tinue it1 «Thdoret, out of lotinus the latost, "holda if a ridiculotm 
thing for a man  lire after his own law¢ to do that which is offeive to 
God, and yet to hope that he should ve lfim: and when he voluntarily 
neglecta h own aety, and conterons the mea, to think to be deHvercd 
by other:" who wiH say these men are e ? 
 third argument may be derived from the pmcedent,  ail men are arried 
away with psion, dhconnt, lust, pleasur, &c. ; they genelly ha those 
ues they should love, and love auch vioes they should haï. Therefore 
more than melancholy, quite mad, brute beasts, and void of rein, so Ch T- 
sostom connds; "or rather dead and buried alive,"  hilo Jude 
conclud it for a ceainty, "of aH auch that are caied away with passions, 
or labour of any dise of the mind." "Whem ia fr and rro%" there 
 Lacttiua uty maintaina, "wdom nnot dwelL 
 'qul cnple mener qnoque po, 
Q metucns vivi Uber mflfi non erit unquam. TM * 
Sene and the rest of the stoics are of opinion, that where  y the least 
peurbation, wisdom may not be fod. "What more diculous,"  * Lac- 
nti urges, « than to hear how Xerxes whipd the HcHespont," thoeaned 
the Iountain Athos, and the Gke  To speak  veto. who is free fmm psion 
ftal  t qa wn tiat , 'bve,  STly determ out 
of an old poem, no mortal men oen avoid sorrow and sickne, d rrow is an 
inparable oempanion n'oto melancholy.  Ch..store pleads farther yet, 
that they e more than . very bts, stupified, and voi4 of common 
sense: "For how (saith he) shaH I ow th  be a man, when thou kickest 
like an ss, neighest like a horse after women, ravit in lt ke a bulÇ 
venest ke a bear, stgest e a soerpion, rakest like a wol  subtle  a 
fox,  impudent  a dog  Shall I y thou a a man, that hast all the 
sympto of a bet How shall I know thee to be a man  by thy shape  
That ghts me mooe. when I sec a beast  keness of a m." 
• Seneca caHs that of Epic, magaam voce»a, an hcroical speech, "A fool 
nti11 begius  ve," and oeunts it a filthy ghtne in men, every day to lay 
new foundations of their lffe. but who doth otherwi  One travels, anothel- 
b; one for t» other for that b and old folks are  f out  
r o OEn find a faithful man ? Prov. xx. 6. ffi In PsM. xHx. Qui moentanea spitels, qui dil 
ldat heri abs bon mox in j vooEud et mnaud. * Perquam ri«ulum t homin ex animl 
scntentiaviver et quoe diia a aunt eq et men à soa ds verte alvos fle quum r 
cumin abjet. eod. c. 6. de provl b. de curat. æc sffe¢t b c=_,__  .... p op lut 
or. 2. r. 7. • Con. b. de vit. offer, certum t i morbis laborau pro mo ¢enndo 
d Lib. de sap. 1 tlmor ad pientia a4 equit. * He who is deno   frfuÇ and lin 
who ]iv in fear ner n be ee. , Quid ini Xerxe HeHontum verrte] &e. Ec. xxi. 12. 
[ 19p.&c., a ms, foam hommes hao, ld mua ¢etet nuu ¢ ........... g qu rapl 
uner nov s &e. *  t me Xmen 



D¢rfwcrus fo the l«ler. 41 

the rest; 0 demeem setutem, Tully exclaims. Therefore young, old 
rniddle age, ail are stupid, and dote. 
« n Sylvi, amont many other, sers down t special ways to fin, i 
a foel by. He  a fool that eks that he nnot d : he 
tha which being ç»und will do him more ha than good: he is a fool, that 
having variety of ways to bng him to his joey end, tak that which 
wot. If so, methinks most men are fools; emine their cou, and you 
sha soon perceive what dizmrds and mad menthe major part are. 
roaldas will have dar, aenoon men, and such  more than ordi- 
narily delight h dnk, tobe mad. OE'he fit pot quencheth thirst, so Panyis 
the poet detcrmines in Atlwn, sn gratin,   Dyon : the 
second mcs mers, the thd for plsuoe, rta  insanm, the fourth 
mak them mad. If this position be te, what a tMoe of mad men 
shall we have 'hat sha they be that drink four tim four  Non a 
ombre farcit, pra oem ianm du ian»ws? 
opinion, hey are mooe han mad, much woe than 
The Abderites condemned Democt for a mad man, beu he 
sameimes sd, and sometim aga profly mers. c Pat (th 
ippocraes) ob rmfarere  i»anire d, hh comen hold him mad 
becae he laughs; and therefore "he d him o advi aH his friends 
aç hod, çha hey do hOt laugh too muc or be over " Had 
Abderiçes been conven th us, and bu sn what fleerin and 'inning 
here is in his age, çhey would cey bave conclude we had bcen 
of our wits. 
Adstotle in his ethics holds foE  sap, to be wise and happy, arc 
reciprol rms, bon inW sa . 'T "Tly's paradox, 
"e men e ee, but foo are slaves»" libey is a power to hve according 
to s own hws»  we wl ouelv: who bath this hberty who is ' 
 « plens sibique Impeo 
Quem neQue pauperi nue mo neQue ncula 
Ronse cupidinib ntemnere honor 
Fort et  ip tos r atque rotund." 
m He  wl that  mmd his o wi 
Valit and cstant to hieif stiiL 
 hom pover nor dth, nvr hds can 
Ch s d@ s hono jt d ght.  
Eut where shall such a man Le ,d  I£ no wher then 
ail slaves, nse]e, or wce. ' foE. ut no man 
this lire, none good, therefç no man we. fri ipp bo»For one 
vue you shaU find n vioes  the me poety p«u rw, muhi 
Epi»t/. Ve may dventure usurp the me, or attribu it to othe 
for favour,  Carol Sapiens, ippus onus, ovicus i, &, and 
describe the prvies of a wi maa,  Tly doth an otor, Xencpho 
Cyrus, Ctio a courtier, Galen tempement, an aristy  drib by 
politicia. ut where shH such a mn  fcund 
« V bo  pie aloe x reet um ]  A wls  gocd man in a mlUon, 
b è m ho t Apoo." Apoo nsd d c d 
A man is a mle of 1 but Trmetus oeds, 
 s, a we man  a wondcr: mi Thire, 
Alexnder when he w presented th that rich and costly cket o king 
D'i, d evez T mau avised l what  put  it, he 



Deraocrun to the Rear. 

]tomer's wr]s, as the most preeious jewel of human wit, and yet °Scaligcr 
upbraids l-Iomer's muse, Nutricem ia alnt, a nurse" of madnes 
rtmpudent  a cou lady, that blushes at nothing. Jacobus Mycills, Gil- 
bert Coatus, Ermus, and almost all posterity admire Lucian's luxuriant 
, ye Sliger rejects him in his censure, and oeils him the Cerbems of the 
muses. Socmtes, whom ail the world  much maifi,  by Lacntius 
and eodoret condemned for a fool. Plutaœeh extoh Seneca's wi beyond 
all the Greeks, nulli secundus, yet «Sena saith of himsel "when I wouhl 
sola myself with a fool. I rcflec$ upon myse] and there I have him." 
Cardan, in his Sixteenth Book of Subtilties, rkons up twelve super-eminent, 
acute 1,hilosophem, for worth, subtlety, and isdom: Arcmedes, Galen, 
Vitruvius, rchit Tarentius, Euclid, Geber, that firsg vetor of Algebra, 
A]kindus the Mathematician, both AtoEbians, with othe's. But h tumvi 
terram çar beyond the rest, are tolomoeus, lotus, Hippras. Scahger 
ecitat. 224, scos at this censure of his, ls some of them carpente and 
mechacians, he mak Gafinam HlOat, a skir of ippoerates: 
and the id Cardau himself elwhere couderons both Galen and ippocratg 
for diousess, obscurity, confusion. aracelsus wl bave them both mere 
idiots, intnts in physic and philophy. Soeliger and Cardan admire Suisse 
the Calculator, i pe dunt esit humani i.ngenil, and yet "Lod. Viv 
calls them nugas Susetas : and Cardan, opposito to himse in another 
Idace, conterons thoee ancients 
nostros  prens collatos jt$ ros ap. In conclusion, the id 
Carda and Sain rnard will admi noue to this catalogm of wi men, 
"but only prophe and apoetles; how they esteem themlves, you bave heard 
before. XVe are worldly-ve, a, lmim olves, and oeek for applause: bug 
hcar Saint Beard, qnt5 »mg fas es sa, nto mag infus stult 
er, &c. in mnnib es us, circa psum iqp : the moto wise 
thou ar to others, the more fool to thyself. I may hot deny but that thero 
ome folly approved, a dive fury, a boly madns, even a spirituM dnken- 
n in the saints of Goal themselves ; satam ianiam mard OElls if 
(though hot as blpheming "Vomtius, would infer it  a pion incident to 
Goal himselç but), ikmiliar to good men, as that of aul, 2 Cor. "he w a 
fool," &c. and Rom. . he wisheth himself to be anathematized for them. 
Such is that drunkenness vhich Ficinus speaks of, when the soul is elevated 
and ravished with a divine tte of thag heavenly neoEar, lfich poets deci- 
phered by the sacrifice of Dionysiu¢ and in this sense with the poet, rinir« 
lubet, as Austin exhos us, ad ebrm  quq parer, leg's ail be mari and 
"drun But we commonly miske, and go beyon,l out commio we reel 
to the opposite part, "we are hot capable of it, and m he id of the Gr, 
ls Groe semp« , vos anni, Gai, Germani, Itali, &c. you are a 
comIny of fools. 
moeed now h pa ad roture, or from the whole to pas, and you shall 
find no other issue, the pas shl be sufficiently dad in çhis foHowhg 
refaoe. The -hole must needa follow by a uorites or ductiom Every 
multitude is mad, be mulm caum, (a many-hded best,) precipi- 
tare and rh thout judent, stum animal, a roaring rouç. 
on proves it out of Arhtotle» 

• 17ypocrlt. • Ut [nuIier alica nulli ldens. « Ep[st. 33. Quado fatuo deleeearl va]o, 0 e«t 
|flnge quoerendus, [ne video, • Pri[no contradicentiu[n, • Lib. de causi$ corrapt, artiUmo t Actiono 
ad subtil, in Scal. fol. 1226. u Lib. 1. de sap. • Vide [nier ho[no, quia roture est vsr|tas, roture 
stu]titla, roture demeatia, quIcquld lacis in loc [nundo, lrœeter hoe olu[n quel 'opte¢ D¢m lacis. Ser. 
de [niser. ho[n. "In 2 Platonl dIaL !. de j usto. ffi Dura lram et odium In Deo revera poni$o 
• Virg. I. Eel. 3, Pa. lnebriabuntur ab nbertate domls, • In Pal. eiv. Au$tin.  In Platoni 
Tire. scerdos F-.gyptius. • Hor. valgus lnsanu[n, a Pater ea dlvislo probabilis &e. ex. &rit. Top. 
lb. 1. c. 8. Rog. Bac. lpist, de secret, art. et nat. ¢. 8. non est judicium ha vulgo. 



quod vulgo videgur verum, falsum est; that whieh the eommonalty accoun*.s 
truc, is most par talse, they are atill opposit fo ,vise men, but all the worh[ 
is of tlris humour (vtdgus), and thou thyselfart de vulgo, ont ofthe commonalty 
and he, and he, and so are all the test; and therefore, as Phocion concludes, 
fo be approved in nought you say or do, mere idiots and asses. Begin theu 
where you will, go backward or forvzard, choose out of the whole pack, wink 
and choose, you shall find them ail alike, "never a ban'ci better herring." 
Copernicus, Atlas his uccessor, is of opinion, the earth is a planer, movc 
and shines to others, as the moon doth to us. Digges, Gilbert, Keplerus, 
Origanus, and othcrs, defend this hypothesis of his in sober sadness, and that 
the moon is inhabited : if it be so that the earth is a moon, then are we also 
giddy, veiginous and lunatic within this sublunary maze. 
I could produce such arguments till dark night : if you should hear tho 
test» 
"Ante dlcm claso comportent vesper 0lympo:  [ t Throgh ch a train of words if 
"l'he day would eooner than the talc be tlone 
bub according fo my p-,'omse, I will descend fo particulars. This melancholy 
extends itself hot to men only, but everx fo vegetals and sensibles. X speak 
hot of those creatures which are saturnine, melancholy by nature, as lead, and 
such like minerals, or those plants, rue, cypress, &c. and hcllebore itself, of 
which °Agripp, treats, fishes, birds, and beasts, hares, conies, dormice, &c., 
owls, bats, nightbirds, but that artificial, which is perceived in them all. 
lemove a plant, if will pine away, which is especially perceived in date trees, 
as you may rend af large in Constantine's husbandry, that antipathy betwixt 
the vint and the cabbage, vint and oil. Put a bird in a cage, he will dit for 
sullenness, or a beast in a pen, or take his yotmg ones or companions from 
him, and set what effect if will cause. ]ut who perceives hOt these common 
passions of sensible creatures, fear, sorrow, &c. Of all other, dogs are mosç 
subject fo this malady, insomuch some hold they dream as men do, and 
through violence of melancholy run mad; I could relate many stories of dogs 
that have died for grief, and pined away ibr loss of their masters, but they 
are common in every tautbor. 
Kingdoms, provinces, and politic bodies are likewlse sensible and subject fo 
this disease, as • ]oterus in his politics bath proved af large. "As in huma 
bodies (saith he) there be divers alterations proceeding from humours, so there 
be many diseases in a commonwealth, which do as diversely happen from 
several distempers," as you may easily perceive by thelr particular symptoms. 
'or where you shall set the people civil, obedient fo God and p4nces, judicious, 
peaceable and quiet, rich, fortunate, "and flourish, fo lire in peace, in unity 
and concord, a country well tilled, many fait built and populous cities, ubi 
incolœe nitent, as old  Cato said, the people are rient, polite and terse, ub/bene, 
beateçuv vivurt, which our politicians make the ehicf end of 
and which  zlrstotle Polit. lib. 3, cap. 4, calls Commun 6onum, 
lib. 6, optabilet et selectum stature, that country is fret from melancholy ; as 
it was in Italy in the rime of Augustus, now in China, now in many other 
flourishing kingdoms of Europe. lut whereas you shall see many discon- 
$ents, common grievances, complaints, poverty, barbarism, beggary, plague.q, 
wars, rebellions, seditions, mutlnies, contentions, idleness, riot, cpicurism, the 
land lit untilled, waste, fall of bogs, fens, deserts, &c., cities decayed, base 

• De ocvalt. Phllosoph. I. I. e 95 et 19. ensd. I. Llb. I0. cap. 4. t Sec LlpIns eplst, t De 
olltia iilustritun lib. I. cap. 4. It in humani corporibu variœe aceldnt mutationea corporis, anlmlqe, 
in republica &c.  Ubi rege philosophntur, Plato. .t Lib. de re rust. k Vel publlcam ltilitatem 
salus publics enivreras lex eeto. Beata civtta non ubl pauc! beati, ced tota clvttae beata. Plato quarto 
republtca. 



4 

Z)emocrit 6o  

and poor owns, villagea depopulaed, the people squalid, ugly, meivil ; tha 
lingdom, that countlT, must needs be discontent, melancholy, hath a aick 
body, and had need te be reformed. 
_New that canner well be effeted, till the causes of these maladies be first 
removed, vhich commonly proceed frein their own default, or seine accidental 
inconveaicnce : as te ho situated in a bad clime, too ltr north, sterile, in a 
barren place, as the deserg of Lvbia, dcserts of Arabia, places voici of waters, 
as thoso of Lop and Belgian i'n Asia, or in a bad air, as at Alexandretta, 
JBantam, Pi.sa, 1)urazzo, b'. John de Ulloa, &c., or in danger of the sea's con- 
tiuual inundations, as in many places of the Low Countries sud elsewhere, 
or near seine bad neighbours, as Hungarians te Turks, lodolians te Tartars, 
or almost any bordering countries, they live in fear stili, and by reason of 
hostile incursions are oftentimes left desolate. Se are cities, by tesson  of wars, 
rires, plagues, inundations, wild beas$s, decay of trades, barred havens, the 
sea's violence, as Antwerp may witness of late, Syracuse of old, Brundusium 
in Italy, ye and Dorer with us, and many that st this day suspect the sea's 
fury and rage, and labour against if as the Yenetians te their inestimable 
charge. But the most frequent maladies are such as proceed frein themsclves, 
as firs when religion and God's service is neglected, innovated or altered, 
where they de net fear God, obey their prince, where atheism, epicurism, 
sacrilege, simony, &c., and ail such impieties are freely committed, that coun- 
try canuot prosper. When Abraham (ame te Gerar, an4 saw a bad land, h« 
said, sm'e the fear of God was net in that place. "Cyprian Echovius, a Spanish 
chorographer, above ail other cities of Spain, commends "Borcino, in which 
there was no bcggal; no man poor, &c., but ail rich, and in good estate, an,[ 
he gives the reason, because they were more religious than their neighbours :" 
vhy was Israel se often spoiled by their enemies, lcd into captivity, &c., but 
for their idolatry, neglect of God's word, for sacrilege, even for one Achau's 
fault? And what shall we expect that have such multitudes of Achans, 
church robbers, simoniacal patrons, &c.» how can they hope te flourish, that 
neglect divine duties, that live most part like Eidcures? 
Other common gl'ievances are generally noxious te a body po]itic; alteration 
of laws and customs, breaking privileges, general oppressions, seditions, &c., 
observed by °Aristotle, Bodin, Boterus, Junius, Araiscus, &c. I will only point 
st seine of the chiefest.  Impotentia gubernandl, ataxia, confusion, i]l-govein- 
ment, which proceeds frein unskilful, slothîul, griping, covetous, unjust, rash, 
or tyrannizing magistrates, when they are fools, idiots, children, proud, wilïul, 
partial, indiscreet, oppressors, giddy heads, tyrant net able or unfit te manage 
such offices : « mauy oble cities and flourishing kingdoms by that means are 
desolate the whole body groans under such heads, and ail the members must 
nceds ho disaffected, as st this day those goodiy provinces in Asia Miner, &c. 
groan under the burden of a Turkih government 5 and those vast kingdoms 
of ][uscovia, Russia, "under a tymnnizing duke. Who ever heard of more 
civil and rich populous couutries than th«se of" Greece, Asia hlinor, abound- 
ing with all "wea[th, multitudes of inhabitants, force, power, splendeur and 
nlagnificence " and that miracle of countries,  the I-[oly Land, that in se 
mall a compass of ground cotfld maintain se many towns, cities, produce se 
many fighthg men  ]gypt another paradise, new barba»oas and de,erg, and 

 5!anl-aa va mlser nlm]m vlc|na C'remota. Tntdnm à fed ut olim Matania, & * Delicli 
Hliœeanno160& emoma]unemopauper, optimquiaeatqueim. Pieuctequ¢v¢ban 
ammaque  veneratione et timor% vo c saue reb cumbebant. *Polit. 1. 5. 
Boter Polit. b. 1. c. 1. C 
e Immemor, aut fatu t. 
• See Dr. Fletcher'a relation, and exander Gann histo. 
InlaAi.multituoEe splondore  poten « ot Dove 200 m  lg 60  br¢ aorng 



a|most waste, by the despotical government of an imperous T,,ri:, itol«abill 
servitutisfitg«,premitur (Uone saith)net only tire and water, goods or lands, 
ipse slairitus ab insolentissimi vlctxn-is pendet nutu, such is their slavery, thcir 
lires and seuls dcpend upon his insolent will and command. A tyrant that 
spoils all wheresoever he cornes, insomuch that an • historian complains, " 
an old inhabitant should new  them, he would net know them, if a travcller, 
or stranger, it would grieve lais heart te behold them." Vhereas • Aristotl 
notes, 2Vovoe ew.actiones, nova omra impoait«, new burdens and exaetions daily 
corne upon them, like those of which Zosimus, lib. 2, se grievous, 
txores, loutres dlïlios prostituerent ut exacoribus ì questu, &c., they must need 
be discontent, hinc civitatum gemitus et lloratua, as "Tully holds, hence corne 
those complaints and teurs of cities, "p¢r, miserable, rebellious, and des- 
perate auhjects, as "Hippolitus adds; and n as a judicious countryman of out 
observod net long since, in a survey of that great Dnchy of Tuscany, tho 
people lived much grieved and discontent, as appeared by their manitbl,l and 
manifest complainigs in that kind. "That the state was like a sick body 
wlfich had lately taken physic, whose humours are net yet well settled, and 
veakened se much by purging, that nothing was left but mclancholy. 
Whereas the princes and potentates are immoderate in lust. hypocrites, 
epicures, of no religion, but in shew: Quid hypocri'ifragil.ius? what se brittlo 
and unsure ? what sooner subverts their estates than wandering and raging 
htsts, on their subjects' wives, daughters ? te say no worse. That they should 
leaeem larve.ferre, lead the way te all vh'tuous actions, are the ringleaders often- 
times of all mizchief and dissolute courses, and by that means their cotmtries 
are plaomaed , " and they themselves often ruined, banished, or murdered by 
conspiracy of their mtbjects, a« Sardanapalus was, Dionysius, junior, Helio- 
gabalus, leriander, lisistratus, Tarquinius, Timocrates, Childericus, 
Claudius, Andronicus, Galeacius Sfo'sia, Alexander Medices," &c. 
Whereas the princes or great me n are malicious, envious, factious, ambitious, 
emulators, they tear a commonwealth asunder, as se many Gud] and G/be- 
lines disturb the quietness of it, « and with mutual murders let it bleed te 
death; out histories are too full of such barbarous inhumanities» and tho 
miserie that issue frein them. 
Whereas they be like se many horse-]eeches, hungry, griping, cormpt, 
°covetons, avaritce nancilria , ravenous as wolves, for as Tully writes: 
prcet larodes, et qui pecudibus laroet, debe eorum utilitati inservire : or such 
ats pre/r their private before the public good. For as Che id long since, 
privatce public aemper o.ffïcere. Or whereas they be illiterate, i-morant, 
emph'ics in policy, ubi deest facultas virtus (zlr/stot. laol. 5, cala. 8,) et scientia, 
wise only by inheritance, and in authority by birth-right, lavera; or tbr their 
wealth and titles; there must needs be a fault, a great defect: because as 
au i old philosopher affirms, such men sre net alway fit. "Of an infiuito 
number, few noble are senators» and of those few, fever good, and et thag 
small number of honest, good, and noble men, few that are lerned, wise, 
discret, and sufficient, able go dizeharge such places if must needs turn te 
tho eonfusioi, of a state." 

Romulus Amascus. • Snbelllcus. Si qus Incoa veta, non anosceret, sl quls percn 
cere$.  oli$. l. . c. 6. Crude princpum, impit 8celem, violatio legum, peculat 
publi etc. = Ept. • De inoEem. b. cap. 20. subditl 
b R. Dlinon. 1596. conclsio llbH. • Bos I. 9. c. 4. Fot. Quo fit ut aut reb dat exulen 
aut couone subdlrmn cdelime tandem ucident. a Muis ois 
• Luvr ex mali eratque causis. $Sall$. s For most p we mistake the naine of Politl- 
an axing uch  rd achiavel and Ti t atme tat n &spute of tittcal 
preoep, supplant and ovoethrow the vcrsari en.ch emselv get hono smbIe; but what is 
th  the bene  or prcrvation of a Commonwealth   Imperium suapte onte ¢oit.  ApuL 
Fm. Flor. Ex lnnumerilibu au¢i Seaar geaere noboe e ib pauci bo 
a 



46 

Democrltus fo the 1tender. 

For as the  Princes are, so are the people; Qualis Rex, talls grex: aud 
,:'hich I Antigontm right well said of old, qui MacedoMm reger erudit, olnnea 
e,iar subd'kos erudit, he that teaches the king of Macedoa, teaches all hta 
aubjects, i a true saying still. 
 Fr Princes are the glas.% the school, the book, 
1 here subjects' eyes do lcarn, do read, do look." 
«Velocins et citins nos 
Corrutuptmt s itiorutu exempla dotp.e,ttlei malwni| 
Cure subeant anituos auctoribus." * 
Thcir examples are soonest followcd, vices enterained, if they b profane, 
irreligious, laseivious, riotous, epicures, factious, covetott, ambitious, illiterate, 
o will the commons most part be, idle, unthrifts, prone to lust, drunkards, 
and therefore poor and needy ( ,, «a«,, t«,  o;, for povêrty 
bêgets sedition and villany)upon ail occasions ready to mutiny and rebcl, 
discontent still, complaining, murmuring, gTudging, apt to ail outrages, thefts, 
tre,asons, murdcrs, i||novations, in debt, shifters, cozeners, outhtws, tgro.fligatoe 
farr ac vitæ. It was an old  politician's aphorism, " They that are poor 
and bad envy rich, hate good men, abhor the present goveament, wish tbr a 
new, and vould bave ail tunaed topsy turvy." V'hcn Catiliue rebeiled in 
]lome, he got a company of such debauched rogtaes togetheç they were his 
familiars and coadjutors, and such bave been your ]bels most part in ail 
ages, Jack Cade, Tom Straw, Kette, and his companions. 
Where they be generally riotous and contentious, where there be many 
discords, many laws, many lavsuits, many lawyers and many physicians, it is 
a manifest sign of a distempcrcd, melancholy state, as l°lato long since main- 
tained: for where such kind of men swarm, they wil[ make more work for 
themselves, and that body politic diseased, which was otherwise sound. A 
general mischief in thcse our rimes, an insensible plague, and never so many 
of them : "which are now multil,liêd (saith iIat. Geraldus, ° a lawyer himsclf,) 
as so many locusts, hot the parents, but the plagues of the conntry, and tor 
the most part a supercilious, bad, covetous, litigious generation of men. » Cru- 
menGtuOa natio, &c. A purse-milking nation, a clamox)us company, gowned 
vultures, « qui ex ijuria vivent et sanguine civiun, thieves and seminaries of 
dicord; wox-ze than any polers by the highway side, auri accipitres, auri ex2 
'ebronides, pecuniaru» hamioloe, quadruplatores, curice ha,Tagoees , lori tbti- 
nabula, mo,'tra honinum, malones, &c., that take upon them to make peace, 
but are iudeed the very disturbers of our peace, a eompany of irreligious 
harpies, scraping, griping catchpoles, (I mean our common hmagry pettifoggem, 
"rabulasforenses, love and honour in the meantime all good laws, and worthy 
hwyers, that are so many'oracles and 1)ilots ofa well-governed commonwealth.) 
SVithout art, without judgment, that do more harm, as « Livy said, quaa 
balla externa, fames, morbive, than sickness, wars, hunger, diseases; "and 
cause a most incredible destruction of a commouwealth," saith  Sesellius, a 
£tmous civilian sometimes in l°aris, as ivy doth by an oak, embrace if so long, 
unfl if bath got the heart out of it, so do they by such places they inhabit; no 
counsel at ail, no justice, no speech to be h.l, ni eu,n premulserls, he must 
be fcd still, or else he is as mute as a fish, butter open an oyster without a 
knJ£e. £xTerto crede (saith "Saliburiensis) i maus eorun millies ikli, e 

 Non solutu vitia concipiunt Ipi principes, sed etiam infundunt in civitatem, plusque exemplo quam 
ieccato nocent. Cic. !. de lcgibun.  Epit. ad Zcn. Juven. Sat. 4. Paupertas editionetu gignit et 
malcflcinm, Arist. Pol. 2. c. 7. * Viciotts dotuestic exatuples opcrate tuore Quickly Upon us when 
uggested fo ottr tuindz by high authorlties, m a]lust. Sernper in clvitate Quibu opes null sent, 
I,onis lnvident, vetera odere, nova exoptant, odio suarutu rerutu tuutari otunia petunt, a De legibus. 
profligatoe in repub, dLscipliuoe est indicium jtu-ispcritorum numerus, et tuedicorum copia.  Iu proef, stud. 
juris. Multipllcanttlr nunc in terris st locustœe non patrioe parentea, sed peste.a, pessitui homi ...... " 
l»itl te $1pel'çlliO$1 contentlosl» &c. licltllm latroelllllm exercent. 
togatl. « Barc. Argen. • Jurisconsulti domus oraculum civitatis. Tttlly. 
• Lib. 1. de rep. t;allorttm incredibil_tu reilub, perniciem atler tml;. ffi lolycrat, lib. 



Deraoeritus go the Rea'.ler. 47 

CIaron immt/s, qui nulle peperc'it uuam, his logè cleme'.nt','r est; "I speak 
out of experience,  bave ben a thoand times amongst them, and Chaton 
hielf is more gentle than thcy ; he is contcnd with his single pay, but 
they multiply still, they are never satisfied," besidcs they bave d«mzcas 
lhs,  he terms it, nifanib argete vici, they must be fed to 
nothing, and *get more to huld the peaoe than we can to aay o best. 
They will spcak their clients fair, and vite them to their tables, but as he 
f{,llows it, "of all injustice there is noue  pernicious as that of thch's, which 
when they deceive most, will oeem tobe honest men." Thcy take upon them 
tobe peaoemkers, et fere ca humiliun, to help them to their right, 
patrodnattar atis," but all is for their own good, 
eauriant, they pied for poor men grat, buç they are but  a stale fo catch 
othem. If there be no jar,  they OEn muke a jar, out of the law itoeff find 
still some quirk or other, fo seç them af odds, and contue vaus so long, 
lustra aliçaot, I know hOt how muny yeam before t cause i« hrd, and 
when 'ris judg end dermined by reason of some tricl uud em'o, if is as 
li'esh fo begin, afr twice seven years me rimes, as 
they prolong rime, delay suits till thcy bave enriched themlves, aad beggad 
their cliençs. And,   Cato inveighed atnsç Isocrutcs" scholars, we may 
j ustly fax out wmngliug luwyers, they do coecere it litib, are  tigious 
and busy here on earth, thut I think they will plead their client's cauoes here- 
ufr, me of them in holl. «Simles complains amongsç the Suisoe of the 
advocutes in his rime, that when they should make an end, they gan con- 
tt'ovcies, and "protract their caus muny yeurs, pemuading them their title 
is good, till their putrimonies be consumed, and thut they bave snt more 
sceking tn the thing la worth, or they shall get by the recovery." o thtt 
he thaç goos to luw, as the proverb is, "holds a wolf by the eurs, or as a shoep 
in a srm runs for shelr tou brier, ff he prosceute his cuuse he is consumcd, 
if he surcease his suit he loseh ail; t what d iffcrence  They had won t hereto- 
tbre, saith Austin, to end muta, per communes arbitros; and  in Switzer- 
1.md (we are itformed by  Simles), "they d me oemmon arl»itrutors or 
daysmen in evetown, thut made a friendlycompositionbetwixt man and man, 
and he much wonders af their honest simpliciçy, thut could keep peace  well, 
and end such grt causes by that meuns. Af Fez in Afri, thcy hure neither 
lwyem nor udvooetes ; but if the be any oentmvemies amongst them, both 
1,urties plaintif_ end dcfendunt corne fo their Alfakins or ch icf j udge, "and 
once withou any çarther appea or pitif delay¢ the cuu is hea and 
ended." Out forefathera, as lu worthy chorogrupher of ours oboervea, had 
wonç paucul crul aureis, with a few g,»lden crosscs, and lh in ver, 
make ail conveyunces, assurances. And such w the candour and inte'ity 
of succeeding ages, that a deed ( I hure often seen) fa convey a whole manor, 
waa imTlitè conhin in me twenty nes or thereabouts; ke that scede or 
 Laconica,  much renowned of old in ali contracts, which  TuHy se 
eumtly commends fo Atticua, luçarch h his Lynder, Art polit.: 
7ydida*, lib. 1. Diodorus and Suid approve and magnify, tbr that 
laconic brevity  ts nd; and well they might, for aoeordihg fo  Tertan» 

Y Is stipe contcntus, et bi asses integro8 sibi multiplicarl Jubent. * Plus accipiunt tacere, quarn nos loqui. 
•Totius ,xjustitioe nuila capitalior qttm eorum qui cure maxime declpiunt, id aguu t, ut boni viri esse videantur. 
• Iam quocunque modo causa pro..edat, hoc semper agiter, ut Iocu I impleantur, etsi avaritia equit 
atlarl. b Camden in Norfolk : qui si nihil sit litiurn è juris apiclbtts lite tarnen ser«re cal]eut, • Plu- 
taxch, vit. Car. caua apud inferos quas in suam ridera r¢ceperunt, patrocinio suo tuebuntur d LIb. 2. de 
Helvet. repub. on explicandia, 8ed rnoliendls controversiis operam riant, Ira ut lires In rnult,,8 annos extra- 
hantar 8umrn- cure molestlî utris(lue ; partis et darn iterea patrirnouia exhaul'ia..tur. ® Lupurn aur.bua 
teaet, f Hor. • Lib. de Helvet. repub. Judices quoctmque pago constituent qui arnica aliqu trausac- 
ti.,ne, 8! fieri possit lite tollan. Ego rnajorum noatrorurn 81mplicitatem admiror, quisic causas graviirnas 
vmposucrint; &c.  Clenard 1. 1. ep. Si quœe coutroversioe utraque para judiccrn adit, la actuel et simtd 
rm transigit, au«lit : nec quid sit appellatio, lachrym,soeque morœe nvscuut.  Carnden. k Lib. 10. 
epiat, ad Atti:um» epiat. Il | Dibliuth. 1.   Lib. de A.uim. 



certa surd paucis, therc is much more certainty in fewer words. And so was 
it ofold throughout : but now many skins ofparchment will scarce serve turn : 
he that buys and sells  bouse, must bave a bouse full of writings, there be so 
many circumstances, so many words, such tautological repetitions of all par- 
ticulars, (to avoid cavillation they say;) but we find by out woful experience, 
that to subtle wits it is a cause of much more contention and variance, and 
scarce any conveyance so accurately penned by one, which anothër will hot find 
a crack in, or cavil at; ifany one word be misplced, any little error, all is 
disammlled. That which is a law to-day, is none to-morrow; that which is 
sound in one man's opinion, is most faulty to another; that in conclusion, here 
is nothing amongst us but contention and confusion, we bandy one agains 
another. And that which long since "lutarch complained of thcm in Asia, 
may be verified in out times. "These men here assembled, corne hot to sacri- 
fice to their gods, to offer Jupiter their first-fruit% or merriments to B:tcchus ; 
but an yearly disease, e.xasperating Asia, bath brought them hither, to make an 
end of their controversies and lawsuits." 'Tis multitudo perdentium etpereun- 
tium,  destructive tout that seek one another's ruin. Such most part are our 
ordinary suitors, termers, clients, new stirs every day, mistak, errors, cavils, 
and at this present, as I bave heard in some one court, I know hot how many 
thousand causes : no person free, no title ahnost good, with such bitterness in 
following, so many slights, procrastinations, delays, forgetT, such cost (for 
infinite sums are inconsiderately spent), violence and malice, I know hot by 
whose fault, lawyers, clients, laws, both or ail: but as laul reprehended tho 
°Corinthina long since, I may more positively infer now : "There is a fault 
amongst you, and I speak it to your shume, Is there hot  wise man amongst you, to judge between his brethren? but that  brother goes to law with  
brother." And *Christ's counsel concerning lawsuits, was never so fit to bo 
iuculcated as in this age: "«Agte with thine adve.ary quickly," &c. 
2Iatth. v. 25. 
I could repeat many such particular gricvances, which must disturb a body 
politic. To shut up ail in brief, where good government is, prudent and wiso 
princes, there all things thrive and prosper, peace and happiness is in that hnd: where it is otherwise, ail thi»gs are ugly to behold, incult, barbarous, 
uncivil,  paradise is turned to a wilderness. This island amongst the rest, 
our next neighbours the French and Germans, may be  sufficient witness, that in  short time by that prudent policy of the Romans, was brought from bar- 
barism ; see but what Cœeaar reports of us, and Tacitus of those old Germans, 
they were once as uncivil as they in Virginia, yet by planting «»f colonies and 
good laws, they became from barbarous outlaws, "to be full of rich and popu- 
lous cities, as now they are, and most flourishing kingdo.ms. Even so might Virnia, and those wild IrLh bave been civilized long since, if that order had 
been heretofore taken, which now begins, of planting colonies, &c. I bave 
read  °discoursc, printed anno 1612. "Discovering the true causes why 
Ireland was never entirely subdued, or brought under obedience to the crown 
of England, tmtil the beginning of his hIajesty's happy reig." Yet if his 
reasons were thoroughly scanned by  judicious politician, I ara afraid he 
would hot altogcther be approved, but that it would tura to the dishonour of 
our nation, to surfer it to lie so long waste. Yea, and ifsome travellers should 
ee (to comc ne:r home) those rich, unitêd 19rovinces of Holland, Zealand &c.» 

 Lib. major morb. corp. an anlml. Hi non eonveniut nf d|ls raore ma]orum sacrs fa¢isnt, non nf $ovl 
prim|tia offerant, aut Baccho comme.tionea, sed anniversarius morbus exaeran Asiam hue eos cocgi_, 
ut contentiones hic peragant, o I Cor. ri. 5, 6. p Stulti quando dernurn apieti  Ps. xlix. . 
* o intituled, and preached by out Regiu Protsor, D. Prideaux ; prtnted at London by Foel|x Klngstt 
1;21. q Of wh|ch Text re.ad two learned Serinons. • Soepius bona materia ceasat sine artifice. 
bell|cus de Germani. Si quis videret Germaniam urbu$ h'»die excultam, non diceret ut olim trit:m 
¢ultu, perm coeLo, terrain iafo_-'mem, • By I t(a.'a Attrey Ge.a¢rl thez. 



D.m,crtu o tle Radr. 49 

over agaiust us; those ncat cries and populous towns, full of most imhstl'iott 
rtificcrs, «so much land recovered from the sea, and so painfidly prescrved by 
those artifici.'d inventions, so wonderfully approved, as that of Bemster in 
][ulland, ut zihil huic par aut simile nvenia,s  loto orbe, sith eius tho 
geographcr, ail the world caunot match il, "so many navible channels from 
place go place, mado by men's hands, &c. and on the other side so many 
thousand actes of out tbns lie drowned, our cities rhin, and those vile, poor, 
and ugly fo behohl in respecç of theirs, our trad deeayed, out still running 
l'ive stopped, and that beneficial uoe of transportation, wholly neglected, so 
nmny havcus void of shipa and towns, so many parks and forests tbr pleasure, 
barren hcaths, so many villaggs depopulated, &c. I think sure he would d 
some tkult. 
I may uot deny but that ths nation of ours, doth bene az«lire apud ext«os, 
is a most noble, a most flourislfing kingdom, by common consent of ail "geo- 
gixphem, historians, politicians, 'ris unica çelut arx,  and which Quintius in 
Livy said oI the inhabitants of Peloponnesus, may bo well applied to us, we 
are testndines stâ sud indiug, like so many tortoioes in our shclls, fcly 
defended by an ang T sea, as a wall on ail sides. Our island hath many sach 
holmurable eul,,gimns; and as a ]eard countran of ours right well hath 
it, "Ever since the Normans first coraing into Eugland, this country both fi 
military matters, and ail other of civility, hath bcen parallclcd with the most 
flourishing kiugdoms of Europe and our Christian worhl," a blessed, a rich 
country, and one of thc fortunate isles : and fbr some things pt»trmd befor 
othet countries, for expert oeamen, our laborious discoveries, art of navigation, 
true merchants, they car T thc bcll away fmm all other nations, even tho 
Portugais and IIollanders themsclves; "rwithout all fcar," maith Bot.cru 
" furrowing tho ocean wiuter and summer, and two of their cal»tains , with no 
lcss valour than fbano, bave mailed round about the worhl." "We bave besidcs 
many particular blemings, which our neighbours wanç, the Gospel truly 
pt, ached, church discipline eablished, long peaoe and quietns fie from 
exactions, foiil tars, invasions, domestical seditions, well manumd, fo ti- 
fied by art, and nature, and now mosç happy in that fortunate union of Eng- 
land and Scofland, which our fot, fathetz have laured to effoet, and defircd 
fo soe. But in which wo excel ail others, a wise, leamed, religious king, 
another Numa, a second Austus, a true Josiah ; most worthy oenators, a 
leaed clergy, an obedient commonalty, &c. Yet amongst many rs, somo 
thisfl grow, some bad woeds and enormities, which much distm-b the acc 
of this body politic, eclipse the honour and glory of if, fit fo be rooted out» and 
th all spoed fo be reformed. 
The first is idleness, by rean of which we have many swarms of robres, 
and beggars, thieves, drunkards, raid discontented persons (whom Lycurgus 
Plutarch calls bos rdlicæ, the bofis of the commonwealth), many poor 
pple in ail our tos. Civit nobs as Polydot calls them, base builg 
cities, inglorious, poor, mail, rare in sight, inous, and thin of inhabRants, 
Our land is fertile we may hot deny, full of ail good things, and why doth it hot 
then abound with cities, as well as Italy, France, Germany, the Low-countries 
beoEuse their policy hath boen otherwise, and we are hot so thrifty, circum- 
spect, industrious. Idleness is the zd genius of our nation. For as 
"Boterus justly mes, fertility of a country is hot enough, except art and 

t As Zclpland, Bemster In Holland, &c.  From Gaunt to Siuce, from Bruges fo the sca, Re. 
• Ortelius, Boterus, Mcrcator, Meteranus, &c. * « The citadel par excellence." w Jam inde non minus 
bcili gloria, quàm humanitatis cuitu intcr florcntissimas orbis Christiani gcntes imprimis floruit. Camdet. 
Brit. de Normanuis. ffi Gcog. Kecker. y Tare hieme quàm mstate iutrepidè sulcant Occanum, et duo 
lilorum duces non mlnore audaci quàm fortun totius orbem terroe circumuavig5runt. Amphitheatro 
]{¢}tcl-|lS. • A fertile soli, igood air, &c Tin, Lead, Wool, Saffron, &c. - Toîa Britanuia tm|c 
ve, lut arx. Botcr, u LIb. l. hist. • lncrcmcnt, urb. 1. Il e. 9. 



industry be joined unto if, according to Aristotle, riches are either natural or 
artificial; natural, are good land, fait mines, &c. at'ificial, are manufactures" 
coins, &c. llany kingdoms are fertile, but rhin of inhabitants, a. tiret 
Duchy of iiedmont in Italy, which Leander Albetff.us so much magnifies for 
corn, wine, fruits, &c., yct nothing near so populous as those which are mc«'e 
barren. "England," saith he, " London only excepted, bath never a popu- 
lons city, and yet a fruitful counh'y." I find 46 cities and walled towns i: 
Alsatia, a small province in Germany, 50 castles, an infinite number of vil- 
lages, no grountl idle, no hot rocky places, or tops of hills are untilled, 
°3Ilnster informeth us. In ¢Greichgea, a small territory on the Iffecker, 
Italian toiles over, I read of 20 wallcd towns, innumerable villages, each one 
containing 150 bouses most part, besicles castles and noblemen's palaces. 
observe in rTuringê, in Dutchland (welve toiles over by their scale) 12 coun- 
ries, and in them 144 cities, 2000 villages, 144 towns, 250 ctle In 
"]3avaria, 3 cities, 46 towns, &e. 'Portuyallia irramnis, a small plo of 
ground, bath 14ç0 parishes, 130 monasteries, 200 bridges. ]IMta, a barren 
island, yields 20,000 inhabitants. Dut ofall the rest, I admire Lues Guicciar- 
dine'- relat.ions of the Low-countries. I-Iolland bath 26 cities, 400 eat vil- 
lages. Zeland, 10 cities, 102 parishes. Brabant, 26 cities, 102 parishes. 
Flaltders, 28 cities, 90 towns, 1154 villages, besides abbeys, castles, &e. The 
Low-eouutries generally have three clties at least for one of ours, and those far 
more populous and rich : and what is the cause, but their industry and excel- 
lency in ail manner of tradesl Their commerce, which is maintained by a 
multitude of tradesmeu, so many excellent chamels raade by art and oppor- 
tune havens" to which they build their cities; ail which we bave in like 
measure, at at least may have. But their chiefest loadstone which draws ail 
manner of commerce and merchandise, which maintains their prescrit este, in 
hot fertility of soil, but industry t'.rot enricheth them, the gold mines of Pcru, 
or Iffova I-Iispania may hot compare with them. They have neithergold no 
lver of their own, 'ine nor «,il, or scarce any corn growhg in those nnited 
provinces, little or no wood, tin, lead, iron, silk, wool, any stuff almost, or 
metal ; and yet/-Iungary, Transylvania, that brag of their mines, fertile Etg- 
laud canuot compare with them. I dm boldly y, that neither France, 
Tarentum, Apulia, Lombardy, or any par of Italy, Valentia in 8pain, or tha 
pleasant Andalusia, wiçh their excellent fruits, wine and oil, two harvests, no 
hot any part of Europe is so flourishing, so rieh, so populous, so full of gootl 
ships, of well-builç eities, so abounding with all things neeessal T for the use of 
xnan. 'Tis out Indies" an epitome of China» and all by reason of their indus- 
try, good poliey, and eommeroe. Industry is a loadstorte to draw ail good 
things; that alone makes eountries flourish, eities populous, Jand will entbrce 
by reason of mueh manure, which necessarily follows" a barren soil fo 
fertile and good, as sheep, saith  Dion, mend  bacl pasture. 
Tell me, politicians, why is that fruitful 19alestina, noble Greeee, EgTpt , 
_&sia Iinor, so mueh deeayed; and (mere eareases now) çallen ri'oto that they 
were The ground is the saine, but the goverament is altered, the people m'e 
grown slothful, idle, their good husbandry, policy, and industry is deeayed. 
2Von fatlçata aut e.ffoeta huraus, as 'Columella well in forms 8ylvinus" sed nostrâ 
fit qnertiâ, &c. /Iay a man believe that whieh -&ristotle h his polities" Pau- 
sanias» Stepha,us, Sophianus, Gerbelius relate of old Greeee I find hereto- 

• Angll, ex¢epto Londino, nulla est clvltas rnemorabllls, li¢et ea natlo rernm omnlurn eopi abundet. 
• Cosmog. Lib. 3. cop. 119. Villarurn non et nurnerus, nullus locus otiosns aut incultus, tChytreu  
orat. edit. Francof. 1583. • laginus Geog.  Ortelltts è Vaseo et Pet. de ledina. t An 
Imndrcd farnilies in each. J Populi rnultitudo diligente eultur feecundat $olurn. Boter. 1.8 c. 3. 
t Orffit. 5. Terrffi ubi ove stabulffintur optirna gricolis ob steren, t De re rtmt. 1.2. cap. 1. The soLI 
i hot Lired or exhatted but haa bccome barrethrough out sloth 



/)«mocrhus o g Rende. 51 

fore 70 cities in Epins overthrown by Paulus/Emilius, a goodly province in 
rimes past, now left desolate of good towns and almost inhabitants. 62 ciies 
in !Iacedon]a in Strabo's time. I find 30 in Laconia, but now scarce so many 
villages, saith Gcrbelius. If any man from Motmt Taygetus should view the 
country round about, and see eot delcias, ot vTrbes per Peloponnesum dispersas, 
so many dclicate and brave built cities with such cost and exquisite cunning, 
so neatly set out in lcloponnesus, nhe shodd perccive them now inou and 
overthrown, bmt, waste, desolate, and laid levcl with the ground. Incredlbile 
dictu, &c. And as he laments, Quis talia fando 7"emperet a lachrymis ? Quis 
tare durus atferreus? (s9 he prosecutes it.)* Who is he that can sufficiently 
condole and commiserate these ruins Where are those 4000 cities of Egvpt, 
those 100 cities in Crete? Are thcy now corne to two? What saith 'liny 
and _-ZElian of old Italy ? Thcre were in former ages 1166 cities: Blons 
and lIachiavcl, both grant them now nothing near so populous, and full of 
good towns as in the rime of Augustus (for now Leandcr Albertus eau find 
but 300 st most), and if we may give credit go °Livy, hot then so strong 
and puissant as of old: ". They mustcred 70 Legions in former rimes, which 
now the known world will scarce yield. Alexander built 70 cities in a short 
space for his part, out Sultans and Turks dcmolish twice as many, and leste 
ail desolate, lIany will not believe but that our island of Great ]3ritain is now 
more populous than ever it was; yet let them rend Bede, Leland and othem, 
thev. shull find if most flourished in the Saxton Hepturchy, and in the Conquc- 
ror's rime was far berger inhabitcd than ai this I)sent. Ste that Domesday 
]3ook, and show me those thouands of parises, which are now dccayed, cities 
ruined, villages depopulatcd, &c. The lesser the te'ritory is, commonly, the 
ficher if la. Parvus sedbene cultus ager. As those Athenian, Lacedoemonian, 
_&rcadian, Aelian, Sycionian, lIessenian, &c., commonwealths of Greece muke 
ample proof, as tho imperial cities au(! fie states of Germany may witness, 
those Cantons of Switzers, lheti, Grist er Walloons, Territories of Tuscany, 
Luke and Scnes of old, Piedmont, lIantua, Venice in Italy, l:gusa, 
That prince therefore, as r Boterus adviseth, that will bave a rich country, 
and tkir cities, let him get good trades, privileges, painful inhabitants, arti- 
ficelé, and snflër no rude marrer unwrought, as tin, iron, wool, lead, &c., to ho 
transported out of his comltry,--a thing in part seriously attempted amongag 
us, but hot effected. And becan industry of men, and multitude of trade 
much avails to the ornament and enriching of a kingdom; those ancient Mas 
silians would adroit no man into their city that had hot some trade. Selym 
the first Turkish emperor procured a thousand good artificers go be brought 
from Taurus to Constntinople. The Polanders indend with Henry Duke of 
_&njou, their new chosen king, go bring with him an hundld familles of arti- 
ficers into loland. James the First, in Scotland (as ° Buchanan writes), sent 
for the best argificers he could get in Europe, and gave them great rewards to 
tcach his subjects their several tradea. Edward the Third, our most renowned 
king, to his eternal memory, bronght clothing first into this island, trunsport- 
ing some familles of artificers from Gaunt hither, tIow many goodly cities 
eould I reckon up, that thrive wholly by grade, where thousands of inhabitatts 
|ire singular well by their fingers' ends ! As Florence in Italy by making cloth 
of gold ; great lIilan by silk, and ail curions works ; Arras in Artois by thoso 
fair hangings; many cities in Spain, many ir France, Germany, bave none 
m Hodie urbibua d.eolatar, et magna ex parte lncoli destituitur. Gerbeliu dese. Grteci» lib. 6. aVid©bi 
oe fero omn sut ovgraa sut olo luata sut in rudera foediaaimè dejecta, tlurbeliua. 
l'or tern Ulye lell without a tear. 
• ,ib. 7. Sept-uaglnta ollm leglones acriptoe dicuntur; quas vlre hodle, &c.  Polit. 1.3. c. 8. q For 
dyeing ef clo/hs, and dresaing, &c. g Valet. 1.2. c. L . Hist. Scot. Lib. 10. }lagni proImaitm 
proemiia, ut Scoti ab iia edoccrenttLr. 



2 Democrtus to the Reader. 

other maintenance, especially those within the land. t Mecca in Arabia 
1)etta, stands in a most unfruitful country, that wants water, amongst the 
rocks (as Vertomanus describes if), and yet it is a most elegant and pleasant 
city, by reason of the traffic of the east and west. Ormu. in Persia is a most 
fanmus mart-town, bath nought else bat the opportunity of the haven to make 
if flourish. Corinth, a noble city (Lumeu Groecioe, Tully calls if) the Eye of 
Greece, by reason of Cencllreas and Lccheus those excellent ports, drew 
that traffic of the Ionian and ,ZEgean sens to it; and yet the country about it 
v¢as. cuvva et superciliosa, as u Strabo tcns if, rugged and harsh. We may 
say thc rame of Athens, Actium, Thebcs, Sparta, and most of those towna in 
Greece. lquremberg in Germany is sited in a most barren soil, yet a noble 
imperial city, by the sole indush T of artificers, and cunniug trades, they draw 
tll riches of most countries to them, so expert in manufactures, that as Sallust 
long since gave out of the like, Sedem animce in extremis digltis haben, their 
soul, or intellectus agens, was placed in thcir fingers' end; and so we may say 
¢f Basil, Spire, Cambray, Fmnktort, &c. If is almo.t incredible to speak 
what some write of 5Iexico and the cities a,ljoining to tU, no place in the world 
af their first discovery more popdous,  Iat. Riccius, the Jesuit, and some 
¢Ahers, relate of the industry of the Chinese most populous conntries, not a 
beggar or an idle pemon to be seen, and how by that means they lWosper and 
flourih. We bave the mme means, able bodies, pliant wits, marrer of ail 
.orts, wool, flax, iron, tin, lead, wood, &c., nmny excellent subjects to work 
upon, only industry is wanting. We send our best commodities beyond the 
seas, which tbey make good use of to their necessities, set themselves a work 
about, and sevcrally improve, oending the same to us back at dear rates, or 
dse make toys and baubles of the tails of them, which they sell to us again, 
st as great a rcckoning as the whole. In most of out citics, sone few excepted, 
like YSpanish loiterers, we lire whol]y by tippling-inns and aie-bouses. Ialt- 
ing are their best ploughs, their greatest traffic fo sell ale. "Meteran and 
some others object to us, that we are ao whit so industrious as the Hol- 
lauriers: "5Ianual trades (saith he) which are more curious or troublesome, 
are who]ly exercised by strangers: they dwell in a sea full of fish, but they 
are so idle, they will hot catch so much as shall serve their own turns, but 
buy it of their neighbours." Tush «J£ave liberum, they fish undcr out noses, 
and scll it fo us when they bave donc, af their own prices. 
« Pudet hoec opprobria nobia 
]t dici potuise et non potuiae refelli." 
I am ashamed to hear this objected by strangers and know hOt hooe fo 
answer it. 
Amonst our towns there is only  London that beam the face of a city, 
 JE2fitome JBrilan-nioe, a famous emTorium , second to noue beyoud sens, a noble 
nmrt: but soht crescit, crescentibus alii8; and yet in my slender judgment, 
defective in many things. The test (asome few excepted) are in mean estate, 
rainous most part, poor, and fidl of begga, by reason of their decayed trades, 
neglected or bad policy, idleness of their inhabitants, riot, which had rather 
beg or loiter, and be ready to starve, than worl 
I cannot deny but that something may be said in defence of our cities, "tha 
they are not so fair built, (for the soie magtLificence of this kingdom, concern- 
t .Munst. eosm. 1. 5. e. 7. Agro omninm rernm infoecandissimo, aqu indigente, inter saxeta, urba 
tamen clcgantissima, oh Oricntis ncgotiationes et Occidentis.  Lib. 8. Geogr : ob asperum itum. 
z Lib. Edit. à Kic. Tregant. Belg. A. 1616. exleàit, in smas. rUbi nobiles probi loco habent 
m'tcm aliquam profi/cri. Cleonard. ep. 1.1. • Lib. 13. Bc]g. Hist. non tare laboriosi ut Beigne, 
liispani ofiatores vitam ut plurimum otiosam agentcs; artes manuariæ quœe plurimum habcnt in se labori 
et diflicultatis, majoremq; requirunt industri,.m a pere¢winis et exteris excrcentnr; habitant in picosiasimo 
mari, interea tantum non piscantur quantum insuloe 5uffecerit, sed à vicinis emere cogv.atur, • Grotil 
Liber.  Urbs animis numeroque potens, et robore gentis. Scaliger. * Camden. d York, Bristow, 
vt icll Wol'cc»'.r, &c. • M. Gainsford's Argument. B'.cau e gentlemen dwell with us in thc cotlatry 



Democritus fo thv Reacr. 53 

ing buildings, hath been of old in those Normxn castles anà religious houses,) 
so rich, thick ited, populous, as in some other countries; bcsides the reasona 
Cardan gives, Subtil. Z/b. 11. we want wine and oil, their two harvests, we 
dwell in a colder air, and for that cause must a little m»re liberally ffeed of 
flesh, as all northern countries do: out provisions will hot therefore extend to 
the maintenance of so many; ye notwithstanding we bave marrer of all sorts, 
an open sea for traffic, as well as the test, goodly haveus. And how tan we 
excuse our negligence, our flot, drunkinness, &c., and such enormities that 
follow if? We bave excellent laws enacted, you will say, severe statures, 
bouses of correctiin, &c., to small purpose it seems; it is not bouses wil[ 
serve, but cities of correction;  our trades generally ought fo be reformed» 
wants supplied. In other countries they bave the saine grievances, I confess, 
but that doth not excuse us, h vants, defects, enormities, idle drones, tumults, 
discords, contention, law-suits, many -laws ruade agoEinst them to repress those 
innumerable hrawls and lav-suits, excess in apparel, diet, decay of tillage, 
depopulation* especially aguinst rogues, beggars Egyptian vagabonds (so 
termed ai leat) which bave swarmed all over Gcrmany, France, Italy, 1)oland, 
as you may rend in ]Iunster, Cranzius, and Aventinus; as those Tartars and 
rabians af this day do in the easte countries: yet such bas been the 
iniquity if all ages, as it scems fo small purpose. Ne»w i nostrâ civitat 
mendicus esto, saith Plato: he will bave them purged fim a  commonwealth» 
 "as a bad humour from the body," that are like so many ulcers and boils, 
and must be cured before the melaucholy body can be eased. 
Vhat Carolus Magnus, the Chinese, the Spaniards, the Duke of Saxony, 
and many othcr states have decreed in this case, read A rniseus, cap. 19 ; 
JBoterus, libro 8, cap. 2 ; Osarius de Rebz gest. JEman. lib. 11. When a countr) 
is overstocked with people, as a pasture is oft overlaid with cattle, they had 
'ont in former rimes to disbm'den themselves, by scnding out colonies, or by 
wars, as those old Romans; or by employing them at home about some public 
buildings, as bridges, road-ways, for which those omans were çaanous in this 
iland ; as Augustus Coesar did in lome, the Spaniards in their Indian mine.% 
as at 1)otosi in 1)eru, where some 30,000 men are still af work, 6000 furnaces 
ever boiling, &c. ° aqueducts, bridges, havens, taose tupend works of Trajan, 
Claudius, ai ° Ostium, Dioclesiaui Therma, Fucinus Lacus, that Piroeum in 
Atheus, ruade by Themistocles, amphithcatrums of curio as marble, as at Verona, 
Çivi "ts lhiliipi, and Hcraclea in Thrace, those Appian and F]aminian ways, 
prodigious works all may witness; and rather thau they should bc » idle, as 
those «Egyptian Pharaohs, hIaris, and Sesostris did, fo task their subjects to 
build unnecessary pyramids, obclisks, labyrinths, clmnnels, lakes, gigautie. 
works al], to divert them ïrom rebellion, riot, drunkenne$%  Quo scilice$ 
aladur., e$ ne v«gando laborare desuescant. 
Another eye-sore is that waat of couduct and navigable rivers, a grca 
blemish as "Boterus, Hippolitus a Collibus, and other politicians hold, ff it bo 

villages our citles are less, ta nothing to the purpose; put three hundred or four huudred villages in a ahire 
and evcry village yield s gentieman, what is four huudred families fo increase one of out cities, or to con- 
tend with theirs, which stand thicker t And whereas ours usually cousist of scven thouaaud theirs consiat 
of fortv thousand inhabitants. Maxima pars victSs in carne consistit. Polyd. Lib. 1. Hist. s Refroe- 
nate rono o|ii licentiam, pauciores alantm" otio redintcgrctur agcolatio, lanificium instauretlr, ut 
p , 
honetum negotium quo e exerceat otioa illa turba, lgisi hi malis medentul; frustra exercent justRiam. 
h,r. Utop. Lib. I.  Mancipiis locuples eget oeris Cappadocum tex. Hor. * Regis dignitatis non 
exevcere imperium In mendico sed in opulento. Non est regni dectta, ed carceris ese cttsto. Idem. 
t Colluvica hominttm nlirabilca excocti solo, immundi vestes foetti vi8u, furti lmprimis acces, &c.  Cos- 
mog. iib. 3. cap. 5. f "Let no one in out city be a beggar."  Seneca. Baud minus turpia principi 
m Ac ituttam et bilera a corpore (11 de Iegg ) mnes vu|t 
rouira 8upplic;a, quàm medico multa tuners. P . - 
exterminarL  Sec Lipsitta Admiranda. « De quo huer. in Claudio, et P|imus, c. 36 p Ut egestati 
imul et ignavl- occurratur, opificia condiscantur, tcnues ubleventur Bodin. 1 6. ¢. 2. hum. 6, 7. 
q AmasIs 7'gypti rex legem promuigavit, ut otaries subditi quotanni rationem redderent unde viverent, 
• Buscoldus discurau polit, cap. 2. "whereby they are supported, and do hot become vagrants by being lcsa 
accustomed to labom'." • Lib. 1. de increnl. Urb. cap. 6. t Cap. 5. de itcrem, ur. tuas flumcn, lactt 
aa max allait. 



 Demoeu o I Rewer. 

neglected in a commonwealth. Admirable cost and charge is bcstowed in the 
Low-countries on this behalf, in the duchy of Milanæ territory of Padua, in 
 France, Italy, China, and so likewise about corrivations of water fo moisten 
and refresh barren grounds, fo drain fcns bogs, and moors. Massiniss ruade 
many inward parts of Barbary and Numidia in Africa, before his rime incult 
and horrid, fruitful and bartable by this meaTLs. Gl'et industry is generally 
used all over the eatern countries in this klnd, especially in Egypt, about 
tabylon and Damascus, as Vcrtomanmls and "Gotardus Arthus relate; about 
]Barcelona, Segovia, Murcia, and many other places of Spain, ]Iilan in Italy ; 
by reason of which their soli is much impovcrished, and infini te commodities 
arise to the inhabitants. 
The Turks of late attempted to eut that Isthmus betwixt Africa nd Asia, 
which • Sesostris and Darius, and some Pharaohs of Egypt had formerly 
undertaken, but with iii success, as • DiodorL[s Siculus records, and Pliny, for 
that Red-sea being three • cubits higher than Egypt, would havc drowned all 
the country, coept,) destiterant, they left off; yet as the saine Diodorus writes, 
Ptolemy renewed the work many years aftcr, and absolçed it n a more oppor- 
tune plaoE 
That Isthmus of Corinth was li:wise undertalen fo be ruade navigable by 
Demetrim, by Julius Coesar, N,. "o, Domitin, Hcrodes Atticus, to ma]ce a 
speedy °passage, and less dangcr,, from the Ionian and 2Ejen sens; but 
because it could hot be so well aflbc 'd, thePcloponnesians built a wall like out 
Picts' wa|l about Schœemxte, where iNeptune's temple stood, aud in the shortest 
eut over the Isthmus, of whch Diodorus, lib. 11. Herodotus, lib. 8. Vran. Out 
latter writers call it Hexamilium, which Amurath the Turk demolished, the 
Venetians anno 1453, repaired in 15 days with 30,000 mon. Some, saith 
Acosta would bave a passage eut from Panama fo Nombre de Dios in 
America; but Thuanus and Serres the French historians speak of a ramons 
aqueduct h France, intended in Henry the Fourth's rime, from the Loire to 
the Seine, and from Phodanus fo th Loir.. rhc like fo which was formerly 
assayed by Domitian the emperor, « from Arar to ±Ioselle, which Cornelius 
Tacitus speaks of in the 13th of his nnals, afer by Charlcs thc Great and 
others, l[uch cost hath in former rimes beeu bestowed iu either new making 
or mending channe|s of rivers, and their passages, (as AUl'clianus did by Tiber 
to make it avi_able fo Rome, to convey corn from Egypt to the city, vadun 
alvei tu»oenls .]odi$ saith Vopiscus, e Tiberis 'ipas extruit, ho eut fords 
ruade banks, &c.) decayed havens, which Claudius the cmpcror, wth nfinite 
pains and charges attempted at O.tia, as I bave said, the Venetiaus at this 
day to preserve their city ; many ëxccllent means to enrich thcir territories, 
havc ben fostered, invented in most provinccs of Europe, as planting some 
lndmn pL«ts amongst us, silk-worms, the very mulberry leaves n the plains 
of Gran.'tda yield 30,000 crowns per annum to thc king of Spain's coffcrs, 
besides those mauy trades and artitlcers thtt arc busied about them in the 
kingdom of Granada, Iurcia, and ail over Spath. Iu Fnce a great beuefit 
is raised by sait, &c., whcther thcse things might hot be as happily attempted 
with us, and wth lJke success, it may be controverted silk-worms (I menu), 
viaes, tir trecs, &c. Cm'dan exhorts Edward the Sixth to plant olives, and is 

• InczelbLlem eommolittem, vecteur merctvn t¢ fluvli nigab, &e. oLe e Gall = er 
dot. y lnd. Oent. cap. 2. Rotam In medio flumine constitut, l ex peHib anlmum nsut 
uter sppendt, bi dura rots movet, square p cgnal» &c. a Cent ped lata fo 30. ara. 
• Cona to that of chlmed who holds e supcl of aH water even. b Lib. 1. cap. 3. 
• Dion. Pani et Nie. OErbeli. Mster. Co. Lib. 4. p. 36. Ut breor foretnav¢tio et minu 
erlculoss.  Chart the Grt nt about  me a chnel om the Rhe to tht Dx be. fl. Pir- 
imer dript. Ger. e  are yet seen about Wnbg om Rednich to Almul. 't nsvigabili 
Intoe se Ooeidt et Septentrio Httora erent. • ag OEo. e de re 9. 
b. L drtbit. 



fillly persuaded they would prosper in this island. With us, navigable rivers 
are most part neglected; our streams are hot great, I confess, by rea.soa ofthe 
narrowness of the island, yet they run smoothly and even, hot headlong, swifg, 
or amongst rocks and shelves, as foaraing l%hodanus and Loire in France, 
Tigris in Mesopotamia, violent Durius in Spain, with cataracts and whirl- 
pools, as the Ihine, and Danubius, about Shaffausen, Lausenburgh, Linz, and 
Cremmes, to endanger navigators; or broad shallow, as lqeckar in the lala- 
tinate, Tibris in Italy; but calm and fuir as Arar in France, tIebrus in Mace- 
donia, Eurotas in Laconia, they gently glide along, and might as well bo 
repaired many of them (I mean Wye, Trent, Ouse, Thamisis af Oxford, tho 
defect of which we feel in the mean rime) as the Iiver of Lee froln Ware fo 
London. B. Atwater of old, or as some will ttenry I., ¢made a channel from 
Trent to Lincoln, naviable; which now, saith Mr. Oamden, is decayed, and 
much raention is ruade of anchors, and such like monuments found about old 
 Verulamiura, good ships bave formerly corae to Exeter, and many such places, 
whose channels, havens, port are now barred and rejected. We contcmn this 
benefiç of carriage by waters, and are thercfore compelled in the inner parts of 
this island, because portage is so dear, fo eut up our commodities ourselves, 
and lire like so many boars in a sty, for want of vent and utterance. 
We bave many excellent havens, royal havens, Falmouth, lortsmouth, ]Iil- 
lord, &c. equivalent if hot fo be preferred fo that Indian ttavanna, old Ban- 
dusium in Ita]y, Aulis in Greece, Ambracia in Acarnin, Suda in Crete, which 
bave few ships in thcm, little or no traffic or trade, which bave scarce a village 
on them, able to bear great cities, sed viderint polilici. I could here justly tax 
many other negleets» abuses, en'ors, defects amont us, and in other countries, 
depopulations, riot, drunkenness, &c. and many such, quce unc in aurore 
susurrare on liber. But I must take heed, e quid gravius dica» b that I do 
hot overshoot myself, Sus xlIinervam, I ara forth of my element, as you perad- 
vcnture suppose; and sometimes veritas odium parit, as ho said, "ver:] uice and 
oat.meal is good for a parrot." For as Lucian said of an historian, I say of a 
politician. ]_[e that will freely speak and write, raust be for over no subject, 
under no prince or law, but lay out the matter truly as if is, hot caring whag 
any can, mill, like or dislike. 
We bave good laws, I deny hOt, fo rectify such enormities, and so in ail 
other countries, but if scems hot always to good purpo. We had need of 
some general visitor in our age, tha should reform what is amiss; a jusg 
army of I¢osie-crosse men, for they will amend all mattcrs (they say), religion, 
policy, manners, with arts, sciences, &c. Another Attila, Tamerlane, Herculos, 
to strive with Achelous, Augece stabulum pro'gag'e, to subdue tyrants, as he 
did Dioraedes and Busil'is: to expel thieves, as ho did Cac.us and Lacinius: 
fo vindicate poor captives, as ho did ttesione: fo pass the torrid zone, tho 
deserks of Lybia, and purge the world of monsters and Centatrs: or another 
Theban (]rates to reform our manners, to compose quan'els and controversics, 
as in his rime ho did, and ,vas therefore adored for a god in Athens. "As 
ttercules  purged the world of monsters, and subdued them, so did ho fight 
against envy, lust, anger, avat-ice, &c. and all those feral vices and monsters of 
the mind." It were fo be wished we had some such visitor, or if wishing 
would serve, one had uch a tng or rings, as Timolaus desired in Lucian, by 
virtue of which ho should be as strong as 10,000 men, or ara army of giants, 
go invisible, open gares and castle doors, have what treasure ho would, trans- 

tCamden in Llncoln«hire. Fossedike. * Near S. Alba, « which must hOt now be whlspered In 
the ear." • Lisiu tlirald. 1Nat. cornes. I ,puleiu, lib. 4. Flor. Lar. familiaris Inter hominee oetatiS 
suoe cultue eet, litium omniurn et Jurgiorum Inter propinquos arbiter et disceptator. Adversus iracundiamz 
invidiam, avaritiam, libidinem, ceteraq; an|mi humani vitia et monetra plfiloeol3hu Lte Herculea fttit- 
Peat ea* mentibua exegit onme &c. t Voti navig 



6 

De,noeritua o tle Res/Jet. 

port himself in an instant fo what place he desired, alter aff, et;ons, cure all 
manncr of diseases, that he might range over the world, and reform ail dis- 
tressed states and persous, as he would himself. He might reduce those 
wandering Tartars in order, that infest China on the one side, Iuscovy, Poland, 
on the other; and tame the vagabond Arabians that rob and spoil those eastern 
«,untries, that they should never use more caravans, or janizaries to conduct 
them. He might roof out barbarism out of Ameriea, and fully discover Terra 
Australis Incoçnlta, find out the north-east and north-west passages, drain 
those mightyMoeotian fens, eut down thosc vas Hircinian woods, irrigate those 
barren Arabian deserts, &c. cure us of out epidemical diseases, scorbutum, 
1,1ica, morbus 2Veapolitanus, &c. end all out idle eontroçersies, eut off our tumul- 
tuous desires, inordinate lusts, root out atheism, impiety, heresy, schism, and 
superstition, which now so crucify the world, catechise gross ignorance, purgo 
Italy of luxm T and flot, Spain of superstition and jealousy, Germany of drunk- 
enness, all ota- northern country of gluttony and intemperanee, castigate out 
hard-hea»tcd parcnt masters, tutors; lash disobedient children, negligent 
ser'ants, correct these spendthrifts and prodigal sons, enforce idle persons to 
work, drive drunkards offthe alehouse, repress thieves, riait corrupt and tyran- 
niziug magistrates, &c. But as L. Licinius taxe,1 Timolans, you may u 
The are vain, absurd and ridiculous wishes not tobe hoped : ail must be as 
itis, Bocchalinus may cite commonwealths to come before Apollo, sud seek 
to reform the world itself by commissioners, but there is no remedy, if may 
hot be redressed, dsbent homines tutu demum stultescere quando esse desinent, 
so long as they can wag their beards, they will play the knavea and fooLs. 
]ecause, thcrefore, itis a thing so difficult, impossible, and far beyond Her- 
cules' labom tobe performcd; let them be rude, stupid, ignorant, incult, lapi. 
super lapidera oe(]zat, and as the 'apologist will, 'esp. tussi, e graveolenti.t 
l,tbore, tundus vitio, lct them be barbarous as they are, let them "tyrannize, 
cpicurize, oppre, luxuriate, consume thcmselvcs with iictions, snperstitions, 
l.wsuits, wars and contentions, lie in flot, poverty, want, miry; rebel, 
wallow as so many swine in their own dung, with Ulysses' companions, stultos 
.tbeo esse libenter. I will yet, to satisfy and please myself, make an Utopia 
of mine own, a new Atlantis, a poetical commonweMth of mine own, in which 
 will freely domineer, build cities, make laws, statute¢ as I list myself. And 
'hy may I hot?--* Pictoribus arque poetis, &c. You know what liberty 
poet ever had, and besides, my predecessor Democritus was a politician, a 
recorder of Abdera, a law maker as some say; and why may hot I presume so 
nmch as he did? Howsoever I will adventure. For the site, if you will 
needs urge me toit, I ara hot fully resolved, it may be in Terra Aust'ali 
Incognita, thcre is room enough (for of my knowledge neither that hungry 
Spaniard,+ nor hlercurius Britannicus, bave yet discovered half of if) or else 
oue of tho floating islands in ]Iare del Zut, which like the Cyanian isles in 
the Euxine ses, altcr their place, and are accessible only at set rimes, and to 
some few peons; or one of the Fortunate isles, for who kuows yet where, or 
which they are? there is room enough in the iuner parts of America, and 
northern coasts of A«ia But I will choose a site, whose latitude shall be 45 
dcgrees (I respect hot minutes) in the midst of the temperate zone, or perhaps 
under the equator, that :paradi of the world, ubi semper vi'ens laurus, &c. 
where is a perpetual spring: the longitude for some reasons I will conceal. 
ct "b¢ if knowa to al men by these presents," that ff any honest gentle- 
man will send in so much money, as Cm'dan allows an astrologer for casting 
a nativity, he shall be a sharer, I will acquaint him with my project, or ff any 

 Raggna]ios, part 2, cap. 2, et part 3, ¢. 1¥. Velent. Andreoe Apolog. manlp. 604.  Qui 
ordidus est ordescat adhuo. * Hor. "" Ferdlnsndo Quir. 1612.  Vide Acosta et Lalet. 



Dcrwcrus o Ute Read¢r. 7 

worthy man will stand for any temporal or spiritual office or dignity, (for as 
he said of his archbishopric of Utopia, 'sis anctus ambi2u, and hot amiss to 
be sought after,)it shall be freely given without ail iutBre2ions, bribes, 
lestera, &c. his own worth shall be the best spokesman; and because we shall 
admis of no deputies or advowsons, if he be suflïciently qualified, and as ablo 
as willing to execute the place himself, he slmll have prescrit possession. If 
shall be divided into 12 or 13 provinces, and those by hills, rivers, road-ways, 
or some more eminent limits exactly boundecl. Each province shall bave  
metropolis, which shall be so placed as a centre almost in a circumference, and 
the rest at equal distances, some 12 Italian mlles asuader, or thereabout, and 
in them shall be sold all things necessary for the use of man ; statis ho,ris et 
d/ebus, no market towns, markets or fiixs, for they do but beggar cities (no 
village shall stand above 6, 7, or 8 mlles from a city) except those emporiums 
which are by the sea side, general staples, marts, as Antwerp, Venice, Bergen 
oî old, London, &c. cities most parç shall be situated upon navigable rivers or 
lakes, creeks, havens; and for their form, regular, round, square, or long square, 
m with fair, broad, and straight n streets, bouses uniform, built of brick and stone, 
like ]3ruges, Brussels, lZhegium Lepidi, Berne in Switzerland, hIilan, Mantua, 
Crema, Cambalu in Tartary, described by ]X[. Polus, or that Venetian palma. I 
will admis very few or no suburbs, and those of baser building, walls only to keep 
out man and horse, except it be in some frontier towns, or by the sea side, and 
those to be fortified °afçcr the latest manner of fortification, and situated upon 
convenient havens, or opportune places. In every so built city, I will have 
convcnient churches, and separate places to bury the dead in, nos in church- 
yards; a c.itadella (in some, nos all) to comluaud i, prisons for offenders, oppor- 
tune market places of ail sorts, for corn, meat, cattle, fuel, fi.sh, commodious 
courts of justice, public halls for ail socicties, bourses, meeting places, armouries, 
tin which shall be kept engines tbr quenching of tire, artillery gardens, publie 
walks, theatres, and spacious fields allotted for ail gyranastic sports, and honest 
recreations, hospitals of all kinds, for children, orphans, old folks, sick men, 
mad men, soldiex, post bouses, &c. hot built lreeari5, or by gouty benefactors, 
v¢ho, when by fraud and rapine they bave extorted all their lires, oppressed 
xvhole provinces, societies, &c. give something to pious uses, build a satistctory 
alms-house, school or bridge, &c. aS their last end or before perhaps, which is 
no othervise than to steal a goose, and stick down a feather, rob a thousand 
to relieve ten; and those hospitals so built and maintained, hot by collections, 
benevolences, donaries, for a set number, (as in ours,) jut so many and no 
more at such a rate, but for all those who stand in need, be they more or less, 
and that e 1oublico eerario, and so still maintaied, wn nobis solùm nati 
sumus, &c. I will have conduits of sweet and good water, aptly disposed in 
each town, common «granaries, as aS Dresden in h.[isnia, Stetein in Pomer- 
land, lqoremberg, &c. Colleges of mathematicans, musicians, and actors, as 
of old at Labedum in Ionia, "alchymists, physicians, artists, and philosophers : 
that ail arts and sciences may sooner be perfected and better learned and 
public historiographers, as amongst those ancient 'Persians, qu-i 6t commen- 
tarios 'eferebant ques remoratu digna gerebantur, informed and appointed by 
the state to register all famous acts, and nos by each insufficient scribbler, 
partial or parasitical pedant, as in out rimes. I ,viii provide public schools of 
ail kinds, singing, dancing, fencing, &c. especially of grammar and languages, 
hot tobe taught by those tedious precepts ordinaa-ily used, but by use, example, 

m Vide Patritlum, llb. 8. tir. 10. de lnstit Relpub. • Sic olim Hlppodamu M]leslu Arist. polit, cap. 
11. et Vitruvius I. I. c. ult. e With walls of earth, &c.  De his Plin. epist. 42. lib. 2. et Tactt. 
Annal. 13. lib. q Vide Brisonlum de regno Perse lib. 3. de his et Vegetium, lib. 2. cap. 3. de Aunona. 
t Not to mske gold, but for matters of physic, • Broenius Josephus, lib. 2I. antlquit. Jud. cap. 6. 
leod, tib. 3. 



8 

Democrtus to the l"2eader. 

conversation, t as travellet learn abroad, and nurses teach their chihlren: as 
I will haro all such places, so will I ordain Dpublic governors, fit ofccrs to 
each place, treasurers, oediles, questors, overseers of impils, vidows' goods, 
and all public houses, &c. and those once a year to make strict accounts of all 
rcceipts, expenses, to avoid confusion, e /cfie u non absumant (as Pliny to 
Trajan,) quodpudeat dieere. They shall be subordinate to those higher ofcers 
and governors of each city, which shall hot be poor tradesmen, and mean 
artificers, but noblemen and gentlemen, vhich shall be tied to residence in 
those towns they dwell ncxt, at such set aimes and seasons: for I see no 
reaon (which z]:[ippolitus complains o£) « that if should be more dishonour- 
able for noblemcn fo govern the city than the country, or unseemly to dwell 
there now, than of old." ai will have no bogs, fens, marshes, vast woods, 
deserts, heaths, commons, but all inclosed; (yet hot depopulated, und there- 
fore take heed you mistake me hot) for that which is common, and every 
man's, is no man's; the richest countries are still inclosed, as Essex, Kent, 
with us, &c Spain, Italy; and where inclosms are least in qnantity, they are 
best "husbandcd, as about Florence in Italy, Damscus in Syria, &c. which 
are liker gardens than fields. I will hot bave a barren acre in all my teTi- 
tories, hot so much as the tops of mountains: where nature fails, if shall be 
supplied by art: lakcs and rivers shall hot be left desolate. Ail common 
highways, bridges, banks, corrivations of waters, aqueducts, channels, public 
vorks, building, &c. out of a bcommon stock, curiously maintained and kept 
in repah- ; no depopulations, engrosslngs, alterations of wood, arable, but by the 
consent of some supervisors that shall be appointed for that purpose, to see 
what reformation ought to be had in all places, what is amis, how to heIp it, 
et quid queeque ferat regio, et quid queeque recuset, what ground is aptest for 
wood, vhat for eorn, what for cattle, gardens, orehards, fishponds, &e. vith a 
charitable division in every village, (hot one domineering hou greedily to 
swallow up ail, vhieh is too eommon 'ith us) vhat tbr lords, "what for 
tenants; and beeause they shall be better eneouraged to ilnprove sueh lands 
they hold, manlu, plant trees, drain, fenee, &e., they shall bave long leases, a 
known rent, and known fine to free them from those intolerable exaetions of 
tyrannizing "laudlords. These supervisors shall likewise appoint what quantity 
of land in eaeh manor £s fit for the lord's demesnes, «what for holding of 
tenants, how it ought to be husbanded, ut °magnetlsequis, Minyoe gens cognitct 
'emls, how to be mannrd, tilled, reetified, *hic se(le.tes venlunt, illie fodicigts 
uvee, arborei fvetus alibi, arque injussa virescunt Gramina, and what proportion 
is fit for alI callings, because private professors are many times idiots, iii 
husbands, oppressors, covetous, and know hOt how to improve their own, or 
else vholly respect their own, and hot public good. 
Utopian parity is a "kind of govcrnmcnt, to be vihed fr, «rather than 
effected, Respub. Chrlslianopolitana, Campanella's city of the Snn, and that 
new Atlantis, vitty fichons, but mere chimeras and Plato's community in many 

tSo Lod. Vives thinks best, Con]meus, and others.  Plato 3. de legg. 'ffdiles crearl rult, qui fors, fontes 
vias, portua, plateas, et id genus alia procurent. Vide Isaacun] POntanum de cie. An]stcl. hoec omnia &co 
Gotardum et alios, ffi De lncren], urb. cap. 13. Ingenuè fateor me non intclligere cur iffnobilius sit 
bene n]unita colere unc quàm olim, aut casoe rustic. prœeee quàn] urbi. Iden] Ubertus Foliot., de NeapolL 
 Ne tantillum quiden] soli incultun] relinquitur, u verun] sit ne pollicen] quiden] agri in his regionibu steriiera 
tut infoecundura reperirL larcu Hemingius Augnstanu de reg'no Chinoe, 1.1. ¢. 3. • M. Carew, tt 
survey of Cornwall, saith that before that country wa inclosed, the husbandn]en drauk water, did eat littl 
or no bread, fol. 66. lib. 1. their apparel was coarse, they weut bare-legged, their dweliing w& correspond. 
ent; but s|nce Inclsure, they lire decently, and bave n]o.ney to sp.eïd. (fo.l. 23); wheu their fields wer 
con]n]on, their wool was coare, Cornish halr; but since lnclosure, zz  aimost as good as Cotawol, 
tbeir soil n]ach n]ended. Tusser, cap. 52. of his husbandry, !s of l_ris opinion, one acre inclosed, la worth 
three con]mon. The country inclosed I pralse; the other.dehghteth hot nie, for nothing of wealth it doth 
raise, &c • Incredibilis navigiorum copis, nihilo paucores in aquia, quan] in continenti comn]oranturo 
M. Ricceus expedit, in Sinaa, !. I. c. 3. b To this purpose, Ar-t. dpolit. 2, e. 6. allows & third part of 
tbeir revenues, Hippodan]us ha]f. • It iex Agraria olim Ron]oe. Hic segctcs, illic veniun t foelicitm 
uv, Arborel foetus alibi, atq; tnjusa virecunt Gran]int. Virg. I. Georg. ® Lucanus» I. 6. * 
«Jol. Valent. Andrcoa Lord Verulam. 



things is impious, absurd and ridiculous, if takes away sll splcndour and mat« 
nificence. I will bave sevcral orders, degrees of nobility, and those hereditary, 
hot rejecting younger brothers in the mean rime, for they shall be sufficiently 
provided for by pensions, or so qualified, brought up in some honest calling, 
they shall be able to live of themselves. I will have such a proportion of 
ground belonging to cvet T barony, ho that buys tho land shall buy tho 
barony, he that by riot consume8 his patrimony, and ancient demesnes, shall 
forfeit his honours. As some dignities shall be hereditary, so some again by 
election, or by gift (besicles free offices, pensions, anmiities,) like our bishop- 
rics, prebends, tho Basso's palaces in Turkey, the hprocurator's hotses and 
offices in Venice, which, like the golden apple, shall be given to the worthiest, 
and best deserving both in war and peace, as a reward of thcir worth and good 
ervice, as so many goals for all to aire ai, (]wnos alit arts) and encourage- 
ments fo others. For [ liage these severe, unnatural, harsh, German, French, 
and Venetian decles, which exclude plebeians ri'oto honours, be they never so 
wise, rich, virtuous, valiant, aud well qualified, they must hot be patricians, 
but keep their own tank, this is n«turoe be[[um inferre, odious to God and men, 
I abhor it. lIy fore of government shall be monarchical. 
*  "nunquam libertas gratior extat» 
Qttam sub Rege pie:" &c. 
]Few laws, but those severely kept, plainly put down, and in the mother tonale, 
that every man may understand. Every city shall bave a peculiar trade or 
privilege, by which it shall be chiefly maintained : and parents shall teach their 
children one of three ai least, bring up and instruct them in the mysteries 
of their own trade. In each town these several tradesmen shall be so aptly 
disposed, as they shall free the rest ri'oto danger or offence: fire-trades, as 
smiths, forge-men, brewers, bakcrs, metal-men, &c., shall dwell al»ait by them- 
selves: dyers, tannei.% felmongers, and such as use 'ater in coavenient places 
by themselves: noisome or fulsome fr bad smells, as butchers' slaughter- 
bouses, chandlers, curriers, in remote places, and some back laues. Frater- 
nities and companies, I approve of, as merchants' bourses, colleg of druggists, 
l»hysicians, musicians, &c., but ail trades to be rated in the gale of wares, as 
our clerks of the market do bakers and brewers; corn itself, what scarcity 
soever shall corne, hot to exceed such a price. Of such wares as are trans- 
ported or brought in, if they be necessary, commodious, and such as nearly 
eoncrn man's life, as corn, wood, coal, &c., and such provision we cannot 
vant, I will have little or no custom paid, no taxes; but for such things as are 
for pleasure, delight, or ornament, as wine, spice, tobacco, silk, velvet, cloth of 
gold, lace, jewels, &c., a greater imposL I will have certain ships sent out for 
new diseoveries every year, and some direet men appointed to travel into all 
neighbouring kingdoms by land, which- shall observe what mificial inventions 
and good laws are in other countries, customs, alterations, or aught else, 
eoncerning war or peace, vhich may tend fo the common good. Ecclesiastical 
discipline, pertes Episcopos, subordinate as the other. No impropriations, no lay 
patrons of church livings, or one private man, but common societies, eoi'pora- 
tions, &c., and those rectors of benefices to be chosen out of the Universities, 
examined and approved, as the literati in China. No parish to contain abovo 
a thousand mtditors. If it were possible, I would have such priests as should 

• Se la |t in the kingdom of lq'aples and France. h Sec Contarent and Osorlus de rebus ge•ris Ema- 
uel. * Claudian 1.7. "Liberty never is more gratifying than under a pieu• king.  z Herodotus 
Erato lib. 6. Cum Egyptiis Lacedemonli in hec congruunt, quod eorum prtecones, tibicines, coqul, et reliqul 
artifices, in paterne artiflcio snccedunt, et coquus à coque gignitur, et paterne opere perseverat. Idem 
14arcus Polus de Qulnzay. Idem Osorius de Emannele rege Litano. Riccius de Sini•. • nippoL , 
collibus de increm, urb. c. 20. Plate idem 7. de legibus, quoe ad vitam nece.aria, et quibus carere non 
po•autans, nnllum dependi vectigat, &c. l Plate 12 de leglbus, t0 mmes haros vult» ut ni quld memorabfl« 
videreat elud oxteroç hoc llsum in remlmb, reciliatur. 



0 Democritua o ll eader. 

imitate Christ, charitable lawyers should love their neighbours as themselves, 
temperate and modest physicians, politicians contemn the world, philosophet 
should know themselves, noblcmen lire honestly, tradesmen leave lying and 
cozening, magistrates, conaption, &c., but this is impossible, I must get such 
as I may. I xvill therefore bave roof lawyers, judges, advocates, physiciaus, 
chirurgeous, &c., a set number, "and every man, if it be possible, fo plead his 
own cause, fo tcll that tale fo the judge which he doth to his advocate, as at 
ez in Africa, Bantam, Aleppo, Iagusa, sucre quisque c«usam dicte teetur. 
ïhose advoctes, chirurgeons, and *physicians, which are allowed to be main- 
tained out of the Pcommon treasury, no fees to be given or taken upon pain of 
losing their places; or iï thcy do, very small fees, and when the «cause is fully 
nded. "fie that sues any man shall put in a pledge, which if it be proved ho 
bath wrongfully sued his adversary, rashly or ma]iciously, he shall forfeit, and 
lose. Or else before any suit begin, the plaintiff shall have his complaint 
approved by a set delegacy to that puR-pose ; if it be of moment he shall be 
suffered as before, to proceed, if otherwise, they shall dctermh, e it. Ail causes 
shall be pleaded sup]oresso nomine, the parties' names concealed, if some circum- 
stances do not otherwise rcquire. Judges and other ooEcers shall be aptly 
disposed in each province, villages, cities, as common arbitrators to hear causes, 
w,.d end all controversics, and those not single, but three st least on the bench 
at once, to determine or give sentence, and those again fo sit by turns or lots, 
and hot to continue still in the saine ooEce. Io controversy to depend above a 
year, but without all delays and further appeals to be speedily dispatched, and 
finally concluded in that rime allotted. These and all other infcrior magis- 
trates to be chosen as the llterati in China, or by those exact suffrages of the 
*Venetians, and such again not to be eligib|e, or capable of magistracies, 
]mnours, ooEces, except they be snoEciently "qualified for learning, manners, and 
that by the strict approbation of reputed examiners: *first scholars to take 
place, then soldiers ; for I ara of Vigetius his opinion, a scho]ar deserves better 
than a soldier, because Uius cetttis sm,t quæ fortiter j£unt, çut çero pro 
utilitate ]?eiTub. crlbuntur, œeterna: a soldier's work lass ibr an age, a 
scholat:s for ever. If they misbehave themselves, they shall be deposed, and 
accordingly punished, and whether their offices be annual "or otherwise, once a 
year they shall be called in question, and give an account; for men are partial 
and passionate, merciless, covetous, corrul,t , subject to love, hate, fear, favour, 
&c., omne sub regno graviore regnum: like Solon' Areopagites, or those Roman 
Ccnsors, some shall visit others, and ° be visited iw/cem themselves,  they shall 
oversec that no prowling officer, under colour of authority, shall iusult over his 
inferiors, as so many wild beasts, oppress, domineer, flea, grind, or trample on, 
bc partial or corrupt, but that thcre be eequabilejus, justice equally done, lire 
as ïriends and brethren together; and which ¢Sesellius would bave and so much 
desires in his "lingdom of 'rance, "a diapason and sweet harmony of kings» 

m Simleras in Helvefia. "Utopienses causidicos excludunt, qui causa.s callide et vafre tractent et 
isptttent. Iniqttissimttm censtmt homiuem ullts ob[i«rilegibu% qu ttt nuerosiores mt, quàm tperlegl 
qucant, sut obscuriores quàm ut à quovis possint intelligi. Volunt ut suam quisqne causam agat, eanq; 
referat Judici quam narraturus fuerat patrono; $ic rninus erit ambag'urn, et veritaa facilius elicietur. Mor. 
Utop. ]. 2. o Medici ex publico victum sumunt. Boter. 1. I. c. 5. de gyptiis. p De hia le.ge Ptrit. 
]. 3. fit. 8. de relp. In$tit. « Nibii à clientibus patroni ecipiant, priusquam Ils finiin est. Barcl. Argen. 
lib. 3. • It is so in mosi kee cries in Germany. • Mt. Riccins exped, in Sinaa, 1. l. c. 5. de examio 
vatione electionum copivêè sgit, &c. Contar. de repub. Venet. 1.1. o Oser. l. 1]. de reb. gest. 
I.man. Qui in literis maxinos progreasus feceriftt maximis honoribns afltciuntur, secundns honoria gradn| 
nilitibus asaig,atur, postremi ordinis mecbanici, doctorum hominum Judiciia in altiorem locum qulstl; 
proefertur, et qui a pinrimis approbatur, ampliores in rep. dignitates conseqnitur. Qui in hoc examine 
primaa habet inigni per totam vitm digitate inignitr, marchioni sml, at dnci apnd nos. • Cedant 
arma togoe, • As in Berne, Lucerne, Friburge in S itzerlaftd, a vicioua liver la uncapable of a.uy office 
if a Senat-r, instantly deposed. Simlerus. • Not above three years, A]t. polit. 5. c. 8. • 
qtia custodiet ipeo custodes t v Cytreus in Greisgeia. Qtti noa ex ttbllri espiciant infertorea, nec ut 
hestiaa conculcent aibi aubditos» aucto»italia nomini confisi c. ¢6eelfiu de rel3. Gallorum» iib. 



l)emoere o  Reader. 61 

princes, nobles, and plebeians se mutually tied and involved in love, as well as 
laws and authority, as that they never disagTee, insult or encroach one upon 
another." If any man deserve well in his office he shall be rewarded. 
 « qui enim virtutem ample¢titur ipsam, 
Proemia si tollas "* 
]Ie that invents anything for public good in anyart or science, writes a treatise, 
« or performs any noble exploit, ai home or abroad, °s hall be accordingly 
enriched, honoured, and preferred. I saywith Hannibal in Ennitt, liesse»,. 
quiferiet erit nild Carthaœeinlensis, let him be of what condition ho will, in all 
offices, actions, he that deserves best shall bave best. 
Tilianus in Philonius, out of a charitable mind no doubt, wished all his books 
Were gold and siiver, jewels and precious stones, to redeem captives, set ff'ce 
prisoners, and relieve all poor distressed seuls that wanted menus; religiously 
done, I deny net, but te what purpose? Suppose this were se well doue, withiu 
a little after, though a man had Croesus' weaIth te bestov, there would be as 
many more. Wherefore I will surfer no Sbeggars, rogues, vagabonds, or idle 
persons at all, that canner give an account of their live how they maintain 
themselves. If they be impotent, lame, blind, and single, they shall be suffi- 
ciently maintained in several hospitals, built for that purpose; if married and 
infirm, past work, or by inevitable loss, or seine such like misfortune cast 
behind, by distribution of t cern, house-rent free, annual pensions or money, 
they shall be relieved, and highly rewarded for thir good service they bave 
formerly done; if able, they shail be enforced te work. "For I see no reason 
(as  hc said) why an epicure or idle drone, a rich glutton, a usurer, should lire 
at ease and de nothing, lire in boueur, in all manner of pleasures, and oppress 
others, when as in the meantime a poor lbourer, a smith, a carpente; an 
husbandman that bath spent his rime in continual labour, as an ass te carry 
burdcns te de the commonwealth good, and without whom we cannot live, shall 
bc left in his old age te beg or starve, and lead a miserable lire worse thaa a 
jument." Asall conditions shall be tied te their task, se noue shall be over- 
tired, but bave their set rimes of recreations and holidays, iwlulyer« gonio, 
feasts and merry meetings, even te the meanest artificer, or basest servant, 
once a veek te sing or dance, (though net aH at once) or de whatsoever ho 
shail please; like * that Saccarurafestura amongst the Persians, those Satwrxds 
in lome, as well as his toaster, ° If any be drunk, ho shall drink no more wine 
or strong drink in a twelvemonth after. A bankrupt shall be p Caademiatus 
in A mlghit.lwatro, publicly shamed, and h that cannot puy his debts, il" by riot or 
negligence, ho bave been impoverished, shall be for a twelvemonth imprizoned, 
il" in that space his creditors be net satisfied, Che zhall be hanged. He "tha 

* « For who wonid cultivate virtue Itself, if yon were te {ske away the reward ? » Si qnIs egregium 
.tut belle aut puce per?vcerit. Sesel. l. 1. * Ad regendam rempub. ,oli ]iterati admittuntur, 
ad eam rem gratia magistratuum ant regis indigent, omnia explorata cujusq; soientia et virtute pendent. 
Riccius lib. 1. cap. 5. fln defuneti locum eum jnssit subrogari, qui inter majores virtute reliqui$ 
lroeiret; non fuit apud mortales nllum exccllentius certamen, aut cus victoria mugis easet expetenda, non 
enim inter colores celerrimo, non in,er robustos robustissimo, &e. f Nullum videres vol in 
bac vol in vicinis regionibus pauperem, nuilum oboeratum, &c. s Nullus mendicus apud Sina 
emini ano, quam-is oclis turbatus sit, mendicare permittitur, omncs pro viribl ]aborare eoguntuG 
cci molis trusatilibus versandis addictmtur soli hospitiis gaudent, qui ad labores sunt ineptL 0ser. 1.11. 
de rob. gest. Emam Heming. de reg. Chin. 1.1. c. 3. Gotard. Arth. Orient. Ind. doser.  Aiex. ab 
Aiex. 3. c. 12. Sic olim Romoe lsaac. Pontan. de his optime. AmstcL 1.2. c. 9. ridera Aristo,t. 
poi. 5. c.8. Vitiosum quum soli pauperum lib¢ri educantur ad labores, nobilium et divitum in voluptatibus 
et delicii. Qum hoec ijustitia ut nobilis quispiam, aut foenerator qui nihil agst, ]autam et splendidmn 
vtam gt, otio et delieiis, quum intcrm uriga, f.ber, agricola, quo respub, carere non potest, vitam advo 
miseram ducat, ut pejor quam jumentorum sit ejus conditio t Inlqua resp. qum dat.parasiti, adulator]bus, 
inanium voluptatum artificibus generosis et otiosis tanta munera prodigit, st contr agTicolis, carbonari 
aurigis, fabri ,c nihil prospicit, sed eorum abua labore florentis oettia, fume penser et oerumnis, Mer. 
Utop. 1.2. m In egovl nemo otiosus, nemo meudicus nisi per œetatem aut morbum opus facer« 
on potest : nuiil deest unde victum qmeraL at quo se exercent. Cypr. Echovius Dent. Hispan. Nullus 
Genevoe otiosus, ne eptennis puer. Paulus Henzner Itiner. o Athenoeus, 1.12. o imlerus de 
repnb. Helvet.  Spartian. olim RÇmoe sic. « Ho that provides net for his famllyo is worse thaa 
• tuicf, l',uL Ah'rcdi lc : utra; manus et lingua pr»cgdatu G u,i eam calate re.lçmcrtt. 



62 /)emOCTtU to tl Rentier. 

commits sacrilege shall lose his hauds; he that bears false witness, or is of 
perjury convicted, shall bave Iris tongue eut out, except he redeem if wit.h his 
head. Iurder, ° adultery, shall be punished by death, t but hot theft., except 
it be some more grîevous oflence, or notorious offeniers: otherwise they shal| 
be condemned to the galleys, mines be his slaves whom they have offended, 
during their lives. I haie ail hereditary slaves, and that durera Persarum 
/eyem as ° Brisonius calls it; or as = 4 mmianua, impendio furmidatas e2 abo- 
minanda lee, per qttas ob oxam unius, omnis propinquitas perit, hard law 
that. wife and children, friends and allie., should surfer for the tatheFs offence. 
1o man shall mari T uni.il he rbe 25, no woman till she be 20, "isi aliter 
dispensatum ftt«it. If one "die, the other party shall hot. marry fill six 
months after; and because many families are compelled t.o lire niggardly, 
exhaast, and undone by great, dowers,  none shall be giveu ai. ail, or very 
little, and that. by supervisors rated, they t.hat, are foui shall have a grenier 
portion; if ça, none ai. ail, or ver T little: « howsoever hot. fo exceed such a 
rate as t.hose supervisors shall think fit.. And when once they corne o those 
years, povery shall hiuder no man from marfiage, or any other respect.,  but. 
ail shall be rather enïorced than hindered, ° excel,t, they be t dismembeld, or 
grievottsly deformed, infirm, or visited with some enormous heredit.ary disease, 
in body or mind; in such cases upon a great, pain, or mulct., man or woman 
shMl hot. marr; other order shall be t.aken for them fo t.heir content.. If 
people overabound, they shall be eased by  colonies. 
t_No man shall wear weapons in an), city. The same attire shall be kei, , 
and t.hat, proper to several callings, by which t.hey shall be distinguished. 
 Luxusfuerum shall be taken away, that. intethpes/ive expense moderated, 
and many oghers. Brokers, t.akers of pawns, biting usurers, I will hot. adroit; 
yet. because hîe cure Itominib on curn diis ayitur, we converse here with 
men, hot. with gods, and for the hardness of men's hearts, I will t.olerat.e some 
kind of usutT, t If we were honest, I confess, si probi essemus, we should 
bave no use of it., but. being as it. is, we must. necessarily admit, it.. Howsoever 
most. divines cont.radict, if, dicimus infwia, sed vox evt soht reperta est, it. must. 
be winked ag by politicians. And yet. some 'eat. doctors approve of it., Calvin, 
Bucer, Zanchius, P. MaioEyr, because by so many grand lawyers, decrees of 
emperors, princes" statures, customs of commonwealths, churches' approbat.ions, 
it. is permitted, &c. I will t.herefore allow it.. But. o no private petons, nor 
to every man that. will, to oq3hans only, maids, widows, or such as by reason of 
their age, sex, education, ignorance of trading, know hot. ot.herwise how to 
employ it.; and t.hose so approved, hot. t.o let. it. out. apar, but. t.o bring their 
money fo a "common bank which shall be allowed in evcry cit.y, as in Genoa, 
Gendre, uremberg, Venice, ag ° 5, 6, 7, no above 8 per centum, as the 

 SI qul nupinm stuprrit, virga vtrilis el proectdatur; si roulier, nas et auricula proecidantur. A]fredi 
lex. Èn lege ipsi Veneri Martiq; timendas, t Paupere non peccant, qnum extremà nccessitate coacti, 
rem allenam capiunt. aldonat. tummula quoest. 8. art. 3. Ego eurn illi$ sentio qni licere pntant à 
divite clam acciper% qui tenetur pauperi tubventre. Emmanuel Sa. Aphor. confes.  Lib. 2. 
de reg. Perarum.  Lib. 2. rAliter Aristoteles, a man ai 25, a woman ai 20. polit. 
• Lex. olim Licurgt, hodie Chinensinm ;._vide Plutarchum, Riccium, Hemminginm, Arniseum, evisanumo 
et alio$ de hec quoeatione, • Alfred. b Apud Lacone olim virffine tine dote nnbebaut: 
Doter. 1.3. c. 3. t Lege eautum non Ira prtdem apud Venetos, ne qui$ Patritin dotera excederct 
1500 coron, • Bux. ynag. Jud. St Judoei. Leo Afer Africoe descript, ne sint aliter incontinentes 
ob reipub, bonnm. Ut Augnst. Coesar. orat. ad coelibes Romanos olim edocnit. 
 Morbo laboran 
qui in prolem facile diffunditur, ne genns hnmanum foeda contagione loedatur, j uventute castratur, mulieres 
raies procul à contortio virorum ablegautur, &c. Hector Boethiu hier. lib. 1. de ver. Scotorum moribus. 
 Speeiosiimi j uven¢ liberis dabunt operam. Plato 5. de Iegibn • The Saxons exelude dumb» 
blind, leprous, and such lire persons from ail inheritance, as we do fool$, h Ut olim Romanl, 
litpanl hodie, &c. t Riccit lib. 11. cap. 5. de Sinarum expedit, sic Hispaui cogunt Mauroe arme 
deponere. 8o it is in most IinIian cities, • Idem Plato 12. de leglbus, it hath ever been immoderate 
vide Guil. Stuckium antiq, convival, lib. 1. cap. 26. i Plato 9. de legibut, mat tho$o 
Lombard$ beyond Seas, though with tOme reformatinn, rnon$ pietati, or bank of charlty, a Maline terres 
lt, cap. 33. Lex mercat, part 2. that lend money upon easypawnt, or take money upon adventure for men'$ 
live.  That proportion will make merchandise incret«e, land derer, and better improved a he bath 
udi¢ialiy proved in hi tract of usury» exhibited to the Parliamcnt tmno 1621. 



DemocrRus fo tTe Eear. 63 

supervisors, or cerarii proefecgi shall think fit. "And as it shall no° be lawfid 
for each man fo be an usurer that will, so shall if no° be lawïul for ail to take 
up money at use, no° fo prodigals and spendthriïts, but to merchants, young 
tradesmen, such as stand i need, or know honestly how to employ it, whose 
necessity, cause and condition the said supervisors shall approve of. 
I will bave no private monopolies, fo enrich one man, and beggar a multi- 
tude, Pmultiplicity of ooEce, of supplylng by deputie, weights and measures, 
the saine throughout, and those rectified by the Primum mobile, and sun's 
motion, threescore mlles to a degree according to observation, 1000 geometri- 
cal paces to a mlle, rive foot fo a pace, twclve inchcs to a foot, &c. and ri'oto 
mcasures known it is an easy matter fo rectify weights, &c. to cast up ail, and 
resolve bodie by a]gebra, stereometry. I hate wars if they be no° ad ]opi 
alutem, upon urgent occasion, " odt'mus accipitrem, quia semloer vivit in aris," 
«offensive wars, except the causc be very just, I will hOt allow of. For I do 
highly mtgmlfy that saying of IIannibal to Scipio, in "Livy, "It had been  
blessed thing ibr you and us, if God had given that mind to our predecessors, 
th.t you had been content with Italy, we with Africa. For neither Sicily nor 
Sardinia are worth such cost and pains, so many fleets and armies, or so many 
famous Captains' lives." Onnia prius tentada, fair means shall first bA 
tried, ° Peragit tran7uilla potestas, Quod violea nequit. I will have them 
proceed with all moderation : but hear you, Fabius my general, hot hIinutius, 
nain " qui Corçilio nithur i»l.us hostibus nocet, quàra qd sine animi ratione, 
viribus: And in such wars to abstain as much as is possible from tdepopula- 
tions, burning of towns, massacring of infants, &c. For defensive wars, I 
will have forces still ready at a small warning, by land and sea, a prepared 
navy, soldiers in procinctu» et quam  Bon.ff»dus apud Ilungaros suos vult, 
virgamferrean, and money, 'hich is nervus bell, still in a readiness, and a 
sufficient revenue, a third par as in old "Rome and Egypt, reserved for the 
commonwealth; fo avoid those heavy taxes and impositions, as well fo defray 
this charge of wars, as also all other public defalcations, expenses, fees, pen- 
sions, reparations, chaste sports, feasts, donaries, rewards, and entertainments. 
All things in this nature especially I will bave maturely done, and with great 
• deliberation : ne quid Yte.raer, ne quid vem/ssè a¢ tinddefg; Sed quSferor 
hospes  To prosecute the test would require a volume. .lanum de tabella, 
I have been over tedious in this subjcct ; I cou]d have here willingly ranged, 
but these straits wherein I ara included will hot pcrmit. 
From commonwealths and cities, I will descend to familles, which have as 
many corsives and molestations, as ïrequent discontents as the test. Great 
affinity there is betwixt a political and economical body; they differ only in 
magnitude and proportion of business (so Scaliger writes) as they bave both 
likely the saine period, as" Bodin and  Peucer hold, ou of Plato, six or seven 
hundred years, so many rimes they have the saine means of their vexation and 
overthrows; as namely, riot, a common ruin of both, riot in building, riot in 
profuse spending, riot in apparel, &c. be it in what kind soever, if produceth 
the saine effects. A ¢ corographer of ours speaking ab/ter of ancient tamilies, 

eIloe fere ZanchIus coin. in 4 cap. ad Ephes. œequissimarn vocat usuram, et char]tati ChristIanoe con- 
• entaneam, modo nou exigant, &c. nec otaries dent ad foenus, sed il Qui in pecuniis bona habent, et oh 
oetatem, sexum, artis alicujus ignorantiam, non possunt uti. l'ec omnibus scd mercatorbus et iis q honeste 
lmpendent, &c.  Idem apud Persas olim, lege Brisonium. *" We hate the hawk, because 
he always lires in bat°le2' q Idem Plato de legibus, • Lib. 30. Optimum quidem fuerat cam 
patribus nostris mentem a diis da°ara esse, ut vos Ita[ioe, nos Afr[c. lmperio contenti essemus. Neque enim 
Slcilia aut Sardinia safis digna precio unt pro tot clasibus, &c. • Ciaudian. ¢ Thucididc. 
fA depopuIatione, agrorum i.cendii, et ejusmodi factis immanibus. Plato. $ Hungar. dec. I. lib. 9. 
• Sese[lius, lib. 2 de repub. Gai. raide enlm est lndeecrum, ubi quod proeter opin[onem accidit, dicere, Non 
I)uram, presertim i res proecaveri potuerit. Livius, lib. 1. Dion. lib. 2. Diodortts Siculus lib. 2.-- 
z Peragit tranquilla potestss, Quod violents neqnit.---Claudian, • Bellum nec timendum nec 
I)rovocandum. Flirt. Panes'yr. Trjano. • Lib. 3. poet. cap. 19. Lib. 4. de reub, ca. 2. 
• Peucer. lib. 1. fie divinat.. « Camden in Cheshh'e. 



Demoe'tu to the Reader. 

why they are so frequent in the north, continue so long, are so soon extin- 
guished in the south, and  few, ves no other reason but thi.% luxus omnia 
dlsslpavit, riot bath consumed ail, fiue clothes and curious buildings came into 
this island, as he notes in his annals, hot s6 many years ince; wn sine dis- 
pe»lio lwspitalitatls, to the decay of hospitality. ]-Iowbeit many times that 
word is ntaken, and under the naine of bounty and hospitality, is shrouded 
rot and prodigality, and that which is commeadable in itself well used, hath 
bven mistaken heretofore, is become by his abtse, the banc and utter ruin of 
many a noble family. For me men lire like the rich gintton, consuming 
themselves and their substance by continual feasting and invitations, with 
 Axilon in ]Iomer, keep opcn bouse for ail come, giving entertainment to 
such as v[it them, "keeping a table beyond their means, and a company of 
idle servants (though hot so frequent as of old) are blown up on a sudden; and 
as Actoeou was by his hotmd devoured by their kinsmen, friends, and multi- 
tude of fvllowers. « It is a wonder that Pauhts Jovius relates of our northera 
countrics, what an infinite deal of mcat we consume on our tables; that I may 
truly say, 'tis hot bounty, hot hospitality, as itis often abused, but riot and 
excess, gluttony and prodigality; a mere vice; it brings in debt, want, and 
beggalT, hereditary diseases, cousumes their £orttmes, and overhrows the good 
tcmperature of their bodies. To this I might here well add their inordinate 
expense in building, those fanttieal bouses, turrets, walks, parks, &e. gaming, 
excess of pleasure, and that prodigious riot in apparel, by which means they 
are eompelled to break up bouse, and ereep into hole Sesellius in his eom- 
monwealth of Franee, gives three fessons why the French nobility were so 
frequently bankrupts: "First, because they had so many law-suits and con- 
tentions one upon another, whieh were tedious and eostly; by whieh means if 
came to pass, that eommonly Iawyers bought them out of their possessions. A 
second cause was their flot, they lived beyond their means, and were therefore 
swallowed up by merchant" (La lqove, a French writer, yiclds rive fessons 
of his eountrymen's poverty, fo the saine effeet almost, and thinks verily if the 
gentry of France were divided into ten parts, eight of them would be round 
nmeh impaireA, by sales, mortgages, and debts, or wholly sunk in their 
estates.) "The hst was immoderate exeess in apparel, whieh eonsumed their 
revenue" ttow this eoneerns and agrees with out" present state, look you. 
But of thls elsehere. As if is in a man's body, if either head, heart, stomach, 
liver, spleen, or any one part be misaffected, all the test surfer with it: so is 
it with this economieal body. If the head be naught, a spendthrift, a drunk- 
ard, a whoremaster, a gamester, how shoe the family lire st esse I "lpsa si 
cupia$ salus servare prarsus, non pote.st, hanc familiam, as Demea said in the 
c,,medy, Safety herseff eannot save it. A good, honest, painful man many 
times hath a shrew fo his wife, a sickly, dishonest, lothftd, foolish, careless 
woman fo lfis mate, a proud, peevish flirt, a liquorish, prodigal quean, and by 
that means all goes to ruin : or if they differ in nature, he is thrffty, she spends 
all, he wise, she sottish and sofa; what agreement can there bel what friend- 
shipi Like that of the thrush and swallow in 2Esop, imstead of mutual love, 
lind eompellations, whore and thief is heard, they fling stools st one another's 
head Que bemperies vexa banc familiam? All enforced marriages 
commonly produee such effeets, or ff on their behalfs it be well, as fo lire and 
agree lovingly together, they may bave disobedient and um-uly ehildren, tha$ 

• lllad. 6. llb. * Vide Puteani Comum, Gocleulum de porteutosls coenis uostrornm tempornm. 
¢Mirabile dictu est, quanfam opsoniorum Una domus singuli diebus absurnat, sternuntur mensoe in omne 
perte horaa, calentibus semper eduliis. Descrip. Britan. • Lib. I. de rep. Gallorum; qnod toi lires 
et causoe forenses, &Iiœe ferantur ex aliis, in immensnm prodncantnr, et magnos sumptat reqnirant, unde fit 
nt Juris administrl plerumque .... 
nobihum poçestones adqmrant, tutu quod Sumptuosè vivant et à m¢rcatoit- 
bus absorbentur et eplendi'aissimè vestiantur, &c. a Ter. tAmphit. Piau. 



Democrtus to the Rider. 65 

take ill courses fo disquieL them,  " their son la a thief, a pondthrlft, thcic 
daughter a hore;" a step 
or e for nç of mas, muny toure ari, debts, du, foes, 
jointur legacies tobe paid, annuities uing ont, by mus of hich, they 
bave hot wherewithal to maintaia themselvea in that pomp  their predec 
aom haro done, bring up or sw their cdren to their OEllia, to their 
bih and qHty, = and will sot deacend to their prient ibrtunea. 
tim, too, to aggmvate the test, concur many other inconveniences, unthaak- 
fui ends, decayed fiends, bl neighbours, negligen servants,  ser»ifur, 
vpel, caidi, occlusa  mil clavibu ant, furtbue; al)tan, 
copinant, liguunt; cualties, taxes, roulera, chargeable offices, vain ex- 
penses, enaents, lo of stock, enmiti emulations, frequen invition. 
1o, suretyship, sickn¢ death of fi'iends, and that which h the gulf of 
ail, improdenc% iii hnsband, disorder and oenfion, by wch mn 
they are drenched on a sudden in their estates, and a unawares precipitated 
iensibly to an inexfioEble labhth of debts, ts, woc¢ want, grieç 
discontent and melancholy itself. 
I bave donc th famies, an(l  now brlefly run over some fe sos and 
conditions of mon. The most secure, happy, jovial, and merry in the world's 
esteem are princ and great men, fr ii'om melancholy : but for their car, 
miries, suspicions, jealoies, discontents, folly and madns, I refer you fo 
Xenophon's Tann, where king Hieron dcourseth af large with Simonides 
the poet, of this sbject. Of ail othem they are most troubled with r- 
petual fes, anxieties, insomuch that,  he id in rValerius, if thou knew¢ 
with wha ces and meries this robe wm stuffed, thou wouldst no stoop 
to take it up. Or put case they be secure and fr from fears and discon- 
tents, yet they are void  of reason too off, and preciI,itate la their actions, 
read all our histories, quos  t prodre stulti, des, neid, ales, 
d wt h th¢ ubject 1 
« $tulto rem, et popalomm entnet tuY 
e ddy tam and the fo«h rage 
Of  and people. 
How mad they are, how furious, and upon smMl occions, h and încn- 
eiderate  the proceengs, how thcy doat, every page almo»t wfll witne, 
"delirant reg plectt 
en doating monarchs urge 
Uad rolv their subjec fl the scourg¢ 
ext in place, next in miseries and discontent, in all manner of halr-brain 
actions, are greaç men, prul à ]e, l à f«l»i, the nrcr the worse. 
If they live  cou, they are up and do, ebb and flow with their 
favours, Ingium hu statq cadRq s, now aloft, to-morrow do, as 
"Polybius descbes them, "like so many ctg couatem, aow of gold, o- 
moow of silver, that va in woh as the computant ll ; now they stand for 
uni, to-moow for thoands; now before all, and anon behind." Bide, 
they forment one anotber with mutual factions, emulations: one is umbitious, 
anothcr enamoured, a trd  debt, a prodil, ovens  founes, a fouh 
soficitous with OEres, gcts nothing, &c. But for these men's dcontents, 
anxieties, I refer you to Lucian's Trot,  rc cluct, " ,çylvi 
(lidin  stuitioe sos, he calls them), Agrippa, and many othe 

pallng. Fillut sut fur. t çat t'ara mure duo galll sim In oed Ft glat bln nquam vient 
$1ne lite.  R anta domi.  When pride aval begga meet In a family, they roar an how 
and   many flh of content  tire à water, when they couci, make thdcr-cla in the 
ski. o Plautus Aulular. p Lib. 7. cap. 6, q Feir  bellL« pienti  gerit r. Vet 
proverbium, sut regem sut fatu ci ortere, • Lib. 1. ht. Rom. Simi rot bcom uliN 
cnnd compnnfis bitum, mod ei  mod6 aurei;  nnt res nc beati $t no 
oeL • osique 8on  Sa. 3. De me cm-ilinm. 



D:m.crffus o  Re-,de. 

Of philosophem an,1 scholars prlscoe sapienliev dictat')res, I have already 
spoken in general terres, those superintendents of wit and learahtg, mes above 
vaen, eho-e reliued men, minions of tho muses, 

• • «tmentemqne baboro quels bonam 
Et ee ocorcuii ¢Lttttm 

• These acute and subtle sophisters, se much honoured, bave as much need o| 
hcllebore as othet. -------fO medici mexllara perlundle vennm. ead 
Lucian's Piscator, and tell how he esteemed them ; A'ippa's Tract of the 
vanity of Sciences ; nay, rend their own works, their absurd tcnets, prodigious 
paradoxes, e risura temztis amici ? You shall find that of Aristotle true, 
nullurrt magnum ingeniura aine mixtra demedke, they bave a worm as weil 
as others; you shall find a fantastical strain, a fustian, a bombast, a vain- 
g|orious humour, an aftccted style, &c., like a prominent thread in an uneveu 
• voven eloth, run parallel throughout their works. And they that teach wisdom, 
p ttience, meekness, are the veriest dizzards, hairbrains, and most discourent. 
"" In the multitude of wisdom is grief, and he that increaseth wisdom, in- 
creaseth sorrow." I need net quote mine author; they that Iaugh and contemu 
others, condemn the worhl of folly, deserve te be mockcd, are as giddy- 
headed, and lie as open as any other. "Democritus, that common fienter of 
f, Aly, was ridiculous himself, barking ]Ienippus, scoffing Lucian, satirical 
Lucilius, Petronins, Yarro, Persius, &c., may be censured with the test, Lor- 
pedem 'ectus derideat, ,'thiopen albus. Baie, Easmus, Itospiuian, Vives, 
Kemnisius, explode as a vas ocean et obs and soLs, school di'inity. A laby- 
rinth of intricable questions, unprofitable contentions, incredibilem deliratione»t, 
one calls il. If school divinity be se censured, «ubti!is ",S'cotus lima veqtatis, 
Occan irre.fr,gabilis, e«jus i,genium vetera o»tia ingenict subrertit, &c. 
]aconthrope, Dr. Resolutus, and Covctdtrt T]¢ob,git, Thomas himself, Doctor 
n Seraphicus, oui dictavlt Angdus, &c. What shall become of humanityl Ars 
stulta, what eau she pleadl What eau ber followers say fr themselves Much 
lcarning, "cere-dimir,.uit-brum, bath cracked their scouce, and taken such root, 
tha tribus Atlcyris capot insaabile, hellebore itself eau de no good, ner 
that renownea t lanthorn of Epictetus, by which if any man studied, he should 
he as wise as he was. But all will net serve; rhetoricians, irt ostentationcn, 
lotuacitatls multa agilat, out of their volubility of tongue, will ta]k much te 
no purpose, orators can persuade other men what they will, quo volant, und« 
v,luut, move, pacify, &c., but canner settle their own hrains, what saith 
ïullyl Maie indesertam prudentiam, quàt b,quacem stultitiam ; and as rSeneca 
seconds him, a wise man's oration should net be polite or solicitous.  Fabius 
esteems no botter of most of them, cithcr in speech, action, gesture, than 
men beside themselves, insauos declamatares ; se doth Gregory, 2'oa mihi saTit 
yui serment, sed qui factis salzit. ]ake the best of him, a good orator 
turncoat, an evil man, b,:mus arator Tessimus vlr, his longue is set te sale, he 
is a mere voice, as t he said of a nightingale, dal sine mente sonore, an 
pcrbolical liar, a flatterer, a parasite, and as Ammianus Marcellinus will, a 
cornipting cozcner, one that doth more mischief hy his fair spceches, tban he 
that bribes by money; for a man nlay with more facility avoid him that cir- 
cumvcnts by moncy, thanldm that deceives with gloziag terres i which ruade 

tF. Dou Epld. llb. 1. e. I$. = HOœee cognomento eahan?l Romte qui eteros mortales saplentl& 
Irœestarent, testis PIi. lib. 7. cap. 34. • lnsanire parant certt ratione modoque mal by the 
book they, &c. • Juvenal. '* O Phyletane ! open the middle rein." • Solomon. * Coin- 
munis irrisor etultitim, t Wit whither wilt • caliger exercitat. 324. • Vit. ejus. • 
¢ Lucian. Ter mille drachmIs olira empta; studens Inde eapientiam adipiscetur. « Eplst. 21. 1. lib. 
llon oportet orationem eapienti$ eee poIitam aut solicitam.  Lib. 3. cap. 13. muito anhelitu jactatione 
furentes pectus, frontem eoedente, &c. t Lipsius, voees stlnt, pr:eterea nihiL t Lib. tl. plu 
mali fcere videtur q oraUone quXm qui proetio quemvis c'rutopit : nain t 



Democrtus fo the Reader. 

7 

Socrates so much abhor and explode them. "Fracastorius, a ramons poet, 
freely grants all poets to be mad; so doth caliger; and who doth hot? 
.dut insauit/tono, aut versusfacit (le's mad or making vel-es), Hor. Sat. vil. 
1.2. Insaire lubet, i. e. versus coraponere. Virg. 3 Ecl. ; So Servius interprets it 
all poets are mad, a company of bitter satirits, detractors, or else parasitical 
applauders: and what is poetry itselï, but as Austin holds, Viura erroris ab 
ebrils doctoribuspropinatu»? You may give that censure of them in general, 
which Sir Thomas Iorc onco did of Germanus ]rixius' poems in particular. 

-« vcbuntur 
In rate stultitiæ, } lvam habitant Furlœe.o" 

Budoeus, in an epistle of his to Lupsetus, will have civil law to be the tower 
of wisdom ; another honours physic, the quintessence o'f nature; a third tum- 
},les thenl both clown, and sets up the flag of his own pcculiar science. Your 
supercilious critics, grammatical triflcm, note-makers, curious antiquaries, fin,l 
ou all the ruins of wit, inptiarum delicias, amongst the rubbish of old writem ; 
 P*o stultis habeng nisi aliquid scian invenire, quod i aliorurt scripti 
vertant vitio, all ïools with them that eannot find ïault; thcy correct other.% 
and are hot in a cold c,ase, puzzle themselves to find out how many streets in 
]Iome, houses, gatcs, towers, tomer's country, JEneas's mother, :Niobe's 
daughters, an ,S'qpho publica fuerk ? ovun qprius extiterlt a gallial &e. 
et aile» quce dedisce.zdi essen scire, si scires, as "Seneca h.hls. "Vhat clothes 
file senators did wear in ome, what shoes, how they sat, where they went 
the closestool, how many dishes in a mcss, what sauce, which for the present 
tbr an historian to relate, "according to Lodovic. Vives, is very ridiculous, is 
fo them most precious elaborate stuff, they admia'cd for it, aud as proud, as 
triumphant in the meautime for this discovery, a.s ff thcy had won a city, or 
conquered a province ; as rich as if they had ïound a mille of gold ore. Quos- 
vis auctores absurdis commentis suis percacaut et stercoe'ant, one saith, thev 
bcwray and daub a company of books and good authors, with their absurd 
comments, correcto'u sterquilia Scaligcr calls them, and show their wit in 
censuring others, a company of ïoolish note-makers, humble-bees, dors, 
bcetlcs, inter stercora ut pluriraum versantur, they rake over ail those rubbih 
and dungllills, and prcfer a manuscript many rimes before the Gospel itscit 
"t]tesaurum criticum, before any treasure, and with their deleaturs, alii legunt 
sic, meus codex sic habet, with their postremce editiones, annotations, casti- 
garions, &c., make books dcar, themselves ridiculous, and do nobody good, 
yct ifany man dare oppose or co,tradict, they are mad, up in arms on a sudden, 
how many sheets are written in detnce, how bitter invectives, what apolocs? 
"Epiihilledes hce aunt ut meree tugee. But I dare say no more of, ibr, with, 
or against them, beeause I ana liable to their lash as well as others. Of these 
and the test of out artists and pllilosophem, I wiI1 gencrally conclude they arc 
a kind of madmen, as Seneca esteems of them, to make doubts and scruples, 
how to read them truly, fo mend ohl authors, but will hot mend their own lires, 
or teach us ingetia sanare, memvq'iam offlciorum igerere, ac jfidem i» rebus 
]tutnanis retinere, fo keep our wits in order, or rectii out manneoE 
tibi demens videur, si lotis operat impenderk ? Is hot he mad that draws lines 
with Archimede¢ whilst his bouse is ransacked, and his city bcsieged, when 
the whole world is in combustion, or we whilt our souls are in dauge; (mors 
Ȯquitur, vita.fugit) to si)end oux rime in toys, idle questions, and things of 
no worh ] 

 In Gorg. Platonls. m In nauger]o, a SI furor sit Ly[eu, &c quoties furlt, furlt furif. 
romans, bibcns, et Pocta, &c. o ,, They are borne in the bark of folly, and dwcll in tbe gTOve of 
adness." • Morus Utop. lib. 11. q blaerob. Satur. 7. 16. r Epist. 16. * Lib. de eausm 
eUTUp, artium. * Lib. 2. in Ausonium» cap. 19 et 32. ,, Edit. 7. v01um- Jano Gutero. • Aristo. 
ixa.xi-,, Iaui.  Lib. de bcnclcioe. 



68 

Dcmocritus to tle ]eade. 

That "loyers are mad, I think no man will deny, A mare simul et satre, 
ipsi Jovi not datur, Jupiter himself OEtnnot intend both ai once. 
«Non beè ¢onvenlunt, nec tn unà gode morantur 
MaJe5ta et amor." 
Tul]y, when ho was invitcd fo a second marriage, rep]ied, ho eould hot smd 
amar« et salJere, be wise and love both together. »/'«t orcus ille, vis est 
immedizabilis, es$ rabies insana, love i madness, a hell, an inem'able dis- 
ease; imlotenterrt et insanam libidnem •Senec, calls it, an impotent and 
raging lust. I shall dilate this 8ubject apart; in the meantime let loyers 
8igh out the rest. 
:bevisanus the lawyer hohls ff for an axiom, "most women are fools," 
°consilium fieminis iuvalidum; Seneca, mon, be they young or old; ho 
doubts i, youth is mad as Elius in Tully, Stulti etdolescentuli, old age little 
botter, ddiri sertes, &c. Theophrastus, in the 107th year of his age, Isaid ho 
thon began to be wise, tutu sape»e cvepit, and therefore lamented his departure. 
Ifwisdom corne so late, where shall we find a wise man Out old ones doae 
at threescore-and-ten. I would cite more pmofs, and « botter author, but for 
the present, let one fool point at another. Tevisanus hath as hard an opiniot 
of rich mon, « wealth and wisdom cannot dwell together," stultitiam patiuntur 
o/es, rand they do commonly infatuare cor hominis, besot mcn; and as wo 
see if, "fools bave fortune :" Sapientla zon invenltur in tewa suavRer viven- 
tium. For beside a natural contempt of learning, which accompanies such kiud 
of mon, innate idleness (for they will take no pains), and which =Aristotle 
observes, ubi mens plurima, ibi minima fortuna, bi plurima fortuna, ib mens 
perexigua, great wealth and little wit go commonly together: they have as 
much brains some of them in their heads as in their hcels; besides this inbred 
neglect of liberal sciences, and all arts, which should excolere »ntern, pohh 
the mind, they bave most part some gullish humour or other, by which they 
are led ; one is an Epicure, an Atheist, a second a gamestcr, « thh'd a whoroe 
toaster {fit subject8 all for a satixist to work upon); 
 n HIc nnptaram insanit amoribu, hic puerorum.  
0ne burns to madne for the wedded dame; 
Unaatttral ltts oazothe's laeart 
"one is mad of hawking, hanting, eoeking; another of carouslng, horse-riding, 
spending; a fourth of buihling, fighting, &e., Insanit veteres statuas Dama- 
ppu8 emendo, Damasippus hath an humour of lais own, to be talked of: 
Heliodorus the Carthaginian, another. In a word, as Sealiger coneludes of 
them ail, they are Statuce erecta stultitee, the very statues or pillars of follç. 
Choose out of all stories him that hath been most admired, you shall stll 
find, mult ad laudem, multa ad vituperationerr magnifica, as «Berosus of 
Semiramis; otaries wrtales militiâ, triumplds, divitiis, &c., tutu et luxu, ccede, 
ceeterisque vitiis antecesst, as she had some good, 8o had 8ho many bad parts. 
Alexander, a worthy man, but furious in his anger, overtaken in drink: 
Coesar and Seipio valiant and wise, but vain-glorious, ambitious: Yeasian 
a worthy prince, but eovetous: "Hannibal, as ho had mighty virtues, so had 
ho many vices; unam virtutem ni[le vit co»fftatur, as hlachiavel of Costno 
• Deliru et amo$ dicatar aman$. Hot. Seneea, • Ovid. fet. • MaJesty and Love do hot aree 
rell, nor dwell togetber."  Plutareh. Amator|o est amor iasanus. ¢ Ep.;st. 39. a Sylrm 
nuptialls, 1. I, aum. I1. Omnes mulieres ut plurimum stulte, • Arlstotle. «Dolere ce dlxit quo,l 
tum vita egrederetur, • Lib. 1. uum. 11. sapienl;ia et dwitioe vl simul possideri posunt.  Tbev 
their wLsdom by eating ple-crnst some.  xplaa'a "oç n'ot 7,*¢'oe açpoam,,. Opes euidem 
sunt amentia. Theognis. k Fortuna nimium quem foret, stultum £cit. fJoh." 28.-- 
• norl, lib. 2. et lib. 1. sat. . • Hor. lib. 1. at 4,.  Insana gala, insanoe ob$tructiones, tnsannm 
venandi studium discordia demens. Virg. S_n. p Hellodorus Carthaginiensis. ad extremum orbis ar- 
¢opbago testamento me hic jusi eondicr, et ut viderem an uis in.anior ad me vsendum uque ad hoec loca 
penetraret. Ortelins in GatL  if il; be bi, -ork, ,hich tiasper Veretus suspect,t ffi Li'y Ingente 
iue ugentia viti 



de ledi3i, b.e had tço di»tlnct persons in him. I will determlne of them all, 
they are like these double or turning pieures; stand before whieh you sec a 
f.fir maid, on the one aide an ape, on the other an owl; look upon them st the 
lirsl ight., all is well, but fnrther examine, you shall find them wise on the one 
side, and ri»da on the other; in ome few things praiseworthy, in the res 
ineomparably faultv. I wfll say nothing of their diseases, emulations, dis- 
contents, wants, and uch miaeries: let I)ovety llead the test in Aristoi)haaoE 
lutus. 
Coetous men, amongs others, are most mud, °They bave ail the symptomu 
of melncholy, fcar, dnes., usi)ieion , &c., as -hall be I)roved in it proi)cr 
Dnda est Helleborl multo par maxima varia- » 
]Iiser.s make Anticyra thelr ovn; 
Ira hellebora reserv'tI for them loae. 
And yet met]dnks prodigals are much madder thaa thcy, be of wlaat con- 
diion they will, that bear  public or I)rivate purse; as Duteh writr 
eensured Richard the rieh duke of Cornwall, suing te be emperor, for his 
p]Ihse spendiag, qui effudi pecunian ante pedea 19rincipium lectorum 
square, that scattered mouey like water; I de censure them, ,S'tult Anglia 
(saith he) quæ to$ demzriis sponte es$ privata, stultg Frinclpes Alemaniee, qu 
«obile jus «uum Fro lecun vendiderrvt; spendthrifta, bribers, and bribe- 
takers are fool, and se are  ail they tha eanno keep, dizburse, or si)end 
their moneys well. 
I might sy the like of augry, peevish, envlous, ambitions; "Antlcyras 
nellor sarbere eracas; Epicures, Atheists, Schismatiea, tereties; Id omnes 
habent imaginalionem lvesam (saith Tymannus) "and their madaess shall be 
vvideut." 2 Tire. iii. 9. • Fabatus, an Italian, holds seafaring men ail mad; 
"the ship i mad, for it never stands still; the mariners are mad, te expose 
themseles te such imminent dangers: the waters are raging mad, in perpetual 
motion: the wind. are as mad as he rest, they knoxv net whence they corne, 
xvhither they would go: sud those men are maddest of all that go o ses; for 
one fool  home, they find ferry abrod." He xvas a madman thu aid it, 
and-'hou I)eradventure as mad te rend i. "Foelix Platerus iz of opinion all 
alchemksts are rnad, out of heir wits; "Atheneus saith as rnuch of fiddlra, 
e$ usarum lusclnias, Uhlusieians, tmmes tibicines insaniung ; ubl semd e.fflan, 
avolat illico nens, in cornes music af one car, out goes wit a another, lh-oud 
and vairt-glorious persons are celCainly mad; and se are © laseivious; I eau fl 
their I)ulses best hither; hem-rond seine of them, te ]et others lie with their 
wives, and wink st 
Te insist «irt all particulars, were an 1Teulean ask, te *reckon up tlnsanas 
ubslructiones, insams labo«es, insanun uxun, mad labours, rnad books, endea- 
vours, carriages, gross ignorance, ridiculous uctions, absurd gestures; insanam 
yvlam, insanian, villmazm, insana jurg, as Tully terres them, madnezs of 
villages, stupend strnctures; as those 2Egyi)tian :Pyramids, Labyrinths mari 
ISphinxes, wbieh a company of evwned asses, ad oste'nktiotr o2um, vahaly 
bui]t, when neither the arehiteet ner king tha rnade them, or fo what use and 
inwpose are yet known: te insiz in tbeir hypocrisy, ineon.stancy, blinduess, 
mshner, a, demenlem temcritatem flud cozenage, malice, auget, imi)udence, 
• IIor. Quisquls ambitlone m] ut ar'enH palier amorea Qulsquis luxurtg, tristique snperstitlo-. 
P,,r-  Croaica $1avonica ai annum 125. de cujus peeunia jam ineredibllia dixerut. 
 A fool and hs money are aooa partctl. Orat. tic imag. umbitiostts et audax uaviget Auticyraa. 
• NavS atuila, quoe continue movetur , aut... tu]fi qui se periculis expoann; aqua insana tluœe sic frernit 
&c. ; aër jactatur, &c.; qui mari se eommittit stolidnm unurn terr fugiens, 40 mari iuvenit, t;aspar Ena. 
Ioroa. • Cap. tic aliea, mentis, • Dipnoso/hist. |ib. I.  "l'ibicia¢a mente Capti. E'asm. Chi. 
ter "/. ® Prov. 0. lnaana libido, Hic rolo non furor est, on est hoec mentula demens. Mart. ep. 74 
l. 3. a ],Iillc luellarnm ci; luerorum millejuxore • Uter est iasaaior horurn ! Hot. Ovid. Virg. 
«'lin. lib. 36. 



70 

])emoc'Ntt«s fo the 1?cadet. 

ingratitude, ambition, gross superstition, *tempora infecta d aduhtHone snrdida, 
s in Tiberius' rimes, such base ffattcLv, stuI,cnd, parasitical fawning and 
collofing, &e., brawls, eonflicts, desires, contentions, it wouid ask an expert, 
Yesalius to anatomise every member. 8hall I say] Jupiter himselL Apollo, 
ltars, &c., doated; and monster-eonquefing Hcrcules that subdued the world, 
and helped others, eould hot rdieve himself in this, but mari he was a last. 
And where shall a man walk, converse with whom, in what province, city, and 
hot meet with Signior Deliro, or Hercdes Furens, Moenades, and Corybantes '| 
Their speeches say no less. b Efugls nati homines, or else they fetched thcir 
pedigree from those that were struck by Samson with the jaw-bone of an a.s 
Or from Deucalion and Pyrrha's stones, for darttnt genus sumus, mar,wrd 
sums, we are stony-hearted, and savour too much of the stock, as ifthey had 
ail heard that enchanted horn of Astolpho, that English duke in Ariosgo, which 
never soundcd but a!l his auditors were mad, and tbr fear ady to make away 
with themselves;* or landed in the mad haven in the Euxine sea of I)aphnis 
insana, which had a oecret quality to dementate; they are a company ofgiddy- 
heads, afternoon men, if is Midsummcr moon still, and the dog-days last ail 
the year long, they are ail mad. Whom shall ][ then except ] Ulricus Hut- 
tonus errw, ara hem9 omnibus hoe'is sapit, ]Venw nascitar sne vitiis, Cri. 
nite Henw caret, hremo sorte sua vivit contentus, A emo in amo,'e sopit, «Ve»fo 
bonus, Nemo satffes, lemo est ex omni parte beatus, &c.  and therefro 
lgieholas lgemo, or Monsieur lgoebody, shall go ïree, Quid valeat nemo, Nemo 
ve.ferre potst ? But whom shall I excel,t in the second place? sueh as are 
silent, s'if sapit qui pauca b,quitu;" "no better way to avoid tblly md n:ad- 
ncss, than by taeiturnity. Whom in a third? ail senators, magistrates; for ail 
fortunate men are vise, and conquexrs valiant, and so are all great mon, non 
est bonum ludere cure dits, they are wi by authority, good by thcir office and 
],lace, hls li«et imlmne pessimos esse (some say) we toast hot spcak of them, 
neither is it fit; er m sint om,ia rotinus alba, I will hot think amiss of them. 
Whom next ] Stoics] ,S'apns $taicus, and he alone is subject to no pertur- 
bations, as =llutah scoffs ai him, "he is hot vexed with torments, or burnt 
with tire, foiled by bis advcrsary, sold of bis enemy: though he be wrhkled, 
and-blind, toothless, and defi»ned; yet he is most beautiful, and like a god, 
a king in conceit, though hot worth a gat." " Ie never doats, never mat, 
never sad, drunk, because virtue cannot be taken away," as °Zeno holds, "by 
reson of strong apprehension," but he was mari fo ay so. ».4nticRroe c«lo 
huic est opus aut dolabrâ, he had need to be bored, and so had ail his tbllows, 
a wise as they would seem to be. ChtTsippus himself liberally grants them 
o be fools as well as others, af certain times, upon some occasions, anritti vir- 
tutem ait l)er ebretatem, aut atribilarium morbum, ig may be ]ost by druukcn- 
ness or melancholy, he may be sometimes crazed as well as the rest: «d sun» 
tum sapierrs nivi quum pituita wlesta. I should here except some Cynics, 
Ienippus, Diogenes, that Thcban Cmtes; or to descend to these rimes, that 
omnis«ious, only wise frat, ernity "of the Rosicrucians, those great theologues, 
loliticians, lhilosolhers, physiciaus, philologers, artist% &c. of whom S. 13- ridgeg» 

t Taeitus 3. Annal. z Ovld. 7. met. E fungls natl homlnc$ nf om C{bl pm! iHius 
accoloe, quia stodi et fa fun nati cebuts idem et alibi dieu. s Fammn. trade de 
bajuli de majore sisculpti, k Arianus periplo as Euxlnl port ej eminiGer 
Gilli 1. 3. de Bosphor. Thracio  la in,ha quoe allata in ¢onvivium conv omn inni affit. 
Giel. Stucchius comment. &c.  pid posa sic scpm. * « o one is wlse at aH hOp--no 
one bo wi/hou/f4ul/--no one oe from crimno one content with his lot,--no one i love 
goo or e man perfectly happy." m Stti simare non pot ni tacituitate.  Eztous non 
cciar, ambus non i, prat  lu¢ non vincit; non fit ptis ab hoste vendat. 
Etsi rugos senex edentul Ic deformi foos m,  deo simi felix vN rex 
egen esi denio non sit digne. lll«m ¢ontendt n i afficç non inn  ebria] 
quia vi non pi oh ¢onstant prehensionet. Lips. phys. ic. lib. . . 18. • Tarre 
b epig. 12. I. 8. Mor. Fra cL R craci& 



Democritus to tic Readcr. 71 

Albaa Joacchlmns, Lelcenbcrg]us, and such divine spirlts bave prophesed, 
and ruade promise fo the world, if at let there be any such (Hem "euhusius 
makes a doubt of it, «Valentinus drcsz and others)or an El affex 
their Thphrastian toaster ; whom though Libavi and many deride and 
carp at, yet me will bave to be "the "renewer of all arts and ienoes," 
reformer of the wod, aud now living, for  Johannes Iontanus trigo- 
niensis, tllat great patron of aracelsus, contend and ce.ainly ave 
most divine man," and the quintessence of wisdom whesoever he is ; for he, 
his fraternity, frien,l e. are all  " betrothcd fo wisdom," if we may believ 
their dciples and tbllowers. I mus nceds except Lipsius and the ope, 
and expunge their naine ou of the catalogue of tbol For besides that par» 
sitioEl tcstimony of Dousa, 
« A Sole exoente loeotld nsqne pude% 
emo t q $to e oequiparare quçat." 
L;psius saith of hlmlf, that he w "humani gene qum poedaggus vote 
et stylo, a and signior, a mter, a tutor of us all, and for thirteen years he 
brags how he wcd wisdom in the Low Countrie as Ammonius the philo- 
sopher sometimes did in Alexandriz, "m £u»ite lter et saffientlam 
cut prudentla: anttes sapientioE, he shall be Srtlntum Octavus. The 
Pope is more than a man, as »his parats oKen make him, a demi-goal, and 
besides his h,)line cannot err, in Catlmdrâ belike : and yet me of them 
have been magiciang Hcretics, Atheists, chHdren, and  Phtina saith of 
John 22. ];tsi vir literatu¢ ntMta golMitatem et lævitatem proe eerentia 
egit, stolit et sord vir ingenii, a scholar sufficient, yet many things he did 
tbolishly, lightly. I can say no more than in particular, but in general tertns 
to the test, they are all mad, their wits are evaporated, aud  Arioto fdgns 
L 3. kept in jar above the moon. 
a Some Iose their wlts wlth love tome -lth 
$ome following ¢ Lords and men of high condiÇa. 
me in fair Jewels rich and costly set» 
Others  Poetry their its foct, 
Another thinL to be an Alchemish 
2"1 1 be penh d that h numbeCs 
Conctcd foels they are, madmen upon record ; and I ara afmld past ro 
many of thcm, * creunt ingui, the symptoms are mffest, they are  of 
Gotam pm'hh : 
a « Qaum ror hand dnbln qnnm gt manlfta phrenls»" 
(Since madn  iadisputabl soe frenzy  obvio.) 
xvhat rcmalns then "Imt to send for rarios, those office to cay them 
together for company to Bedlam, and set abehis to be their physiciam 
If any man shall ask in the meantime, xvho I ara that so boldly censure 
otherg tu nulla lb vit ? have I no faults  ty more than thou ht, 
whatver thou a. 'os nunwr sum, I coe it agah, I ara  fooh, 
 mad as any on 
 t Insanns vobls vldeor, non depreeor 
Quo m " 
I do hot deny if, de de populo atur. Iy eomfo h, I have more 
fcllows, and those of excellenç note. And though I be hot  right or so d- 
creet as I should be yet noç  mad, so bad neither» as thou perhaps take$ 
me fo 

• An slnt, qnalcs Int, unde nomen illud asclvei'tnt, tTurri label. I Omulum artlum et 
sclennarum instaurator, a Dvinus i11c Oir anetor notarum in epist. Rog. Iaeon, ed. Hambnr. 1608. 
• Sapientiœe desponsati. * "From the Iising Sun to the Ioeotid Lake. there was hot one that ¢ould 
fairly be put In comparison wlth them." • Solus hic eg sapiens alli volitant velut umbroe, • in 
ep. ad Baith-m. Ioretum.  IleJecticuloe ad Patavum. Felinus cure reliquis, • [ag.num 
virum eeqni est Iapere, ome thlnk; others desipere. Catul. * Plant. blenec. 
• Or to send for a cook to the Anticyroe to make heilebore portage, settle-brain portage. « Aliquan- 
tulum tamen Inde me olabor, quod unà cure multis et tapientibus et ceieberrimis viris Ipse lnstpien sims 
qtmd e Menippus Luciani la lqecyomantitL • Petronius in Catalcct. 



f2emocrglus to the Reader. 

Te conelude, thiz bcing granted, that all the woHd is mclancholy, or mad, 
doats, and every member of it, I bave ended my task, and uffieiently illus- 
trated that which I took upon me te demonstrate at fil'St. At this present I 
bave no more te ay ; Ilis s««am nzente» Democritus, I can but wi-h myself 
avd them a good physician, and all of us a better mind. 
And although tbr the abovenamed reasons, I had a just cause te undertak« 
tllis subject, te point at these particular species of dotage, that se men might 
-',_cknowlcdge their imperfections, and scck te reform what is amiss; yet I haro 
tt more serious intent at this time; and te omit all impertinent digrcssions, 
te say no more of such as are improperly melancholy, or mctaphorically mad, 
IJghtly mad, or in disposition, as stupid, angry, drunken, silly, sottish, sullen, 
l,roud, vain-glorious, ridiculous, beastly, peevish, obstinate, impudent, extrava- 
gant, dry, doting, dull, desperate, harcbrain, &c., mad, frantic, foolish, hetero- 
dites, vhich no new hosl,ital can hold, no 1,hysic hdp ; my pnrpose and 
cudeavour is, in the following discoule te anatomize this humour of melan- 
choly, throngh all its l,aoEs and spccies, as itis .an habit, or an ordinary dis- 
case, and that l,hilosophically, medicinally, te show the causes, symptoms, and 
everal cm'es of it, that it may be the better avoided, hloved thereunto for 
the gcncrality of it, and te de good, it being a diseuse se frcquent, as lhIercu- 
rialis observes, "in these onr days i se often happening," zaith *Laurentius, 
"in our miserable times," as few there are that lbel net the smart of it. Of 
the saine mind la JElian Montalius, aMelancthon, and others ; Jnlius Coesar 
Claudinas calls it the "fountain of all other d]seases, and se common in this 
crazcd tge of ours, that scarce one of a thou.and is frce from it ï and that 
ul,lenetic hyp-chond»iacal wind especially, which proceeds frein the splee]t 
and :hort ribs. ]3eing then a diseuse se grievous, se common, I -know net 
vhelin te de a more gcneral service, and spend ny time butter, than te pre- 
ucr,be mcaus how te prevent and cure se univcrsal a malady, an epidemical 
diseuse, that se often, se much crucifies the body and mind. 
IfI have overhot mysclf in this which hath been ldtherto aid, or that itis, 
which I ara sure some will oect, too fantastical, "too light and comical for a 
Divine, too satirical for one of my profession," I will presume te answer with 
 Erasmus, in like case, 'ris net I, bufl Democritus, Demoeritus dioE : you 
laut considcr what it is te speak in on's own or another's per'on, an assumed 
habit and naine ; a difference bctwixt him that affects or acts a prince's, a 
philosopher's, a magistrate's, a fool's part, and him that is se indeed ; and 
what liberty those old satirists bave had $it i a conte collected frein others ; 
net I, but thcy that ay it. 
, o Dixero 1 quld forte Joeoslu, hec rnthl jurt 
Cure vcla tlabis. '° 
Ter seine Indulgence I may justly claim 
If too familiar  ith nnother'e fume. 
Take heed, you mistake me net. IfI de a little forger myself, I laope you 
xvill pardoa it. And te say truth, xvhy hould any man be offended» or take 
ez.Cel, tions at it  
 l.lcult, emperque 11c¢11t, 
l'arccre pcaonis, di¢cre de 
It lawfttl waa of old, and still will be 
"£o sleaX of vice» but let the naine go Il-ce. 
" hate their vices, net their persons. Jï any be displeased, or take aught unto 

 That I rnean of Andr. Vale. Apolog. matp. 1.1 ,t..20, A.pol. . . ' I/oee.affecflo nostris [emportbu$ 
frequent|slma.  Cap. 15. de lel. • l)e anime ostro nec soecmo rnOrbns frequentissirnus. 
 Consult. 98. adeonostrts temporibus frequenter lnffruit ut nullus fere ab e|us labe immunis reperiatur et 
omvlum lere morborurn oecasio existat.  M,»r. Encore. si qnis calou,oietur levitts cne quam decet 
'/aeologurn» aut rao'daciua quam d¢'eat Christianum.  l/oz. at ¢ t. 1. 



Z, emocqus fo tlm Re:tder. 73 

himseIf, let him hot expostulate or cavil with him that aid if (so did PErasmus 
excuse himself to Dol'plus, »i parva licet componere maçnis) and so do I; "but 
Ici him by angTy xvith himselt; that so betrayed and opened his own iïtults 
in applymg it to llimself:" «if he be guilty and deaerve it, let him amend, 
whoever he is and hot be angry. "]e that hateth correction is a fool," lrov. 
xii. 1. Ifhe be hot guilty, it concerns him hot; it is hot my freeness ofspeecl 
but a guilty conscience, a gallcd back of his owrt that makcs him wince. 
«' Suspmione si quts errabtt subi, 
Et rapiet ad se, quod erit commune 
tult,'. nudabit tmimi concientiam." * 
I deny hot this which l havc said soEvours a little of Democïitus; 
'identem dicere veru»t quid vetat; one may speak in jest, and yet speak truth. 
It is somewhat tar, I grant it; acriortt orexim excitant embammata, as he 
said, sharp sauces increase appctite, "nec cibus ipse juvat morst fraudatus 
aceti. OI,ject thcn and cavil whaç thou wilt, X ward all with «Democritus's 
buckler, his medicine shall sMve it ; strike whcre thou wil, and whcn : Demo- 
critus dlxit, Dêmocritus will answcr it. If was written by an idle fcllow, at 
idlc rimes, about our Satm'nalian or Dyonisian fea.sts, when as he said, nullum 
libertati periculum est, servants in old Rome had liberty to say and do what 
them list. Vhen out countrymen sacrificed fo theh" goddcss Vacuna, and 
sat tippling by their Vacunal filS, I writ this, and published this 
i is nemisis nihil. The time, place, persons, and ail circumstances apologise 
for me, and xvhy may X not then be idle with others speak my mind freely 
If you dcny me this liberty, upon thcse l, rcsumptious I wiLl take it: X say 
again, I will take if. 
« • Si quls est qui dictum In e inclenlentiu 
LMstimavR ese sic exitirnct." 
If any man ta]¢e exceptions, let hlm turn the buckle of hls girdle, 
I owe thee nothing (Readcr), I look for no f.vour st thy hauds, I ara inde- 
peadent, I fear hot. 
/fro, I recant, I will hot, I care, I fcar, I confess my fault, acknowledgc 
grcat offcuco» 
• motos prœestat eomponere flnctus. » 
(------]et's first assaage the tToubled wres.) 
I have overshot myælf, I have spoken foolishly, rashly, unadvisedly, absurdly, 
I bave anatomized mine own folly. And now methiuks upon a sudden I ara 
awaked as if were out of a dream; I have had a raving fit, a fantastical fit, 
ranged up and down, in and out, I have iusulted over the most kind of men, 
abused some, offended others, wronged myself; and now being recovered, and 
perceiving mine error, cry with rOrlando, Solvit me, pardon (o boni) that 
which is past, and I will make you amends in that which is fo eome I 13romiso 
you a more sober discourse in .y foilowhlg treatise. 
If through weakness, folle, passion, "discourent, ignorance, I bave said 
amiss, let it be forgotten and forgiven. I acknowledge that of "Tacitus fo ba 
true, Asperce facetiæ ubi nimis ex veto traxere, acrem sui memoriam rdinquunt, 
a biffer jest lcaves a sting bchind it: and as art honourable man observes, 
'" They fear a a;tirist's wit, he their memories." I may justly suspect the 

v Epl. ad Dorptnm de Morts. si qulsplam offcndatur et sibi vlnd|cet, non habet quod expostulet cure eo qui 
$cripsit, lpse si volet, secum agat injuriam, utpote sui protlitor, qui declaravit hoc .1 se propric pertinere. 
q Si tlul$ se L't.sum clamabit, sut conacientiam prodt suam, sut ccrte metum. Phoedr. lib. 3. A:op. Fab. 
* Ifany one shall err through his owu suspicion, sud shall apply to himsclf what is common fo all, he will 
toolisifly betray a cousciou«nesa of guLIt, • Hor. • lart. 1. 7. 22. t Ut lubet feriat, absterlmt 
boa ietus Democ=4ti phannaeo$. = RusticorUm des preesse vacantibus et otiosis putabatur, cul post 
labores agricola saeificabat. Flirt. l. 3. c. 12. O id. 1.6. Faat. Jam quoque eum fitmt antiquoe sacra Vacume, 
ante Vacunales stanlque sedentque focos. Rosinus. = Ter. prol. Eunneh. • Ariost. 1.39. Star. % 
• Ut enim ex studiis gau41um, sic studia ex hilaritate proveniuut. Phnius lll4aimo sut,, ep. lib. 8. • AaaaL 
lb, b ir l:ranci Baca in hin Ezays s now Vicout 2t. A'_.b-"-n. 



7  l-gcmo«'itus to tire P, eaarer. 

worst; and though I hoIe I have wronged no man, yct in ]k[edea's words I 
will crave pardon- 

And In y last wnrd tls ! do deslre, 
Yhat hat in p.sion I bave said, ¢r |r 
$1a.v be forgotten, and a bettcr m|ntl 
I.e had of u.% hereafrcr tre you fiatL 

I earnest]y req,cst evcry private man, as Scal]gcr 
offence. I will condude  his lines, S£  cogntum haber,  soluu 
nar ob has fetias nostras, s eliam indignum dr, 
aimum,  ngenum, vd inmam spnem ea oporre. If thou 
knewt my  modesty and simplidty, thou wouldst efly pardon and for- 
give what is here amiss, or by thce misconoeivcd. If herfter ana[omizing 
this surly humour, my hand slip,  an unskilfid 'prentioe 
and c,t through skin and all af unawaroe, make it sma, or eut aw, pardon 
a rude hand, an unskilfid knife, 'ris a most difficult thing to keep an even tonc, 
a perpctual nor, and hot somctimcs to lh out; dci 
scribere, there be  many objects to divert, ward perturbations to molest, 
and the ve best may sometimes e; allquando bonus dmitat Hru 
(sometimes that excellent Homer takes a nap), ig is impossible hot in so much 
to overshoot; «7mre i»t longo las est obre2«e somnum. But what needs 
all this I hope there will no such cae of offenoe be ven 
,, d Vemo ali9uid reco9wscat , os timur omnla. I'fi deny all (my last 
refuge), reeant all, renounce all I hure id, if any man except, and mth 
much facility excus%  lin can accuse; buç I iresume of tby good ftvour, 
and 'ado acceptance (gentle reade O. Out of an assm-ed hope and con- 
denoe thercoÇ I will beg. 

* Qnoe] Probs Persil/7,o7pa¢o¢ vh'glnal! v'eretmndià rcrum ¢,le dleit, eo, &c. eQna.« at 
lncnria fudit, aut humana parure cavit natura. Hot. a l'roi, qttoe. Plztttt. "Let hot -qy o taX 
thc thin£ to htms.l/» they are al! but fiction$." 



LECTOïI IAL FERIATO. 

Tu vero OEvesls edico qnisquis es, ne temere .ugilles Auctorcm hujusee operla, 
aut cavillator irrideas. Imo ne vel ex aliorum censura tacite obloquari. (vis 
dicam verbo) ne quid nasutulus inepte improbes, aut lalso fingas. :Nain si talis 
reverâ sit, qualem proe se fert Junior Derrwcritus, seniori Denocrio saltem 
affinLs, aut ejus Genium vol tantillum sapiat; actum de te, censorem oeque ac 
delatolm "aget e contrn etulalt splene cran sit), sulttabit te in jocos, commi- 
nuet in sales, addo etiam, et cleo risui te sacrificabit. 
Iterum moneo, ne quid cavillet, nedum Democritum Juniorem conviciis 
infames, aut ignominiose vitupets, de te non mle sentientem: tu idem audias 
ab amico cordato, quod olim vulgaL Abdritanurr* ab  IIippocrate, concivem 
bene meritum et popularem suum Dernocritum, pro insatto habens. 2'e tu 
I)errwcrite sayis ,tulti auterr, et insani Abderil. 
• u Abderitanœe pectora plebIs habes.  
IIoec te paucis admonitum vlo (malè feriate Lector), abC- 

TO THE I,EADER AT LEISURE. 

VHO-g you may be, I caution you against rahly dcfam[ng t]le mlthor o 
this work, or cavilling in jest against hirm Tay, do hOt silently rel-,roach him 
in consequence of others' censure, nor employ your wit in foolish dhapproval, 
or false accusation. For, shou]d Democritus Junior prove to be what he 
professes, even a kinsman of Iris elder namesake, or be ever so little of the 
saine kidney, it is ail over with you : ho will become both accuser and judge 
of you in your spleen, will dissipate you in jests, pdverise you into salt, ad 
saclfice you, I can promise you, fo the god of Iirth- 
I further ad,ise you, not to asperse, or calumniate, or slander, E)emocritus 
Jmior, who possibly does hot think ill of you, lest you may hear from some 
dLscreet friend, the saine remark the people of Abdern did ftm Itippocrates 
of their meritorious and popular fvllow-citizen, whom they haA looked on as  
madman  "It is hot that you, Democritus, that art wise, but tha the people of 
Abdera are fools and madmen." "You bave yourself an Abderitian soul;" and 
laaving just ven you, gentle reader, these few words of admonition, çarewelL 
• SI me commuter, mellu non tsngere clamo. Hot.  Hippoe. eplt. Damageto. Accersltu sure ut 
Democrltum tanquam insanum curarem, sed pOstquam converti, uou per Jovem deslptentiæ negotium, sed 
reram omnlum receptaculum deprehendt, eJusque ingenlum demiratu sure. Abderitanos vero tanquam nou 
anos accusavl veratri potione ipsos potius eguisse dicens. « Maff.. 



IIERCLtT flcas, mlsero s|c cOnvenlt oevo 
/qil nisi turpe rides, nil nisi triste videa 
ide etiam, quantumque lubet., I)emocrite ride 
:Non nisi "cana rides, non nisi stulta vldes. 
fletu, hic risu modb gaudeat, unus utrique 
Sit licet usque labor, sit licet usque dolor. 
iTunc opus est (nain totus eheu jam desipit orbis) 
lille IIeraclitis, milleque I)emocritis. 
ttnc opus est (tanta est insania) transeat omnis 
lundus in Ant.cyras, gramen in tIelleborum, 

Veep, 0 Ieraclitus, iL sults tlae age, 
Unless you see nothing base, nothing sad. 
Lmgh, 0 I)emocritus, as much as you please, 
Unless you see nothing either vain or foolish. 
Lt one rejoice in smi]es, the other in tears; 
Let the saine labour or pain be the office of botb. 
lTow (for alas! how foolish the world bas become), 
Ak thousand /eraclitus'» a thousand Democritus' are requ]retl. 
ow (so much does madness prevail), all the world muet be 
Sent fo Antic'ra to grze on IIellbore. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE FIRST PAPTITION. 

In discases, 
considcr 
ect. 1. 
«nb. 1. 

Melancholy: 
in which 
eonsider 

Cattse. 

Or 

Definition, 
Member, 
Division- 
Bub». 

I Impulsive; 
Instrumental; 
Of the body 
300, which are 

Of the hcad 
or mind. 
ubs. 3. 

Sin, concupiscence. 
Intemperance, all second causes, 
Epidemical, us Plague Plica, &c. 
or 
Particular, as Gout, I)ropsy, &c. 
lin disposition; as ail perturbations, evi| 
affection, &c. 
Or r Dotago. 
Frenzy. 
Madness. 
Ecsty. 
Habits, as Lycanthropia. 
BubÆ. 4. Chorous sancti VitL 
Hydrophobia. 
Possession or obsession of 
Devils. 
Mclancholy. See q. 

'Its Equlvocafious, in Disposition, Impropor, &c. 

«bsect. 5. 

3Iemb. 2. [ contained as J Humours, 4. Blood, Phle.,zm, 
To its ex- [ Body |  natural, 
Spirits; vital, animal 
plication, a | bath I or {- Similar; spermatical, or flesh, 
digression | parts ) bones nerves, &c. 8ubs. 3. 
ofanatomy,/ubs. 2. containing ) Dissimilar; brain, heart, liver, &e. 
in which " . 8a/. 4. 
observe 
parts of / (VegetaL ,,bs. 5. 
ub. 1.  Seul and its faculties, as  Sevsible. ,bs. 6, 7, 8. 
(RationaL ,Subsect. 9, 10, 11. 
Its definition, naine, difference, Subs. l. 
The part and parties affected, affectation, &c. %[bs. 2. 
The marrer .f melancholy, natural, unnatural, &c. 8ubs. 4. 
' {-Of the head alerte, Hypo-Çwith thcir several 
Properto ]chondriacal, or windy'me- |caus s rem 
ki.d, (body. (P  ' ' 
which are Or 
Indefinite; as Lovo-melancholy, the subject of the third Par, 
titiom 
It Causes in generaL Seet. 2. A. 
Its Symptoms or signs. ect. 3. B. 
Its Proguostics or indications. ecL 4. 4. 
Its cures; thc subjec of the second Partition. 



78 

:ct. "2. 
1_ attses of 
Me!ancholy 
m'e either 

T'articular 
CtuSeSo 

'Super- 
naturaL 

/atural 

As from God immediately, or by second e,ares. 8«bs. 1. 
Or from the devil immediately, with a digression ot tho 
nature of spirits and dcvils. ,Subs. 2. 
Or mcdiately, by magieians, witches. Saba. 3. 
'Primary, as stars, provcd by nphorisms, si."as from phy 
sioguomy, mctoposeopy, ehiromancy. ,b'«bs. 4. 
Congenite, (Old age, temperament, ,Subs. 5.. 
inward - Parents, it bein an hereditary disease, 
lorn ( ubs. 6. 

Or 

Outwm'd 
or ad, 
titious, 
which axe 

Ptrticxalar to th¢ threc specles. Sec rr. 

Eident, 
ontward, 
remote, 
ventitious 

Inward 
' Of head 
lancholy axe, or 
'ubs. 3. 

Of h)'pochon- 
driacal, or 
 indy Mrlan- 
choly are, 

Or 

Contingent, 
iuward, an- 
tcccdent, 
ilearcst. 
alemb. 5. 
,,ct. 2. 

'/ecessary, sec . 
lurses, ,S'ubs. 1. 
Education, Subs. 2. 
ci Tcrrors, affrights, 
,Subs. 3. 
Scoffs, calumnies, 
biterjcsts,,Sabs. 4. 
Loss of liberty, ser- 
vitude, imprison- 
ment, ,Subs. 5. 
Po crty and want, 
,Subs. 6. 
A hcap of other ac- 
cidents, death of 
tiionds, lo»s &e 
'as. . 
In whieh the body works 
on the mind, and this 
malady is caused by 
preeedent diseases; as 
agues, po.x, &e-, or 
tcmperattu'e iamat3. 
Eubs. 1. 
Or by particular pm'ts 
distcmpered, as brain, 
heart, splecn, livcr, 
mescntcry, pylorus 
tomach, &e. ,Subs. 2. 

Over all the 
b,ody are, 
ubs. 5. 

/nnate humour, or from distcrnperature adust. 
A hot brain, corruptcd blood in the braia. 
Excess of vencrj; or dctëct. 
I Agues, or some preeedent disee. 
[l:umes ari»ing from the stomach, &c. 
Ileat of the snn immoderate. 
A blow on thc hcaoE 
Ovcrmuch usc of hot wines, spices, garlic, onlons, 
hot baths, ovcrmuch waking, &c. 
Oatward Idleness, solàtarincss, or overmuch stndy, vehe- 
ment labour, &c. 
Passions, pcrturbatios, &c. 
' Inwaxd ( Dcfault of spleen, belly, bowels, stomach, mescn- 
} tery, miseraic veins, liver, &c. 
or ") Months or hemorrhoids stoppçd, or any other 
{_ ordinary evacuation. 
Outward  rhose six non-natural things abuscd. 
Inwaxd JLivcr distempered, stopped, over-hot, apt to en- 
or ( gender mclancholy, temperature innate. 
Outward.  Bad diet, suppression of hemorrhoids, &c., and 
 such evacuations, passions, cares, &c.» thoç 
• ix nou-nat,u-al things abuseŒE 



'eces- 
sary 
causes, 
those 
atural 
thinlS, 
xx hich 
al'e, 
,,'ect. 2. 
3[emb. 
2. 

Symp- 
toln 
of me- 
laneho- 
Iv are 
èither 
• Ct. 3. 

stance 
Det 
offend- 
ing in « 
,sub$.3. Quali- 
ty, asin 
I Qllan- 
 tity 
I{ctention and 
evacuafion, 
'ubs. 4. 

Bread; eoarse and black, &e. 
])rink; thick, rhin, sour, &e 
Water unclean, milk, oit, vinegar, wlne, spiees, 
{ Parts; heads, feet, entrails, fat, bacon, hlood, e. 
Flesh 4 .... /Beef pork, venison, hares, goats, pigeons, 
t t.ln(t, i peaoeks, fen-fowl, &e. 
Herbs, ( Of fish; all shcll-fish, ,h, ard and slimy fish, &c. 
Fih,  Of herbs; puise, eabbagc, melons, garlick, onions» &c. 
&c. ( Ail roots, raw fi-uits, hard and windy meats. 
Prcpariug, drcssing, sharp sauces, sah mcats, indurate, soused, 
fricd, broiled, or madc dishes, &c. 
'Disorder in eafing, immoderatc eating, or et nnseasonable 
timcs &c., ,subs. 2. 
Custom; delight, appetite, altercd, &c., ,subs. 3. 
, Costivcness, hot baths, sweating, issues stopped, Vcnus in 
excess, or in dcfect, phlebotomy, purging, &c. 

Air; hot, cold, tempestnons, dark, thick, fogêy, moorish, &c., ,Sub». 5. 
Exereis%  Un«easonable, excessive, or defectiv% of body or mind, solitariness, 
,s«bs. 6.  idlencss, a lift out of action, &c. 
Slcep and waking, unseasonable, inordinate, overmuch, overlitde, &e., ,sub». 7. 
3[emb. 3. 8ect. 2. ' Sorrow, cause and symptom, ,subs. 4. Fear, cause 
Passions and ' and symptom, ,s«bs. 5. Shame, repulse, disgrace, 
perturbations of Irascible &c., 8ab». 6. Envy and malice, ubs. 7. Emu- 
thc mind. lation, hatred, fitction, desire of revenge, ,subs. 8. 
,subs. 2. With Anger a cause, ubz. . Discontents, c-.trcs, me- 
a digression of ries, &c., ,subs. 10. 
the tbrce of or Vehementdesires, ambhion,8ubs.ll. Covetousness, 
imagination. ç«eei,, ,S'ubs. 12. Love of pleasures, gamin in 
8ubs. 2., and di- excess,&c.,,S'ubs. 13. Desircofpraise, pl'ide, vain- 
concupts- glory, &c., ,subs. 14. Love of learning, study in 
vision of passions i cible. 
illtO, ,st«b. 3. excess, withadigTession ofthc miseryofscholars, 
and wl, y the muses are melaucholy, ,subs. 15. 
Body, as ill digestion, erudity, wind, dry brains, hard belly, fllick blood, much 
waking, hcaviness and palpitation ofheart, lcapiug in mnnyplaccs'&c.,,sub.l. 
i Commou {Fear and sorrow without a just cause, suspicion, jealousy 
te ail or - discontent, solitariness, irksomcness, cominnal cogitations, 
mo-t. . restless thoaghts, vain imaginations, &c., 8ub». 2. 
' Cclestial influences, as   ', &c., parts of the body, heart, 
brain, liver, spleen, stomach, &c. 
ï [ Sanguinc are merry stiIt' lauhing, pleasant, medi- 
 [ tating on plavs, women, music, &c. 
 or Or, [ Phlcgmatic, slo'thful, dull, àcavy, &c. 
1-In-  Cholcric, furious, impatient, stbjccg te hcar and 
 meurs | sec strange apparitions, &c. 
/ Black, solitary, sad; they think they are bcwitched, 
Partlcn- [ dead, &c. 
lar te 
private Or mlxed of these four humours adust, or net adust, infi- 
 pcrsons, tfitely varied, &c. 
accord- Their several [ Ambitious, thinks himsclfa kinç, a lord; co- 
ing te customs, con- ] vetous, runs on llis money: lascivious, on 
• Sub».3 4. I ditions, incli-ç his mistress; rcligious, bath revelations, 
nations, disci- ] visions, is a prophet, or tro»bled in mind; 
pline, &c. | a scbolar, on his book, &e. 
[ Ileasant at first, hardivdisccrned; aflerwaxds 
Continuance | harsh and intoleraf)le, if inveterate. 
of time as the | - .  1. Fal»a c_itatio. 
. . .  cnce some maKe   « -.. ". . 
humour s m- ç ,. aee s "i - L°gtrata toquL 
tcndcd or re- | t. 3. Exequ loquutum. 
mitted, &c. / By flts, or contlnnate, as the object varies, 
| pleasing, or displeasing. 
Simple, or s it is mixed with othcr diseases, apoplexies gout, canfilU oI,petitu 
&c., se the symptoms are various. 



80 Synops4.s of a F;rs P«rt;do« 

Particalar 
symptoms te 
the three dis- 
tinet speeies. 
8ect. . 

Ce 
Prognosties 
t melanchol.y. 

{" Iloadach, binding and heaviness, vertigo, lightne«% 
 singing" of the ears, mueh waking, fixed eyes, 
In body ) high eolour, red eyes, hard belly, dry body; no 
Ilead me- I_ great sign of melaneholy in the other parts. 
lancholy, or 
8-bg. 1. ÇContimml fear, sorrow, suspicion, discontcnt, su- 
.} pertluous eares, solicitnde, anxiety, perpetual 
« In mind. ) cogitation of sueh toys they arc posscsscd with, 
. thoughts like dreams, &e. 
'Wind, rumbling in the guts, belly-aeh, heat in 
the bowels, convulsions, erudities, short wind, 
Y[.vpo- !In body our and sharp belchings, cohl sweat, pain in 
clondrla- thc left side, snffocation, palpitation, hcaviness 
of the hcart, singing in thc ears, much spittl, 
cal, or 
windy and moist, 
melan- or 
(earful, sad, su.pieions, diseontent, anxlctF, 
choly. In mind. { Lascivious hy remon of mueh wind, troublèsomo 
;ubs. 2. ( dreams, affccted by fits, &c. 
J Black, most part lean, broad ve|ns, gross, thick 
Over all In body  blood, thcir hemorrhoids commonly stopped, &c. 
the body. or 
8ch». 3. In mind. ! Fearful, sad, solitary, hate light, averse from eom- 
( pany, fearful dreams, &e. 
Symptoms of nuns' maids', and widowa" melaneholy, in body and mind, &e. 
[ Why they are se fearful, sad, snspicions without a caus, why 
[ solitary, why melancholy men are wittv, why they suppose 
A reason | thcy hcar and sec strangc voices, visiohs, apparitions. 
of thcse 
symp- ( [ W'hy they prophesv, and speak strange languages; whcnco 
Memb.t°ms" / comcs thcir cru'dity, rumbling, couvulsions, cold sweat, 
3.| heaviness of heart, palpitation, cm-diaca fearful dreams, 
[ much waking, prodigious fantasies. 
{'Morphcw, seahs, itch brcaking ont, &c. 
) Black jaundice. 
Teuding te good» as ) If the hemorrhoids voluntarily open. 
{.If varices appear. 
'Leanness, dryness, hollow-eyed, &e. 
' Invcteratc mclancholy is incurabh:. 
Tendiog te evil, as If cold, it dcgen«rates often into epilepsy, apo- 
plexy, dotage, or into blindncss. 
If hot, into madness, despair, and violent death. 
f The grlevousness of this abovo ail other dise.ses. 
Thc disc&es of thc mind are more grievous than 
those of thc body. 
Corollarles and ques- Whether it be law, fui, in this case of melaneholy, 
rie ,tre.  for a man te offcr violence te himself. Are.q. 
I How a melancholy or mad man offcring violence 
te/fimself, fs te be eensured. 



THE FIRST SECTION, ]IEMBER, SUBSECTION. 

$Iargs Excellency, Fall, Miser, Infirmiies; T] causes of tlem. 
M«r?s Excellenry.] ]I, the most excel]ént and noble creature of the 
world, "the principal and mlghty work of God, wonder of nature," as Zoro- 
aster calls him ; audacis aturoe miraculum, "the ° marvel of marvels," as 
l'lato; "the b abridgment and epitome of the worhl," as Pliny; Iicrocosmus, 
a little world, a model of the world, e sovereign lord of the earth, viceroy of the 
world, sole commander and governor of all the creatures in if ; fo whose empire 
they are sub]ect in particular, and yield obedience; far SUrlssing all the rest, 
hot in body only, but in soul; aImafirds Imago, °created to God's own image, 
to that immortal and incorpore.al aubstance, with ail the facxflties and powers 
belonging unto if; was at £rst pure, divine, ierfec, happy, « «created after 
God in true holiness and righteousness;" Deo congruens, free from all manner 
of infirmities, and put in Paradise fo know God, fo praise and glorify him, to 
do his will, Ut diis consmiles ;oaruria$ deos (as an old poet saith) fo propagate 
the church. 
$[an's ]¢'all and S[isery.] But this most noble creature, Heu tristis, eg 
lacl, rymosa commutatio C' one exdaims) 0 pitiful ch3nge ! is fallen from that ho 
,vas, and forfeited his estate, become miserabilis lwmundo,  cast-away, a 
caitiff, one of the mos miscrable creatures of the world, if he be consldered in 
his own nature, an unregenemte man, and so much obscured by his çall that 
{some fev reliques exccpted) he is inferior fo a beast, "'M3n in honour tha 
understandeth hot, is like unto beasts that perish," so David esteems him : a 
monster by stupend metamorphosis * a fox, a dog, a hog, what not? Quantu», 
mutatus ab illol Itow much altercd from that he was; before blessed and 
happy, now miserable and accursed; "' l=[e toast eat his meat in sorrow," 
subject fo death and all manncr of infirmities, all kind of calamities. 
A Description «fyJ[elancoly.] "'Great travail is created for all mcn, and 
an heavy yoke on the sons of Adam, from the day that they go out of theit 
mother's womb, unto that day thcy return to the mother ofall things. Namely, 
their thoughts, and fear of their hc-q.rts, and their imagination of things they 
wait for, and the day of death. From him that sitteth in the glorious thème, 

• .aguttra m[raculum, tMund[ epltome, natur delic[oe, • Finis rerum omnlum, eu| sublunar& 
ervinnt. Scal/g. exercit. 365. sec. 3. VaIes. de sacr. Phil. c. 5. • Ut in numismate Coearis imago, sic in 
homine Dei. • Gen. !. tImago mundi in corpole, Dei in anima. Exemplumque dei quisque est in 
imagine parva • Eph. iv. 2  P!anteriu. t p8l glig. ?,0.  Lcivi superat eluum, impuo 
dntl canera» astu v]pem, furole leoucrn. Ch's. 23. Gen. ' Gen. iii. 13. m Ecclus. iv. 1, 2, 3, 4 5, 8, 
G 



fo him that si ;teth beneath in the earth and ashes; from him that is clothed in 
blue silk and weareth a crown, to him that is clothed in simple linen. ,Vmth, 
envy, trouble, and unquietness, and fcar of death, and rigour, and strife, and 
such things corne fo boh man and beast, but sevenfold fo the ungodly." 
this befalls him in this lire, and peradventure ctcrual misery in the life fo corne. 
f mloulsive Cause of Mars Misery and Infirmlties.] The impulsive cuse of 
these miseries in Man, this privation of destruction of God's image, the CtLSe 
of death and diseuses, of all temporal and eterual punishments, was the sin of 
out first parent Adam, ° in eating of the tbrbiddeu fruit, by the devil's insti- 
gation and alIurement. ]=[is disobedience, pride, ambition, intemperance, incre 
dulity, curiosity; from whence procecded original sin, and that general corrup- 
tion of mankind, as from a fountain flowed all bad inclinations and act.ual 
transu, ressions which cause out several calamities inflicted upon us for our sius. 
And this bclike is that which our fabulous poets have shadowed unto us in the 
talc of °Pandora's box, which being opened through hcr curiosity, filled the 
world full of all mancr of diseses. It is no curiosity alone, but those other 
crying sins of ours, which pull these several l,lagues and miseries upon out 
heads. For Ubi leccaturn, ibi procella, as VChryso.tom wll observes. "« Fools 
by rcaon of their transgression, and becaxse of thcir iniquities, are affiicted. 
"Fear comcth like sudden desolation, and destruction like a whirlwind, afflic- 
tion and angu£h," bccate they did not fear God, "" Are you shaken with 
wars" as Cyprian wcll urgeth to Demetrius, "are you molested with dearth 
and famine ? is your health crushed with rang diseascs is mankind gene- 
rally tormented with epidemical malaAies? 'tis all for your sins," Hag. i. 9, 
10; Amos £ ; Jet. vii. God is angry, ptmisheth and threateneth, because of 
their obstincy and stubbornness, they will hOt turn unto him. '"If the earth 
be burren then for want of tain, if dry and squalid, if yield no fruit, if your 
fountains be dried up, your wine, corn, and oil blasted, if the air be corrupted, 
and men troubled with diseases, 'tis by reason of their sins :" xvhich like the 
blood of Abel cry loud to heaven for vengeance, Lam. v. 15. "That we have 
sinned, therefore out hearts are heavy," Isa. lix. 11, 12. "We roar like 
bears, and mourn like dovcs, and want balth, &c. for our sins and trespasses." 
]ut this we cannot endure to heur or to take notice oi Jet. ii. 30. " We are 
smitten in vain and receive no correction;" and cap. v. 3. "Thou hast 
stricken them, but they bave no sorrowed ; they bave refused to receive cor- 
rection ; they bave hot returned, lestilence he bath sent, but they have hot 
turued to him," Amos iv. = Herod could hot abide John Baptist, nor • Domitiau 
endure Apollonius to tell the causes of the plague af Ephesus, his injustice, 
incest, adultery, and the like. 
To punish therefore this blindness and obstinacy of ours as a concomitant 
cause and principal agent, is God's just judgment in bringing these calamities 
upon us, to chastise tL, I say, for our sins, and to satisfy God's wrath For the 
law requires obedience or punishment, as you may rend at large, Deut. xxviii. 
15. "If they will hot obey the Lord, and keep his commandments and ordi- 
nanoe% then ail these curses shall corne upon them.  Cursed in the town and 
in the field, &c. "Cursed in the fruit of the body, &c. The Lord shall send 
thee trouble and shame, because of tby wickedness." And a little aftcr, 
"The Lord shall smite thee with the botch of Egypt, and with emrods, and 

a Gen. iii. 17. oIlla cadens tegmen manlbus decuit, et una pernlclem immlslt mlse molib 
am. lliod. 1. Oper.  Hom. 5. ad p. Antioeh. q Psal. evfi. 17. r Pro i. 27. s Qud 
autem ebriu beHa cncutnç qu6d sterili[ et f olicituoe Cenç qu6d vientib morb 
valedo gztur, qnod h gea I popatione vt; oh pet omnia. Cypr « Si rare 
dnpvr pluvia dcenç i tea itu pulver uç i voE j et plid herb  gleba 
produç m turbo ne debxht,  Cr  Mat xv 3 a Plo 
.... " " - " • • " sat, b. 8. t. Apoll0nii. 
Injtitm ej et elerat nupti et cœe.era q proeter rafionem feccra morborum c xit. y 16. 
• 18. • 20. b Verse 27. 



l'em. I. Sul)s. 1.] 1)easea  Oenera. 83 

seab, and itch, and thou canst hot be healed. ¢With madness, blindnesa, and 
astonishing of heart." This Paul seconds, Rom. ii. 
mguh on the mul of cvery man that doth evil." Or ehe these chast 
ntents are infliced upon us for out humiliation, $o exercioe and Sryour patience 
here in this lire, to bng us home, o make  to know God oulves, to form 
and ach us wisdom. "«Theoefore is my ol»le gone in captiviy» becaum 
they had no knowledge; herefore is the wrath of the Lord kindled agains 
peopl and he hah stoeched out h hand upon them." He  dessous of 
our svation. "ostroe saluti a,qus, ith Lemnius, and for tha uoe pulls 
us by the ear many times» fo put us in mind of out duties: "That they which 
erred might bave dsandg, (as Isaiah speaks xxix. 2) and 
formeoE  1 ara aicted, d at the poin$ of dth,"  ad confessefl of 
himsel Psalm lxxxviii, v. 15, v. O. "5le eyes are owful through miuo 
action:" and hat ruade him Surn unto od. Çreat Alexandcr the midst 
of all his prosperity, by a company of parasites deified, and now ruade a god, 
vhen he saw one of his wounds blced, mcmbcred that he 
remitted of his pride.  mbo r«collbfit s a»tm,  as Phny vell peroeived; 
"Xn sickness the mind reflects upon itsel wih jndgment surveys itsel and 
abhom its furmer oeurses;" insomuch tiret he coucludes to his friend [arius, 
«gthat it were the pcriod of all philosophy,  we could so continue, sound, or 
perform but a part of çhat which we promioed fo do, being sick." Who is wiso 
then, w consider these things as avid did (Psal. cxliv., ver lt); and 
vhaoever foune befall him, make use ofit. If he be in som.ow, ne, sick- 
ness» or any oSher adversity, seriously fo rount with himoelÇ why his or tha 
malady, mLse, this or that incurable die is inflicted upon him; if may be 
fi»r h good,  s@ expoEit,  Peter id of his daugh$er's ague. odfly sick- 
ess is for his ul's health, «ris  pset, had he hot been visid, he 
hd utterly perished ; for "tthe Lord cocte$h him whom he loveth, even as 
a ther doth lfis child  whom he dehghteth." If he be mfe and sound on 
the other side, and fte from 
"Gratl fo v«letudo contingat abundè "And that he bave ae¢, u, favour, ht 
Et md victu% non deflciente ccnâ." 
Yet in the midst of s prosperity, let him remember that caveat of Ioses, 
" ware ha he do not forger the Lo his God; » that he be hot puffed up, 
but knowled hem to be his good fts and benefits, and "the more he 
hah, o be more than," ( Agapefianua advioeth) and use hem arigh 
]sttd Ç« of  ]firmiti.] ow the stmcnal ca of 
hese o firmities, are as diveroe as he ifies themoelves; 
eavens, e]emens, &c. d 
armed against ainne. They were deed onoe good in hemoelves, and that 
they are now many of them pemicious o , is hot in their nae, but out 
oen'upfion, hich bath OEused it. For from he  of out fit parent Ada, 
they bave been changed, the eth csed, the inflaenoe of sta ered, the 
four clements, beasts, hds, plts, are noxv ready to offend us. « The prin- 
cipal ga for he e of m, are water, tire, iron, salt, meal wheat honey, 
milk, off, wine, clothing, good fo he godly, fo the snc tued o evil," 
Ecclus. . 26. "Fim, and hail d fane and de'h, all these m'e creatcd 

• 8. ])et quos diligtt, eastigat, e Is. v. 13. verse 15. ® NosWoe ealutis ad contlnenter aes 
vel]cst, ac calaitate subinde nos exoecet. vi Le.n.I. 2. c. 29. de occt, nat. m@. * exatio dat 
Intellcctm. las. zxviii. 19. lu aickue tbe d recollec ilf. tLib. . Cm Jucio, Œeees 
et fazta reccit et e Inet. Dru fero lanor¢m, fero religlon om. Expers 1o non 
um memoe b amorSs, s Summum s toti phphi ut   verem, qual  
futurs e l profitoe, • Fearch.  Prov. iii. 12.  Hot. Epis. lib. 1.4.  Dt. i. 1L 
Qui st deat ne cadat. ç Qu moribua efic a D cmat» to obatiot M 
blr faterL 



84, 1)iseases in GeneraL [Pari. I. 8ee. I. 

for aengcan.'.e," Ecclus. xxxlx. 29. The heavens threaten us with their comets, 
stars, planers, with their great conjuuctions, eclipses, oppositions, quartiles, 
and such unfriendly aspects. The air with his meteors, thunder and lightning, 
intemperate heat and cold, rnighty winds, tempests, uuseasonable weather; 
from which prooeed dearth, famine, plague, and all sorts ofepidemical diseases, 
consuming infinite myriads of rnen. At Cairo in Egypt, every third year, (as 
if is related by *Boterus, and others) 300,000 die of the plague and 200,000, 
in COlstantinople, every fifh or seventh af the utrnost. How doth the earth 
terrify and oppress us with terrible earthquakes, which are most frequent 
*China, Japan, and those easteru climes, swallowing up sornetimes six citics 
at once  How doth the water rage with his inundatious irruptions, flin-6ng 
down towus, cities, villages, bridges, &c., besides shipwrecks; whole islands 
are sometimes suddenly overwhelmed with all their inhabitants in * Zealand, 
t[olland, and many parts of the continent drowned, as the » lake Erne in Ire- 
land  «Arihil7ue prcer arclum ¢adavera paent£ cernimus freo. In tho 
fcns of Friesland 1230, by reazon of tempests, "the sen drowned multa homi- 
urn millla, etjurnenta sne numero, all the count T almost, men and cattle 
if. How doth the tire rage, that merciless element, consuming in an instant 
whole cities What town of any antiquiy or note bath nos been once, again 
and again, by the fury of thiz merciless element, defaced, ruinated, and lef 
desolate] In a word, 
" • lgnis pepercit, unda mcrgt, aëris « Whora tire spare, sea doth dron ; -hom 
Vis pestilentis luori ereptum necat, Pestilcnt air doth send to clay; 
13ello superete.% tabitlus morbo petit." ¥hom -ar "eeape eickness takes away." 
To descend to more particulars, how many creatures are at deadly feud with 
men? Lions, wolves, bears, &c. Some with boom, hot'as, tusks, teeth, raails: 
How many noxious serpents and venomous creatures, ready to offend us with 
tings, breath, sight, or quite kill us  How many pernicious fishes, plants, 
gums, fruits, seeds, flowers, &c., could I reckon np on a sudden, which by their 
very smell many of them, touch, taste, cause some grievous mslady, if 
death itself Some make mention of a thousand several poisons: but 
.are but trifles in respect. The greatest enemy to man, is man, who by tho 
dcvil's instigation is still ready fo do mischief, his own executioner, a wolç 
 devil to himselï, and othcm.* "We are ail brethrea in Christ, or at lease 
should be, members of one body, servants of ono Lord, and yet no fiend eau 
so torment, insult over, tyraunize, vex, as one man doth another. Let mo 
hot fall therefore (saith Dvid, when wars, plague, famine were offered) into 
the hads of men, mereiless and wicked men: 
" " VIx stmt homlnes lmc aoratne dlgnl, 
Quàrnque lupi, smve plus feritatis habent." 
-Ve eau most part foresee these epide.mical diseases, and likely avoid them; 
Dearths, tempests, Plagues, out astrologers foretel us; F, arthquakes, inunda- 
tions, ruius of houses, eonsuming rires, corne by little and little, or make somo 
noise beforehand; but the knaveries, impostures, injuries and villanies of men 
no art can avoid. We can keep out professed enemies from out cities, by 
gares, walls, and towers, defend onrselves from thievez and robbers by watehful- 
ness and weapons; but this malice of men, and their peruicicus endeavottrs, 
no caution en divert, no vigilancy foresee» we bave so many secret plots and 
devices to misehief one another. 
Sometime.z by the devil's help as magicia.s, twitehes: sometimes by impos. 

_e, loterus de Inst. IrbJnrn.  Lege bist. relatlonern Lori. Fros de rebs 
• tiuicciard, descript. Belg. anno 1421. e Giraldun Cambrens q  ........ ponl.c.ls a_d annllm 1596. 
we pvrccav" nothmg," cxcept the dead bvdies of cities in the opeïa" sea. «,,. ïv_ï__»suns.ep. lb. 1. car. 10. And 
• uchanan. Baptist. * Home hornini ln-,- ---^ ----:-- -, er. 1.3. Ces. cap, 46. 
ti:eat caita novcrc e-, ,ouav auuasal temon.  Orid. de Trat. i. 5. Eieg. . 



]fcm. 1. Subs. 1.] Dse«se it Gener«[. 85 

tures, mixtures, poisons, stratagems, single combats, wars, we hack and hew, 
as if we wel ad idernecioner, nati, like Cadmus' soldiel born to consume one 
another. 'Tis an ordinary thing to read of a hundred and two hundred thou- 
sand men slain in a battle. Besides ali manner of tortures, brazen bulls, 
racks, wheels, strapadocs, guns, en-,ines, &c. uAd unum corpus humanum 
• uppliciaplura, qua» merabra: We bave invented more torturing instruments, 
than there be several members in a man's body, as Cyprian well observes. To 
corne nearer ye, our own parents by their iffcnces, indiscretion and intem- 
perance, are out mortal enemies. " "The fathers bave eaten sour grapes, and 
the children's teeth are set on edge." They cause our grief many times, 
and put upon us hereditary diseases, inevitable infirmitics : they torment us, 
and we are ready to injure out posterity; 

' «rnox tlaturi progealem vltlosiorem." I «' And yet wlth crimes fo t unknown, 
I 
Out ons hall mark the commg age their own." 

and the latter end of the world, as "Paul foretold, is still like to be the worst. 
We are thns bad by nature, bad by kind, but fitr worse by at, every man the 
greatest enemy unto himselï. We study many rimes to undo ourselves, ab,s- 
ing those good gifts which God bath bestowed upon us, health, wealth, 
strength, wit, learning, art, memory to our own destruction,  Perd/t/o tua ex 
te. As • Judas Iaccabeus killed 2pollonius with kis own weapons, we arm 
ourselves fo out own overthrows ; and use reason, art, judgment, all that 
should help us, as so many instruments to undo us. tector gave Ajax  
svord, which so long as he foght against enemies, served for his help and 
defence ; but after he began to hurt harmless creatures with it, turned to his 
own hurtless bowels. Those excellent meaus God hath bestowed on us, well 
employed, cannot but much avail us ; but ii otherwise perverted, they ruin and 
confound us : and so by reason of our indiscretion and weakness they com- 
monly do, we bave too many instances. This St. Anstin acknowledgeth of 
himsclf in his humble confessions, "promptness of wit, memor.v, eloquence, 
they were God's good gifts, but he did hot use them to his glory." If you 
will particularly know how, and by what means, consult physicians, and they 
• vill tell you, tht it is in offetxding in some ofthose six aomnatural things, of 
vhich 1 shall "dilate more at large; they are the causes of out infirmities, our 
surfeiting, and drunkenuess, out immoderate insatiable lust, and prodigiou. 
flot. lPlures crapula, quam gladius, is a true saying, the bord consumcs 
more than the sworoE Out intemperaace it is, that pulls so many several 
incurable diseases upon our heds, that hastens bold age, perverts out temper- 
ature, and brings upon us sudden death. And last ofall, that which crucifies 
us most, is otlr own folly, madness, (uos dupiter perdit, dmne»ttat; by sub- 
traction of kis assisting grace God permits it) weakness, want of government, 
our facility and proneness in yielding to several lasts, in giving way to every 
passion and perturbation ofthe mind: by which means we metamorphose our- 
selvcs and degenerate into beasts. _A_]l which that prince of  poets observed 
ofAgamemnon, that when he was well pleased, and could moderate his passion, 
he was---os oculosque Jovi par: like Jupiter in feature, ]Iars in valour, PaÀas 
in wisdom, another god; but when he became angry, he was a lion, a tiger, a 
dvg, &c., there appearcd no silex or likeness of Jupiter in him ; so we, as long 
as we are ruled by reason, correct out inordinate appetite, and conform our- 
selves to God's ord, are as so many saints: but ff we give relira to lnst, 
anger, ambition, pride, and follow out own ways, we degenerate into beasts 



86 DOE, :r, Div. ol D/«a«e. [-l'r. 1. Sec. 

transform ourselves, overthrow our constitutions, aprovoke God to snger, and 
heap upon us this of melancholy, and ail kinds of incurable diseases, as a jtLt 
and deserved punishment of our sins. 

StrSECT. II.T/m Defiiton, ff umS, Dvizo of Di&ases. 
WT a dis , almost eve physician dcfines. "Feelius leth it an 
"Affe&ion of the by contra to natte." « Fuschius and Cmto, "an hin- 
derance, hu, or alteration of any tion of the body, or  of la" t Th 
losanus, « a dsolution of that leste which  between body and soul, and a 
pcurbation of it ;  heMth the perfeion, and makes to the preservation 
of it."  Labeo  Agel, "an iii habit of the body, oppote to natte, 
hindering the u of it." Othe otherse, a to t effect. 
u»« of D«as.] IIow many dioees there are, h a question hot yet 
dermhed ;  Plinyreckons up 300 from the crown of the head to the sole of 
tbe foot : elwhere he saith, bm infinita mult, their number is 
infinite. Howsoever it w h those rimes, it boots not  in out days I ara 
te the numbcr h much augmented : 
Te cubat cohorsY" 
For esid many epidemical dioees hrd oç and ltogcther unkno to 
Glen and Hippocmt,  scorbutum, small-çox, pHOe, swting sickne, 
morbus Gaicus, &c., we have many pper and peculiar almost to eve pa. 
o nfi'fr some D or oer.] o man amont us so d, of 
so goed a constitution, that bath nos some impediment of body or minJ. 
Quç os «imur m«, we bave all our firmities, first or lt, more or 
]oes. There will be radventure  an age, or one of a thound, ke Zeno- 
œhilus the muician in t liny, that may happy live 105 yrs without any 
manner of impcdiment ; a Pollio omulus, tht OEn preserve himoe]f " 
wine and vil ;" a man as founate  Q. ctel]us, of whom Valcus so much 
bmgs ; a man  healthy as Otto Hcrwardus, a senar of Auburg in 
nmy, whom »Leotius the t]ogcr brings in for an examœle and insnoe of 
ccrt.aiuty in h a ; who bcoeuse he had the ifioeto n his genitum 
founate, and frce from the hostie pects of Satu and Iars, being a ve 
cold man, «  could nos remember tbat evcr he w sic." » Paracclsus may 
bg that he cod mtke a man live 400 y or more, if he might bring him 
up from h hfncy, and diet him as he list ; and some physicians hold, 
there is no certain period er man's lie ; but it may till by temperance and 
],hysic be plonged. We find in the meantime, by common expeenoe, that 
no an can epc, but that of Hesiod is true : 
"Hx«l p o 7 a, e 8 Aa«« ] « Th" hs fl of 
Nooo=" pwot  ' pp, N  ugrl Wi set un  both by nght and y." 
I 
D£vion of Dsoes.] If you rcqire a more exact division oftese orda 
diseases which are cidcot to en, I refcr you to physicians ;" tey wi teil 
you of acute and chroni% fit and oenda, ]eta]es, lutar, ent, 5xed, 
simple, copod, oennexed, or conoequent, belong to 

a tntemperantia, luxus, lngluvies, et lnfluita hoJumodi flagitia, qute (livtuas lnas merentur. Crato. 
• Feru. lath. I. t. ¢. 1. lorbus est afi'ectus ¢outra naturam ¢orpor! insidcns, t Fusch. Instit. ]. 3. 
œeeect. L e. 3. & quo prlmum vltiatur actio, g Dissolutio foederlz in corpore, uS sanltas est consummatiOo 
t Lib. 4. cap. 2. Morlms est habitu contra uaturam, qui usure ejus, &¢. l Cap. I 1. lib. 7. * Horat. 
lib. ".. ode 3. « ErnaciatioD, and a new cohort of revers broods orer the earth." k Cap. 50. lib. 7. Ceutum 
et quinqu vtxit annos sine ullo incommodo, ffi Intus mulso, fora. oleo. • Exemplis geuitur, proefixis 
Ephcmcr. cap. de inflrmitat.  Qui, quoad puerttioe ultimam memoriam recordari potest non meminit se 
gTOtUm decubuise. P Lib. de vitalonga. Oper. et Dies. • Sec Fernelius Fath lib I eau 9 
|0, 11 s [2. k'uchius insfit, l. 3. secS. 1. c. 7. Wccker. 5ynt. " " " " " 



].Iem. l. ubs. 4.] Div. of tle Diaeases of the llead. 

87 

habit, or in disposition, &e. My division at this rime (s most befitting my 
purpose) shall be into thos of the body and mind. For them of the body, a 
brief catalomae of which Fuschius hath ruade, Institut. lib. 3, sect. 1, cap. 11. 
:[ refer you te the voluminous ternes of Galen, Areteus, lhasis, Avicenna, 
Alexander, I>aulus .Etius, Gordonerius: and those exact lTeoteries, Savana 
rola, Capivaccius, Donatus lomarus, tIereules de Saxoni, Mercmialis, 
rictorius Faventinus, Wecker, liso, &c., that bave methodically and elabo- 
rately written of them all. Those of the mind and hcad I will briefly handle» 
and apar. 
StrBsECr. IIL--Dvslon of tle Diseases of glu lead. 
THeS. diseasee of the mind, forasmueh as they bave their chier sent and 
rgan in the head, whieh are commonly repeated amongst the diseases of tho 
head which are divers, and vary mueh according te their site. For in the head 
as there be several parts, se there be divers grievances, which aecording te tha 
division of tHeurnius, (whieh he takes outof Areulanus,) are inward or outward 
(te omit all others which pertain te eyes and ears, nostr[is, gums, teeth, mouth, 
palate, tongle, wesel, ehops, face, &c.) belonging properly te the bmin, as 
baldness, falling of hair, furfaire, lice, &c. * Inwmxl belonging te the skius 
next te the brain, ealled dura and pic mter, as all head-aches, &c., or te tho 
ventricles, caules, kels, tunicles, creeka, and parts of if, and their passions, as 
caro, vertigo, incubus, apoplexy, falling sa:ness. The diseases of the nerves, 
cramps, stupor, convulsion, tremor, palsy: or belonging te the excrements of 
the brain, catarrhs sneezing, rheums, distfllations: or else those that pertain 
te the substance of the brain itsclf, in which are conceivcd frenzy, lethargy 
melancholy, madness, weak memory, sopor, or Coma Vlilla eS vigil Cerfs. 
Out of these again I will single such as properly belong te the pllantasy, or 
imanation, or reason itself, which "Laurentius calls the diseases of the mind ; 
and l=iildesheim, mo'bos imaginatonis, aut 'ationis leesce, (diseases of the 
imagination, or of injmd reason,) which are three or four in number, phrensy, 
madncss, melancholy, dotage, and their kinds: as hyda)phobia, lycanthropia, 
Charus sancti vti, morbi dcemoniaci, (St. Vitus's dance, poasession of devils,) 
hich I will briefly touch and point at, insisting especial|yin this of melancholy, 
as more eminent than the test, and that through all his kinds, causes, symp- 
teins, prognostics, cures : as Lonicerus bath done de apople.viâ, and many other 
of mch particular diseascs. :Net that I find tault with those which bave 
written of this subject before, as Jason Pratensis, Laurentius, Montaltus, T. 
]3right, &c., thcy bave done very well Lu ther oeveaal kinds and methods; yet 
that which one omits, another may haply see; that which one contracts, 
another may enlarge. Te conclude with • Scribanius, "that which they had 
neglected, or profunctorily handled, we may more thoroughly examine; that; 
which is obscurely delivered in them, may bc perspicuously dilated and ampiLfi- 
ed by us :" and se ruade more familiar and easy for every man's capacity, and 
the common good, which is the chier end of my di-course. 

8uszr. Ir.--Dotage, Phrensy, .Jladness, lyd'o2>hobla, Zycanthro2a, 
Clwrus sanct Viti, Extasis. 

Delirium, Dotage.] Doro, iatuit:y, or folly, is a eommon naine te ail tho 
following speeies, as some wilI hure it. "LoEurentius and "Altomarus compre- 
hended madness» melaneholy, and the rest under this name» and call it tho 

t Proefat. de rnorbis ©altis. In capite ut rtm habitant pattes, lts trl qerel 
which rend Hemmiu, loutalt-as lildesh¢im, Quereetau, Jason Prntensis, &¢. • Cap. 2. de me]anchoL 
Cep. . de Phisiologta ssgarttm; Quod alii mtatts recte fortasse dixerint nos examlnare= 
corrigere tudeamus. • Cap. . de mol • Art. /ed. 7. 



88 ])&cascs OEte 3_r;d. Part. 1. Sect. I. 

summum genus of them all. If it be distinguished ri'oto them, it is natural or 
ingenite, which cornes by some defect of the organs, and over-nmch brain, as 
we see in out common fools; and la for the most part intended or remitted in 
particular men, and thereupon some are wiser than others : or else if is acqui- 
site, an appendix or symptom of some other disease, which corses or goesj oz 
if if continue, a sign of melancho]y itself- 
Phrensy.] Phrenitls, which the Greeks derive from the word Ce,w, is a 
disease of the mind, with a continual madness or dotage, which hath an acute 
lever anuexed, or else an inflammation of the brain, or the membranes or 
kcls of it, with an acute fever, which causeth madncss and dotage. It differs 
from melancholy and madness, because their dotago is without an ague: 
this continua], with waking, or memory decayed, &c. ]Helancholy is most 
part silent, this clamorous and many such lik differences are assigned by 
physicians. 
Madness.] fa«]ness, phrensy, and melancholy are confounded by Ce]sus 
and many wrlters; others lcave out phrensy, and make madness and melan- 
choly but one disease, which bJason Pratensis especially labours, and that they 
diffcr only secundurn mains or rnin, in quan tity alone, the one being a degree 
fo the other, and both proceeding from one cause. They ditïer intenao eg 
'emisso gradu, saJth Gordonius, as the humour is intended or remitted. Of the 
saine mind is « Areteus, Alexander Tertullianus, Guiauerius, Savanarola, tteur- 
nius; and Galen himself wrltes promiscuously of them both by reason of their 
affinity : but most of out neoterics do handle them apart, whom I will follow in 
this treatise. ]Kadness is therefore defined to be a vehement dotage; or raving 
xvithout a lever, far more violent than melancholy, full of anger and clamour, 
horrible looks, actions, gestures, troubling the patients with far greater vehc- 
mency both of body and mind, without all fear and sorrow, with such impetuous 
force and boldness, that sometimea three or four men cannot hold them. 
.Differing only in this from phrensy, that itis xvithout a lever, and theh" memo .ry 
s most part better. If hath the saine causes as the other, as choler adust, 
and blood incensed, brains inflamed, &c. °Fracastorims adds, "a due rime, 
and full age to this definition, to distinguish it from children, and will bave it 
confirmed impotency, to separate it from such as accidental]y corne and go 
again, as by taking henbane, nightshade, wine," &c. Of this fury there be 
divers kintls; ecstasy, which is familar wlth some persons, as Carclan saith of 
himselt he could be in one when he list; in which the Indian priests deliver 
their oracles, and the witches in Lapland, as Olaus fagnus writeth, 1.3, cap. 
18. Ex2asi ornais prwdicer«, answer all questions in an extasi you will ask; 
what your friends do, where they are, how they fre, &c. The other species 
of this fury are enthusiasms, revelations, and visions, so often mentioned by 
Gregory and Beda in their works; obsession or possession of devila, sibylline 
l'r°phets, and poetical furies; such as corne by eating noxious herbs, tarantulag 
stinging, &c., which some reduce to this. The most known are these, lycan 
thropia, hydrophobia, chorus sancti viti. 
Zycanthropia.] Lycanthropia, vhich Avicenna calls Cucubuth, others 
Lrpinam insaniam, or Wolf-madness, vhen men run howlng about graves and 
lields in the night, and will hot be persuaded but that they are wolves, or 
some such beasts. 2Etius and bPaulus call it a kind of melancholy; but I 
should »ather refer it to madness, as most do. Some make a àoubt of it 

b Plerlque medlel uno eornplexu perstrtngnnt hos duos morbos, quod ex eadem eau oriai-nr, qnodque 
agnitudi.e et modo solùm d£tent, et airer gradus sri alterum exitat. Jason Pratena. • Lib. led. 
- rata mn mthi vdet'¢r • Innu 
• est, qui oette debitA, et rempote debito per se, non momentaneara 
et fugacem, rit vint, solani Hyoscyam], sed confirmatam habet impotentiam bene operaudi circ tutellectum. 
lJb. 2. de nteHectioue. «Of which re.ad FOelLx Plater, cap. . de meti ]inat|o. • IAb. 6. ¢a). ii. 
• Lib. . cap. 



Iem. 1. Subs. 4.] Diss's OEth¢ Mbul. 89 

vhcther there be any such disease. IDonat ab Altomari saith, that he saw 
two of them in his rime: kWierus tells a story of such a one at ladua 1541, 
that would hot believe fo the contrary, but that he was a wol£ tte bath 
anot.her instance of a Spaniard, who thought himself a bear; Forrestus 
confirms as much by many examples; one amongst the rest of which he was 
an eye-witness, af Alcmaer in Holland, a poor husbandman that still hunted 
about graves, and kept in churchyards, of a pale, black, ugly, and fearful look. 
Such bclike, or little better, were King lroetus ' "daughters, that though 
themselves kine. And Nebuchadnezzar in Daniel, as some interpreters hold, 
was only troubled with this kind of madncss. This disease perhaps gave occa- 
sion to that bold assertion of °lliny» "some men were turned into wolves in 
his rime, and from wolves to men again :" and to that fable of Pausanias, of 
a man that was ton yea a wolf, and afterwards tmned to his former shape: 
to °Ovid's tale of Lycaon, &c. He that is desirous fo hear of this disease» çr 
more examples, let him read Austin in his 18th book d« Civitat Dei, «r. 5. 
Mizadu, cent. 5. . ;¢«nu, loE. 1. d«stwim, slcd. 2. d 3«ni«. 
Iorrestus, lib. 10. d morbis cerebri. Olaus Magnus, Vicentiu Bdlavicensiz; 
spec. et. lib. 31. c. 122. laierius, Bodine, Zuinger, Zeilger, Peucer, Wierus, 
Spranger, &c. This malady, saith Avicenna, troubleth men most in February, 
and is now-a-days frequent in Bohemia and ttungary, according to rtteuruius. 
Schernitzius will have if common in Livonia. They lie hid most part all day, 
and go abroad in the nigh, barking, howling, af graves and deserts; "*they 
bave usually hollow eyes, scabbed legs and thighs, very dry and pale," «saith 
Altomarus; he gives a reason there of al] the symI>toms , and sers down a 
brief cure of them. 
Hydrophobia is a kind of madness, vell known in evcx T village, v¢hich comcs 
by the biting of a mad dog, or cratching, saith "Aurclianus; touching, or 
amelling alone sometimes as "Sckenkius proves, and is incidcnt to many other 
creatures as welI as men: so called because the parties affected cannot endure 
the sight of water, or any liquor, supposing still they sec a mad dog in it. 
And which is more wonderful; hough they be very dry, (as in this malady 
they arc)they wfll rather die than drink: Coelius Aurelianus, an ancient 
writer, makes a doubt vhether this ttydrophobia be a passion of the body or 
the mind. The part aflected is the brain : the cause, poison that cornes ïrom 
the mad dog, which is so hot aad dry, that it consumes all the moisture in the 
body. °LIildesheim relates of some that dicd so mad; and being cut up, had 
no water, scarce blood, or any moisture left in them. To such as are so 
aflected, the fear of water bcgins at fourteen days after they are bitten, fo some 
again hot till fory or sixty days after: commonly saith ttemius, they begin 
to rave, fly water and glasses, fo look red, and swell in the face, about twenty 
days after (if some remedy be hOt taken in the meantime) to fie awake, fo be 
pensive, sad, fo see strange visions, to bark and howl, to fall into a swoon, 
and oftentimes fits of the fallig ickness.  Some say,. little things liko 
vhelps will be aeen in their mine. If any of these sigas appear, they are 
past recovery. ]Iany rimes thcse symptoms will hot appear tfll six or sevea 
months after, saith Codronchus; and sometimes hot till seven or eight yeam» 
as Guianerius; twelve as Albertus; six or eight months after, as Galen holds. 
laldus the great lawyer died of it: an Augustine îriar, and a woman in 
Delft, that vere "Forrestus' latieats, were miserably consumed xvith if. Tho 

Cap. 9. Art. rned. • De proestig. Doemonum. 1. 3. cap. 21.  0bservat. lib. I 0. de morbts cerebr 
cap. 15. m Hiuuocrates, liD. de insani.  Lib. 8. cap. 22. homines lnterdum lupos fleri ; et crntra. 
 Met. lib. 1. p Cap. de Man. Ulcerat crara, sts pss adest unmodica, palhdt llngua mcca. 
 Cap. 9. m't. Hydrophobie. • Lib. 3. cap. 9. • Lib. 7. de yenenis.  Lib. 3. Cap. 13. de morbi 
acutis.  llcei. Z. • Sckeakiu 7 lib. de Veaeai  Lib. de Hyoeopiwbi. • 0be, rva 
lib. 10. 25. 



90 Dseases of the Mbd. [Part. 1. See I. 

common cure in the country (for sueh af leazt as dwell near the seaside) 
is to duck them over head and ears in sea water; some use eharms : every 
good wife ean preseribe mediciaes. But the best cure to be had in sueh 
cases, is from the most approved physieians; they t.hat will read of them, may 
eonsult with Dieseorides, lib. 6. e. 37, Heurnius» Hildesheim, Capivaeeins, 
Forestus, Sekenkins, and before ail others Codronchuz an Italian, who bath 
lately written two exquisite books on the subjee. 
Chorus sancti Iriti, or S. lr/tus ' danee j the lazeivious dance, "laraeelsus 
ealls it, becauso they thatare taken from if, ean do nothing but danee till 
they be dead or eured If is so eailed, for thatthe parties so troubled wero 
•vont to go to S. Vitns for help, and after they .had daneed the awhile they 
were beertainly freed. 'Tis strange to hear how long they will dance, and in 
what manner, over stools, forms, tables; even great bellied women sometimes 
(and yetnever hurt their ehildren) will danee so long that they.can stir 
neither hand nor foot, but seem to be quite dead. One in red elothe. they 
eannot abide. ]Iusie above all things they love, and therefore magistrates in 
Germany will hire musieians fo play fo them, and ome lusty sturdy coin- 
panions to danee with them. This disease bath been very common in Germany, 
as appears by those relations of Sekenkius, and laraeclsus in his book 
madness, who brags how many several persons he bath cured of if. lelia 
]glaterus de nentis alienat, cap. 3. reports of a woman in Basil whom he saw, 
that donced a whole month together. The Arabians cail if a kind of palsy. 
Bodine in his 5th book de Repub. cap. 1, speaks of this infirmity ; hlonavius 
in his last epkstle fo Scoltizius, and in another Ix) Dudithus where you may 
rend more of it. 
The last kind of madness or melancholy, is that demoniacal (if  may so 
call it) obsession or possession of devils, which ilaterns and others would 
bave to be preternatural : stupend things are said of them, their actions, ges- 
turcs, contortions, fasting, prophesying, speaking lauguages they were never 
taught, &c. ]Iany strange stories are related of them, which because some 
will hot ailow, (for Deaïon and Darrel bave writtea large volumes on this 
subjcct pro and con.) I voluntm'ily omit. 
Fnschius, institut, lib. 3. sec. 1. cap. 11, Felix :Pinter, ®Lanrentius, add 
ho these another fury that proceeds from love, and another from study, another 
divine or religious fiuT; but these more properly belong fo melancholy; of ai1 
hich I will spcak apart, intending to write a whole book of them. 

Swsr.cr. V.Mdawhly b Dis_position, mtro2erllt so caged, ruvocaions. 

IIELANCHOLY, the subject of our present discourse, is either in disposition ox 
habit. In disposition, is thzt transitory melancholy which goes and cornes 
upon every small occasion of sorrow, need, sickness, trouble, fear, grict 
passion, or perturbation of the mind, any manner of care, discontent or 
thought, which canseth anguish, dulness, heaviness and vexation of spirit, any 
ways opposite to pleasure, mirth, joy, delight, causing frowardness in us, or a 
dislike. In which equivocal and improper sense, we call him melancholy that 
is dtdl, sad, sour, lumpish, ill-disposed, solitary, any way moved, or displeased. 
And ff'oto these melancholy dispositions, tno man living is free, no stoic, 
none so wise, none so happy, n,gne so patient, so generous, so godly, so divine 
that can vindicate himself; so well composed, but more or less, some time or 
• rein. el,*m ql?r.m..To. . d.e morbis amentium. Tract.. I.,  Eventu ni plurtmurn rem i ssm coin Oo 
• q no ne securtta.% ce quo cerrum gaudiumt -uocunu ........... : . ez. FART. 3. 
anlmi in.chier. Aug tri Fsal. viii. 5 r nLs rebu smaritucttnem 



[em. 1. Sui)s. 5.] MJ«nchoy in Dposltion. 9I 

other he feels the smart of it. [dancho]y in this sen is the character of 
mortality. « # lIan that la born ofa womarJ, is of short continuance, and full 
of trouble." Zeno, Cato, Socrates himself, whom sElian so highly commends 
for a moderate temper, that "nothing could disturb him, but going out, and 
eoming in, still Socrates kept the same serenity of countenance, what miscry 
soever befel him," (if we may believe Plato Ms disciple) was much tormented 
with it. Q. Metellus, in whom Valerius gives instance of ail happiness, « the 
most fortunate man then living, born in that most flourishing city of Rome, of 
noble parentage, a proper man of person, well qualified, healthful, rich, honour- 
able, a senator, a consul, happy in Ms wife, happy in his children," &c., yet 
this man was not void of melancholy, he had his share of sorrow. ' Po]ycrates 
amius, that flung his ring into the sea, because he would participate of 
discontent with others, and had it miraculously restored to him again shortly 
aïter, by a fish taken as he angled, was hot free from melancholy dispositiona 
:No man can cure himself; the very gods had bitter pangs, and frecluent 
passions, as their own k poets put upon them. In general, "i as the heaven, 
so is out life, sometimes tir, sometimes overcast, tempestuous, and serene ; 
as in a rose, flowers and prickles ; in the year itself, a temperate summer 
sometimes, a hard winter, a drought, and then again pleasant sbowers : so is 
out life intermixed with joys, hopes, fears, sorrows, calumnies :" Invice:n 
cdu$ do¢rr e vou_ptas, there is a succession of pleasure and pain. 

m «ed|o de fonte leporUm, 
Surgir amari aliquid in ipsis floribu angat." 

"Even in the midst of laughing there is sorrow" (as ° Solomon holds) : even 
in the midst of ail our feasting and j ollity, as, ° Austin infers in his Coin. on the 
41st Psalm, there is grief and discontent. Inter dellcias sCruTer allquid scevi 
nos strangulat, for a pint ofhoney thou shalt here likely find a gallon of gall, 
for a drain ofpleasure a pound or pain, for an incb of mirth an cil of moan ; 
as ivy doth an oak, these miseries encompass out lire. _And it is most absurd 
and ridiculous for any mortal man to look for a perpetual tenure of happine 
in this lire. :Nothing so prosperous and pleasant, but it bath  some bitterness 
in it, some complaining, some gru«l,dng/ if is all r,,,fo,, a mixed passion, 
and like a chequev table, black and white men, familles, cities, bave their falls 
and wanes ; now trines, sextiles, then quaoEiles and oppositions. We are hot 
here as those angels, celestial powers and bodies, sun and moon, fo finish out 
course without ail offence with such constancy, to continue for so many ages : 
but subject to infirmities, miseries, intmrupted, tossed aud tumbled up and 
down, carried about with every small blast, offert molested and disquieted 
upon each slender occasion, « uncertain, brittle, and so is all that wc trus 
unto. ': • _h._nd he tha knows no this is hot armed fo endure if, is hot fit to 
lire in this world (as one condoles out rime), he knows hot the condition of it, 
v:here with a reciprocdty, pleasure and pain are still unitd, and succeed one 
another in a ring." çxi J mundo, gct thee gone hence if thou canst no 

* Job I. 14. s Ornnl tempore Soeratem codera vul vlderi, sire domum rediret, sire domo egrederetur. 
t Lib. 7. cap. I. Igatus in florentissima totius orbie civitate, nobllissimis parcntibus, corporie vites habuit et 
fariimas animi dotes, uxorem conspicuam, pudicam, foelic.e liberos, consulare dccus, sequentes triurnphos 
&c. ' 'lian.  lfomer. Iliad. t Lipsius, cent. 3. ep. 45. ut coelum, sic nos horninee surnus : illud ex 
lnterva|lo nubibus obducitur et obscuratur. In roario flores spinis intermixtL Vita eimilis aeri, udum 
mode), eudum, tempestaa, screnitae : ita vices rerum surir, proemia gaudiis, et eequaces curoe, m Lucretius 
1.4. 1124.  Prov. xlv. 13. Extremum gaudti luctus occupat, e Natalitia luquit celebrantur uuptioe 
Iic sunt; af ibi quid cclcbratur quod non dlct, quod non transit   Apulcius 4. florid, lihil quicquid 
lorin| tare properum divinitus datum, quin ci ad|xtuva sit aliquid diflicttltat'is, ut ¢tiam amplissim., 
quaque loetitià, subsit qupiam vel parva querimonia, conjugatione quAdam meIlis et feliis, q Caduca 
vimirum et fragilia, et puerilIbus consentanea crepundlis, sunt ista .q.uoe ri.res et opes humanoe vocantur 
afltuunt subite, repente de|abuntur, nullo in loco, nuila in persova, stablibus mxa radicibns consistunt, sed in. 
certissimo flatufortunoe quos in sublime extulerunt, improvlso recursudestitutos in profundo miseriarum val]o 
niserabil]ter immergun[. Valerlus, lib. 6. cap. 1 I. • Huic seculo parure aptus es, aut potius omnium nostro- 
rum conditioaem ignora quibua reciproco quodsm nexu &c. Lorchsnua GoIlobelgicus Ilb. -% ad annum 1 



9. ° /iffraston OEAatomy. [I'ar. 1. Sec. 1. 

brook if ; there is no way te avoid it, but te arm thyself with patience, with 
magnanimity, te "oppose thyself mto it, te surfer affliction as a gooà soldier 
of Christ ; as «Paul adviseth constantly te bear it. But forasmuch as se few 
can embrace this gooà couusel of his, or use it aright, but lather as se many 
brute beasta give a way te their passion, vohmtary subject and preclpitate 
thcmselvca into a labyrinth of cares, woea, miscries, and sufler their seuls te 
be overcome by them, canner arm themselves with that patience as they 
ought te de, if falleth out, oftentimes that these dispositions become habits, 
and "many affects contemned (as u Seneca notes) make a disease. Even as 
one distillation, net yet grown te custom, makes a cough ; but continual and 
inveterate causeth a consumption of the lungs ;" se de these onr melancholy 
provocations : and according as the humour itself is intended, or remitted in 
men, as their temperature of body, or tional seul la better able te make 
:sistance ; so are they more or less aflecteŒEE For that which is but a flea- 
biting to one, causeh insuffemble torment to another ; and which one by his 
singular lnoderation, and well-composed carriage can happily overcome, a 
second is no whit able te sustain, but upon every small occasion of miscon- 
eeived abuse, injury, grief, disgrace, loss, cross, humour, &c. (if solitary, or 
idle) yields se far te passion, that his complexion is altered, his digestion 
hindeid, his sleep gone, his spiri{s obscured, and his heart henry, his 
hypochondries misaffected ; wind, crudity, on a sudden overtake him, and ho 
himself overcome with melancholy. As it is with a man imprisoned for debt, 
if once in the gaol, every creditor will bring his action against him, and ther, . 
likely hold lim. If any diseontent seize upon a patient, in an instant al1 
other perturbations (for--quâ oeta iota 'tttnt) will set upon him, and thin 
like a lame dog or broken-winged goose he doops and ines away, and is 
brought at last te that ill habit or malady of melancholy itselfi Se tht an 
the philosophers make ffi eight degreea of heat and cold, we may make eighty- 
eight of melancholy, an the parts affected are diversely seized with it, or bave 
been pltmged more or lesa lute this infernal gulph, or waded deeper inte it. 
But al1 these melancholy fits, howsoever laleasing at first, or displeasing, 
violent and tyrannizing over those whom they seize on for the rime ; yet 
these fits I say, or men affected, are but improperly se called, beeause they 
continue net, but corne and go, as by seine objects they are moved. This 
melancholy of which we are te treat, is a habit, oe'bus sontiats, or cronicus, 
a chronic or continuate disease, a settled hument, as r Aureliarms and "othet 
ca]l it, net errant, but ilxed  and as it wa long increasing, se new being 
Aea.qant or l»ainful) grown te an habit it will hardly be lmoved. 

SECT. L IEMB. IL 

SUBS.CT. .--Digresson of Anatom. 

]EFORE I proceed te define the disease of melancholy, what if la, or te 
discourse farther of it, I holà it net impertinent te make a brief digression of 
the anatomy oîthe boày and facu]tiea of the seul, for the better understanding 
of that which la te follow ; because many hard worda will oiîen occur, as 
myrache, hypochondries, cmrods, &c., imagination, v.ason, humours, spirits, 
vital, natural, animal, nervea, veins, arteries, chylus,/)ituita  which by the 

• Horum omnls studla dlrigl debent, rit hnmsns fortiter feramUao  Tire. I1. l. • Epist. 96. llb. I0. 
sflctua frequentea contemptique morbnm faciunt, Distillatio una ee adhuc in morem adaueta, taim 
lacit, assidua et violenta pltbisim, • CsIltlum ad ocre : trigidum ad ocre. Una hirtmcI0 itoa fai$ 
tatem. • Lib. l. c. 6. • Fuschitl 1.3. c. l. ¢,a. . Hilde-aheim» fOL 130. 



Mem. 2. Subs. 2.] D/v//on OEtI EoJy. 93 
mdgar will hot so eily be perceived, what they are, how citcd, and to 
ed tbey serve. And besicles, it may peradventure We ocion to some 
men to examine ore acraly, oeaoeh further to this most exoellent 
subject, and thereupon with that royal  prophet to pmi God, (« for a man 
is feaffuy and wonderfuy ade, and cuously oughç") that bave rime 
and le,cure enough, and are suoEcientlyinfoed  ail other worldlybinesses, 
 to make a good barga, buy and sell, to keep and make choice of a f 
hawk, hound, ho, &c. But for such matte  concern the knowledge of 
themtves, they are wholiy iorant and cless; they know hot what this 
body and soul e, how combined, of what pas and faculti they const, or 
how a man diffe fm a dog. And what OEn be more ignomious and 
filthy (as "Iclancthon well inveighs) «than for a man not to know the stnc- 
ture and compition of his o body, escia]]y since the owledge of 
nds so much to the preservation of his heth, ad information of his man- 
ne '. To stir them up therefore to this study, to peoe those elaborate 
works of bGlen, Bauhin, Plar, lius, Falopi, Launtius, emeHn, 
&c., which have itten copiously in Latin; or that which some of our 
dustrio countrymen have done in out motber tongue, hot long since,  tha 
translation of "Columbus and  icrocmographia, in thirteen books, I bave 
ruade this brief diession. Also buse "Vecker,  Ielancthon, Feeli, 
 Fuschiu and thosc dious Tracts  i: (which bave more com- 
pendioly handled d written of this matter) are hot at all tim ady to 
had, to give them some smal[ tte or not.ice of the rest let this epitome 
8ce. 
Sus. II.Divn OE tl ody, uur», 
OF the parts of the body there may be many divisions : the mos appmv 
is hat of urenius, out of Hippocrates: hich is, to parts contae or 
containg. Contained, are either humou or spits. 
Humrs.] A humour  a liquid or fluent pa of the body, comprehended 
in it, for the preservation of itl and is either innate or born th , or ad- 
ventitious and acqite. The radical or innate,  daily supplied by nourish- 
ment, which some OEll cambium, and make those oecondary humours of ros 
and gluten o martin iç: or acqusite,  maintain thc four firs pdmaçv 
humoum, coming and procoeding ri'oto the firs concoction in he liver, by 
vhich means chylus is exdtded. Some dinde them into profitable and 
crementitioua But Crato out of Hippocratcs wilI have ail fore" to be juice, 
and hot excrements, thout »vhich no living creature can be sned: which 
four, though they be comprehended in the mass of blood, yet they bave their 
œeveral afiëctions, by which they are tinhed ri'oto one another, aud from 
those adveutitious, pect, or deed humoum, as Mdancthou OEIIa them. 
2&od.] Blood is a hot, swee, mperate, red humour, prepared in e 
eserMc valus, and ruade of the most mperate pas of the chylus  the 
liver, whose office is to nouh the whole body, o give i strength and colour» 
being di»persed by he veins through every part of i. And from it spots 
are fit begotten in he heart, wch aerwds by the arerics are com- 
municat to the other pts. 
Pituita, or phlegm,  a coId d mois humour, begotten of the colder pa 
of the chyl (or white juice coming out of the mç disd in the stomach), 
in he verl his office is o nouri and moisten the members of the body, 
which  the tongue are moved, hat they be hot over dry. 

* Pa|. xxx[x. 13. »Dc snims. Turpc enlm est hornlni lgnorsre ul corports (rit ira dicarn) oed[flctum, 
1 eertim cure ad valctudinem et more hoec cognltio plnrimum conducat, e De un part. c History 
tf ma3. d D. Crooke. • In Syataxi. t De Autres. g Iu«tit. lib. t. e Phyeiol. I. 1, 2. 
t Anat. 1.1. c. 18. t Lu blicro, eucco, sine quibu sntmal sutentart non pOtL I Iorboo humoroE 



94 Eimilaz Parts. [Part. 1. Sec. L 

Choler is hot and dry, bitter, begotteu of the botter parts of the chylus, 
and gathered to the gall : it heIps the natural heat and senses, and serres to 
the expelling of excrements. 
[dancholy.] Mdancho]y, cold and dry, thick, black, and sour, begotten 
of the more feculeut part of nourishmeut, and purged from the spleen, is a 
bridle to the other two hot humours, blood and choler, preserving them in 
the blood, and nourishing the bones. These four humour. have some analogy 
-ith the four elements, and to the four ages in man. 
,çru», çwt, Tear».] To these humours you may add serum, which is 
the matter of urine, and those excrcmentitiou humom of thc third concoc- 
tion, sweat and tcars. 
Spirits.] Sldrit is a mo 4 subtile vapour, which is expressed from the blood, 
and the instrument of the soul, to perform all his actions; a common tic or 
medium between the body and the soul, as some will have it; or as  Paracel- 
sus, a fourth soul of itself. ]Ielancthon holds the fountain of thcsc spiits to 
be the heart, begotten there; and afterward conveyed to thc brain, they takc 
another nature to them. Of these spirlts there bc thrcc kinds, according fo 
thc three principal parts, brain, heart, liver; nat.ural, vital, animal. Thc 
natural are begotten in the liver, and thencc dispersed through thc veins, to 
l,crîorm those naturel actions. The vital spirits are ruade in the heart of thc 
natural, which by the arteries are transported to ail thc other parts-" if thc 
spirits cease, then lire ceaseth, as in a syncope or swooning. The animal 
spirits formed of the vital, brought up to the brain, and diffitsed by the 
nerves, to the subordinate members, give sense and motion to them ail. 

SVSSECT. III.--,.çimilar Part». 

Si»tilar Parts.] CONTAINING parts, by ressort of their more solid substance, 
are either homogeneal or heterogeneal, similar or dissimilar; so &ristotle 
divides them, lib. 1, cap. 1, de Hi.st. Aninal. ; Laurentius, cap. 20, lib. 1. 
Similar, or homogeneal, are such as, if they be divided, are still severed into 
parts of the saine nature, as water into water. Of these some be spermatical, 
some fleshy or carnal, °Spermatical are such as are immediately begotteu of 
the seed, which are bones, gristles, ligaments, membranes, nerves, arteries, 
veins, skins, fibres or strings, fat. 
.Bones.] The bones are da T and hard, begotten of the thickest of the seed, 
to strengthen and smtain other paxts: some say there be 304, some 307, or 
313 in man's body. They have no nerves in them, and are therefore without 
ense. 
A gristle is a substance softer than boue, and barder than the rcst, flexible, 
and serres to maintain the parts of motion. 
Ligaments are they that rie the bones together, and other parts to the 
bones, with their subserving tendons: membranes' office is to cover the test. 
lerves, or sinews, are membmnes without, and ftfll of marrow within ; they 
proceed from the brain, and cam the animal spirits for sense and motion. Of 
these some be barder, some softer ; the softer serve the senses, and there be 
seven pair of them. The first be the optic nerves, by vhich we see; the 
second more the eyes; the third pair see ibr the tongue to faste; the fourth 
pair fi)r the taste inthe palate; the fifth belong to the ears; the sixth pair is 
most ample, and runs almost over all the bowels; the seventh pair moves the 
tongue. The barder sinews serve for the motion of the inner parts, proceed- 
ing from the marrow in the back, of whom thcre be thirty combinations, 
seven of tbe neck, twelve of the breast, &c. 
m Spiritalia anima.  Laurentius, cap. 20. lib. 1. Auat. 



A'tes.] Arteries are long sud hollow, vith a double sk[n fo convey the 
vital spirit; to discern which the better, theyy that Vali the anatot 
was wont to cut up man alive.  They ari in the left side of the heart, and 
ara principally two, from which the rest ara derived, aorta and venos: aorta 
is the foot of 1 the othcr, which serve the whole body; the other goes to 
the hmgs, fo fctch air fo rcfrigerate the hea 
dns.] Veins are hollow and roun like pipes, aing from the liver, 
caing blood ad natural spirits; tlmy feed aH the prts. Of the there 
be two chieÇ ena porta and Fe cava, from which the rest are corrivated. 
That e ta is a velu coming from the concave of the liver, and reoeiv- 
iv tho meraioE1 veins, by whom ha tkes the chyls from the stomach 
and lt and conveys it to the liver. The other derives blood m the ver 
fo nourh all the other dispeed members. The branches of thoEt Fe porta 
ara the meraicl and hœemorrhoides. The branches of the C'avoE ure inward 
or outward. Inward, semiuI or emulgeut. Outward, ia the hand, arms, 
feet, &c., and bave veml name 
Frw, , h.] Fibroe al stHngs, white d solid, disrsed through 
the whole memr, a,d right, oblique, transvcr, all which hve their several 
uses. Fat is a silar part, moist, without blood, composvd of the mot 
thick a,d unctuo matter of the blood. The Psn covers the rest, and 
huth Culum, or a little kin der it. Flash  so and ruddy, compod 
of the conMing of bood, &c. 
Sv. IV.Dmr Parts. 
DmsR pas are those which we call organical, or instmentaÇ and 
they be ward or outwar& The chiefest outward parts are situa foa 
or backward :--iorwa, the crown and foretop of the h, skull, face, fom- 
hd, temples, chin, eyes, ear¢ nose, &c., nk, bre choet, upr and lower 
pa of the belly, hypochondries, naveÇ groin, flank, &c.; backward, the 
hinder pm of the hea back, shoulders, sides, lo, hipbones, os sru,, but- 
toeks, &a Or joints, arms, hand, feet, legs, tMghs, kne, &a Or common 
to bot which, bause they ara obous and welI known, I bave oerelely 
reted,  oecia  graa taùm; qd ruum  1oEr  
ani ui , i. 
ward organioel parts, which canuot be een, are dive in number, and 
hu sevel names, tctions, and clissions; but tht of qLaurenti  most 
notable, to noble or igaoble pa Of the noble them be thr pncipal 
pas, fo which all the rt belong, and whom they serve--braia, hg, ver; 
accorng to whose site, tee regio, or a throeiold diion, is me of the 
whole body.  fit of the hd, in which the animal organs ara contmd, 
and bra itoel, which by s narres We nse and motion to the sg, and  
 it were, a pfi cooellor and chanoefior to the hearg. The ond region 
 the ¢ht, or ddle belly, in which the hea m king keeps h coin% and 
by  ri communioE ie to the whole dy. The thd region is the 
lower bey, in which the ver resid m a L à t«, with the rest of tho 
tl organ serg for coacocgion, nom-ishment, exlmag of excmmen 
Thi lower region  distinsh m the upr bythe midi, or diaphmgm 
and is b¢5vided again by ome go thr concavitie or regions, upper, 
middl and lower. The upr ofthe hychondfie in wh right side  the 
liver, the left the sploen; from wch is denomated hochondl mel- 
choly. The eecond of the naval and fl vid m the fit by the ri 



96 An¢,.tom v of rb, Bodj. [Parg. 1. $oct. 1. 

The lasg of ghe water course, which is agaln subdivided ingo three ogher part 
The Arabiaus make two parts of this region. Epijastrum and Hypoçstrimr, 
upper or ]ooeer. Eprariura theycall Mirach, from whence cornes 
Mdanchoia, sometimes mentioned of them. Oï these severM regions I wili 
treat in brief apart; and first of the third region, in which the naturel orgaus 
are contained. 
De A»dmâ.--The I, ower Rerfion, 2Vatural Organs.] Bu you that aro 
readers iat the meantime, « Suppose you were now brought into some sacred 
temple, or majestical palace (as 'SIelancthon saith), to behold hot the mattcr 
only, but the singular art, workmanship, and counsel of this out great Creator. 
And it is a pleasant and profitable speculation, if it be considered aright." 
Thc parts of tlfis region, which present themselves to your consideration ami 
view, are such as serve to nutrition or generation. Those of nutrition serve to 
the first or second concoction; as the oesophagus or gullet, which brings ment 
a,vl drink into the sto,aach. The ventricle or stomach, which is seated in tho 
midst of that part of the belly beneath the midriff, the kitchen, as if were, of 
the first concocion, and which turns our ment ino chylus. It bath two mouth._q, 
one above, another beneath. The upper is sometimes taken for the stomach 
itself; the lower and ncther door (as Wecker calls it) is named Pylorus. This 
stomach is sustained by a large kell or kmull, called omentum; oehich 
some will bave the saine with peritoneum, or rira of the belly. From the 
stomach to the very fimdament are produced the gars, or intestins, which serve 
a little to alter and distribute the chylus, and convey aoeay the excrements. 
They are divided into small and great, by reason of their site and substance, 
slender or thicker : the slender is duodcnum, or oehole gut, which is next to 
the stomach, some toeelve inches long, saith t Fuschius. Jejunum, or empty 
gut, continuate to the other, which bath many meseraic veins annexed to it, 
which take part ot the cbylus to the liver f,-om it. Ilion the third, which 
consiss of many crinkles, which serves with the rest to receive, keep, and 
distribute the chylus from the stomach Thethick ts are three, the blind 
gut, colon, and right gut. The blind is a thick and short gut, having ono 
mouth, in which the ilion and colon meet: it receives the excrements, and 
o,nveys them to the colon. This colon bath many windin, that the excre- 
ments pass hot away too tkst: the right gut is strait, and conveys the exoE'e- 
ments to the fundament, whose lower part is bound p with certain muscles 
callcd sphincters, that the excrements may be the better contained, until such 
time as a man be willing to go to the stooL In the midst of these guts is 
situated the mesenterium or midriff, composed of many veins, arteries, raid 
:nuch f,t, serving chiefly to sustain the gt, t All tbese parts serve the first 
concoction. To the second, which is busied either in refining the good nourish- 
nient or expelling the bad, is chiefly belonging the liver, like in colour to con- 
gealel blood, the shop of blood, situate in the right hypercondiT, in figure like 
to a half-moonGe,erosun membrure hIelancthon styles it, a geuerous part; 
i serres to tura the chylus to blood, forthe nourishraent of the body. Tho 
excrements of it are either choleric or watery, which the other subordinate 
parts convey. The gall placed in the concav of the liver, extracts choler to 
it: the spleen, melancholy; which is situate on the left side, over against the 
liver, a spongy marrer that draws this black choler to if by a secret virtue, 
and feeds upon it, conveying the test fo the bottom of the stomach, to stir up 
appetite, or else to the guts as an excrement. That watery marrer tbe two 
kidneys expurgate by those emulgent veins and ureters. The emulgent draw 
this superfluous moisture from the blood; the two ureters convey it to the 

• Vo« veto velut| lu templum a¢ crarnm quodd&m vos daci putetla, &e. Suivis et tili, ¢oaltlo. 
SLib. l. cap. 12. ect.. 



bl:tdder, which by ressort of his site in the lower belly, is apt fo reeeive it, 
hvin.g two parts, neck and bottom: the bottom holds the water, the neck is 
coastringed with a muscle, which, as  porter, keeps the water from running 
out aginst out will. 
l[embers of generation are commoa to both sexes, or peculiar to nue; whijb, 
because they are impert.inent to my purpose, I do voluntarily omit. 
[iJd& Reglon.] Next in order is the middle region, or chest, which comi 
prehends tho vital faculties and parts; which (:s I haro said) is separated 
ft'om the lower belly by the dinpht'agm or midriff, which is a skin consisting 
of many nerves, membranes; and amongst other uses it bath, is the instru- 
ment of laghing. Thero is also a certain thin membrane, full of sinews, 
which covereth tho whole chest within, and is called pleure, the sent of the 
disease called pleurisy, when it is inflamed; some add a third skin, which 
termed Mediastinus, which divides the chest into two paxt, right and left; of 
tbis region the principal part i. the heart, which is the sent and fountain of 
life, of best, of spirits, of pulse and respirationthe sun of our body, the king 
and sole comnander of itthe sent and organ of ail passions and affections. 
l'finura riveras, ulimura mgriens, if lices first, and dies lest in ail ,restaures. 
Of a pyrami,licl form, and hot much utflike to a pine-apple; a part worthy of 
°a,tmh'ation, that ,an yield such variety of affections, by whose motion it 
dilated or contracted, to stir and comm.nd the humours in the body. As 
svrrow, melancholy; in atger, choler; in joy, to send the bloo.1 outwardly; 
sorrow, to ,ail it in ; moving the humours, as horses do a chariot This heart, 
th,mgh it be nue sole member, yet it m'ty be d i vided into two creeks right and le 
The right is like the mooa iacreasiug, bigger than the other part, and re,cires 
blol from F'ena cav: distributing s,»me of if to the lung. to nourish them; tho 
rest to the lef side, to engender spit'its. The lcft ,teck bath the for'm of a 
toue, and is the set of lire, which, as a torch doth oil, draws blond unto it, 
begetting of it spirits and fii'e; and s tire in u torch, so are spit-its in the 
blond; nd by that grcat arte T called aorta, ig seds vital spirits over thv 
boly, and takes air from the luugs by that artcry which is cilled venosa ; so 
thaç both creeks hve their vessels, the right two ceins, the left two urteries, 
besides those two common anfractuous ears, vhich serve them both; the nue 
to hold blond, the other uit, -r several user. The hmgs is a rhin spongy 
|ike an ox hoof (saith "Feruelits), the town-clerk or crier (loue terms it), the 
instrament of vol,e, as an orator fo a king; nnexed to the heart, to express 
their thoughts by vol,e. That it is the instrument of vol,e, is manifest, 
that no creatm'e eau speak, or utter any vt»ice, which wanteth these lights. 
is besides the instrument of respiration, or breuthing; and ifs office is to cool 
the heart, by sending air unto it, by the venosal artery, which rein cornes 
the lungs by that asloera arSera, which consists of many g4stles, membmnes, 
nerves, taking in air ai the anse and mouth, and by it likewise exhales the 
fumes of the heart. 
In the upper region serving the animal faculties, the chlef organ is the brain, 
which is a sort, marrowish, awl white substance, engenclered of the purest 
[art of seed and spirits, included by many skins, -nd seated within the skuil 
r br.xin pan; and it is the most noble organ under hcaven, the dwelling- 
]rosse and sent of the soul, the habitation of wisdom, memory, jdgment, 
rcon, uud in which man is most like u_to God; and therefor¢ nuture hath 
covered it with a skull of hard bone, and two skins or membranes, whereofthe 
nue is called dura mater, or meninx, thc other Tia mt«r. The dure, mater is 

• r[c res est preelpuè di¢-s sdmiratione, qstod tsnt s/cctnm vvta:e e]etur cor, quod otaries rot 
trist et l.e;e sttim c,»rd fc'innt e m,»vent. * Yhy8Jo. 1. J ¢ . • Ut tor rgi : sic pulmo voci$ 
[ttst. ut¢tu naecticu; cor c. Hclancth. 
H 



08 AmLomy oje te Sou[. ['Part. 1. Sec. 

next te the sku|l, aove the other, which includes and protects the brain. 
Vhcn this is taken away, tbe pin mater is te be seen, a rhin membrane, the 
ncxt and immediate cover of the brain, and net covering only, but entcring 
into it. The brain itself is divided into two parts, the fore and hinder part ; 
the fore par is much bigger than the other, which is called the ]itt]e brain ix 
respect of it. This fore par bath many concavities distinfished by certain 
ventricles., which are the receptacles of the spirits, brought hither by the aPte- 
ries frein the ]er, and are there refined te a more heavenly nattu, te perform 
the actions of the sotd Of these ventric]ea there are three--right, ]eft, and 
raiddle. The right and left answer te their sight, and beget animal spirits; if 
they be any way hure, sen and motion ceaseth. These ventricles, moreover, 
are held te be the sent of the common sense. The middle ventricle is a cern- 
mon concourse and concavity of them both, and hath two passages--the one te 
receive pituita, and the other extends itself te the fourth creek ; in this they 
place imagination and cogitation, and se the three ventricles of the fore par of 
the brain are used. The fourth creek behiud the head in common te the 
cercbel or little brin, ad raarrow of the back-bone, the lest and most solid of 
all the test, which receives the animal spirits frein tbe other ventricles, and 
conveys them te the marrow in the lack, and is the place where they say tho 
memory is seated. 

SUSECT. V.Of tlte Seul and ]er Fv.cv2tl¢s. 

ACCORDINO te "Aristotle, the seul is defined te be ',œ,xr,,, erfecto ef 
actus primus corloris organici, vRam ]abentis in pot«ntia : the perfection or 
first act of an organical body, having power of lifc, which most "philoaophers 
approve. But many doubts arise about the essence, subject, sent, distinction, 
and subordinate £tculties of if. For the essence and particular knowledge, of 
all other things if is most hard (be if of man or beast) te discern, as "Aristotle 
himself, bTully, °Picus lIirandula, Tolet, and other lgcoteric philosophers 
confess :°" We can undemtand all things by her, but what she is we cannot 
apprehend." Seine therefore make one seul, divided into three principal 
taculties; others, three distinct seuls. Which question of late hath been much 
controverted by Picolomineus and Zaharel. «laracelsus wfll bave four seuls, 
adding te thc three grand faculties a spirituel seul : which opinion of his, Cam- 
panella, in his book de senu erum,* much labours te dcmonstrate and prove, 
because carcasses bleed et tlm sight of the murderer; with many such argu- 
ments: And Ssome again, one seul of all creatures whatsoever, differing only 
in organs; and that beasts bave reason as well as men, though, for seine 
deict of organs, net in such measure. Others make a doubt whether if be al] 
in ail, and ail in every pa; which is amply discussed in Zabarel amongst the 
rest. The common division of the seul is into three principal facu|ties 
vegetal, scnsitive, and rational, which make three distinct kinds of living 
creatures--vegetal plants, sensible beasts, rational men. How these thrco 
principal faculties are distinguished and connected, Humano ingenio inaccessur, 
-idetur, is beyond human capacity, as ITaurellus, Philip, Flavius, and others 
suppose. The inferior may be alone, but the superior canner subsist without 
the other; se sensible includcs vcgetal, rational both ; which are contained in 
if (sMth Aristotle) ul trlgon in tetragono, as a triangle in a quadrangle. 

• De anim. c. L • Scallg. extrc.  7. Te|ct. |n |ib. de anime, cap. 1. &c. • 1. De anime, cap. |. 
b Tuscul. quoest. « Lib. 6. Doct. Va. Gentil. c. 13. pg. 1216.  Aristot. « Anirn quoeque iatelLl. 
gimua, et tamen qnæ sit ipsa inteUigere non valemuS. Spiritualem animan a rcliquis distinctam tnetur 
etiam lu cadavere inhœerenteca post mortem per aliquot menses. * Lib. 3. cap. 31. • Ccaliu lib. 2. e. 31. 
Plutarch. in Grille Lips. Con. 1. ep. 60. Jossius de Risu et Fletu, Averroe.% Carnpanella, &c.  Phihp. 
de Anims. ca. 1. CoelitL$ 20. antiq, cap. , 'lutarch, de placit. hilos i SDe vit. et mort. part. 2. c. . 
lrov. 1. de vit, et mort. 2. e. 2 q -- 



Veged Sou/.] Vegetal, th¢ first of th¢ thrc¢ distinct faculties, is defirmd 
tobe "a substantial act of an organical body, by which if is nourished, aug- 
mented, and begets another like unto itself." In which definition, three several 
vperations are »pecified--altrix, auctrix, procreatrix; the first is k nutrition, 
,s'hoe object is nourishment, meat, drink, and the like; his organ the liver 
in ensib]e creatures; in plants, the foot or sap. His office is to turn the 
liutriment into the substance of the body nourished, which he performs by 
natral best. This nutritive opcration bath four other subordinate functions 
or powers belonging fo it--attraction, retention, digestion, expulsion. 
A$iraction.] Attraction is a ministering faculty, ,vhich, as a loadstone 
doth iron, draws ment into the stomach, or as a lamp doth oil; and this 
attractive power is very necessary in plants,, which suck up moisture by the 
foot, as another mouth, into the sap, as a like stomach. 
Yletenton.] Retention keeps it, being attracted into the stomach, until 
such rime it be concocted$ for ifit shouh! pass away straight, the body could 
n,»t be nourished. 
Digestion.] Digestion is performed by natural heat; for as the flame of a 
torch consumes oil, wax, tallov, so doth it alter and digest the nutritive mat- 
ter. Indigestion is opposite uato it, for want of natural best. Of thi di- 
gestion there be three difftnces--maturation, elixaton, assatiou. 
l[«turation.] haturation is especially observed in the fruits of trees; which 
are then said tobe ripe, when the seeds are fit tobe sown agai. Crudity is 
Ol»pod toit, which gluttons, epicures, and idle persons at most mtbject 
unto, that use no exercice to stir narre'al boat, or elsc choke it, as too much 
vo»d purs out a tire. 
Elixation.] Elixation is the seething of meat in the stomach, by the raid 
natural heat, as ment is boiled in a pot; to which corruption or putrefactioa 
i opposite. 
Assa$ion.] Assation is a concoction of the inward moisture by heat his 
opposite is a semiustulation. 
Order of Cancoction four-fld.] Besicles these three several operations of 
al;gestion, there is a four-fold order of eoncoction :mastication, or chewing 
inthe mouth; chilification ofthis so chewed ment in the stomach; the thit-d 
is in the liver, fo turn this chylus into blood, called sanguiiication; the last 
is assimulatiou, which la in every part. 
En.] Expulsion is a power of nutrition, by which it expels all 
superfluous excrements, and reliques of meat and drink, by the guts, bladder, 
pores; as by purging, vomiting, spitting, sweating urine, hairs, nails, &c 
A«jmentation.] As this nutritive fculty serres to nou4sh th¢ body, so 
tloth the augmenting faculty (the second operation or power ot the vegeta| 
faculty) to the icreasing of it in quantity, according to ail dimensions, long, 
broad, thick, and to make it grow till it corne to his due proportion and per- 
fect uhape  which hath his period of augmentation, as of consumption  and 
that most certain, as the poet observes : 
«Stat sua euique die$, breve et irreparabile tempu3 [ 'CA terre of life ls set fo every man, 
0mnibu e vit." Which i. bu short and pa. R uo one can." 
Generation.] The last of these vegetal faculties is generation, which begets 
another by means of seed, like unto itself, to the perpetual preservation of the 
siècles. To this faculty they ascribe three subordinate operations :--the tiret 
to tma nourishment into eed, &.. 
Lire and l)eath concomitans of ttw Vetal Faculties.] lqecessary concomi- 
tants or affections ofthis vegetal faculty are lire and his privation, death. To 

• l'utr]tio et alimcnti trasmutatio, viro naturlis. SeaU. exerc. 101. ec. 17.  See more of Attraction 
la cl exer. . 



I00 Anatomy o./'/.,oe .çsu [Pa. 1. ,Sec. I. 

the prvservatio of llfe the natural heat is most requisite, though siccity ad 
humidity, and those first qualities, be hot excluded. Thisheat is likewise in 
plants, as appears by their increasing, fructifying, &c., though hot so easily 
prceiveoE In ail bodies if must bave radical moisture topreserve it, that if 
be not consumed; fo which preservation our clime, country, tempemture, and 
the good or bad use of those six non-natural things avail much. For as this 
nttural heat and moisture decayg so doth out lire itself; and if hot prevented 
belote by some violent accident, or interrupted through out o¢n default, is in 
the end dried up by old age, and extinguished by death for want of matter, 
as a lamp for defect of off to maintain it. 

Suzcr. "V'I.O./t t siSl Soul. 
IEXT in ortier is he sensible faculy, which is  ar beond the other in 
dignity  a beasç is pferred fo a plan, having those vegal powe included 
ia i. 'Tis defined an "kc or an organical body by which 
al,peita, judgment, breah, and motion." Hh objec in generM is a sensible 
or paible quality, because the oenoe is affecd wih i. The generM orga 
is the brain, fim which principally the oensible opetiom are derived. Thh 
nsible soul is divided into wo prts, apphending or moving. By the ap- 
l,oehensive power we perceive he species of oeible çngs present, or 
and oein them as wax doth the l»'int of a seM. By the moving, the body is 
outwally carried from one ple to anotber; or inwardly moved by spirtts ahd 
pdse. The apprehensis £culty is subdivided iuto two parts, wa or out- 
ward. OttwaroE as the rive nseg of touching, heag, seei»g, smelling, 
t.tsting, to which you may add Scaliger's xth 
or that of speech, which is the sth exteraal senoe, acoerding to Llius. 
]nwar, l are thteommon sen, phanty, memory. Thosê rive outwar, l 
scns bave their object in outward things oaly and such m are poesent, as tho 
eye sees no colour except it be at hand, the ear sound. Three of theoe sens 
are of commodity, heafing, sight, and smvll; two of neceity, touch, mtd 
tate, without which we OEnnot lire. Besid, the sensitive power  tive 
or psive. Active in sight, the eye se the colour; passive when itis hurt 
by his object, g the eyv by the sun-beams. Aoeording  that axiom, Vb 
/Sre truit sozsum.  Or if the object be hot pleng, m a bad sourd to tho 
ear, a stinking smell  the nose, &c. 
ight.] Of theoe rive sexes, sight is held fo be most pcio, and the best, 
and that by remqon of his object, it es the whole body at onoe. By it we 
learn, and dhcern ail things, a oense most exoellent for use: to the sight three 
thin are required; the object, the organ, and the medium. The object la 
genet'al is vhib]e, or that which  tobe oeen, as colourg and all shining bodies. 
The medium  the illumination of the air, wlfich cornes from "ight, commonly 
c.tlled dial»hanum; tbr in dark we cannot e. The orn is the eye, and 
t-hicfly the apple of it, which by thooe optic nerves, concmang both in one, 
conveys the sight to the common nse. Between the organ and object a truc 
distance  required, that if be hot too noEr, no» too far off. iany exoellent 
questions appertain to this sense, dhcussed by philop]m:  wheher this 
s;ght be caïd intra moe, vd tra ,toe, &c., by receiag  the 
visible sci, or sending of them out, whŒEch « Plato, »Plutarcl h aMacrobius, 
*oEtaati, and others dispute. And bides it is the subject of the perspec- 
tives, of which Alhan the Arabian, ViBio, Roger Bacon, Btpth orta, 
G&dus UbMd, Aquiloni, &a, bave written whole volumes. 
t Vita conslstit in lldo et humido. 
aetas pcrscui Lumen h 
a De pract. Philoe. 4. • Lac. p. 8. de opif. Dci, l. 



IIearng.] Itear]ng, a most excellent outward sense, "by which we |earn 
and get knowledge." His object is sound, or that which is heard ; the medium, 
air; orgn tho car. To the sound, which is  collision of tho ail; three things 
a reqaircd ; a body fo striko, as the hand of a musiciaŒE ; the body stck, 
• vhich must be solid ad able toresist; asa bell, lute-string, hot vool, or sponge; 
the medium, the air; which is iŒEward, or outward ; the outward being struck 
or collided by u solid body, still stïikes the next air, until if corne to that 
inward naturM air, which as an exqisite organ is contained in a l]ttle skin 
formed liko a drum-hed, and struck upon by certain small instruments liko 
drum-sticks, coaveys the sound by a pair of nerves, appropriated to that use, 
to tlm common sense, as to a judge of sounds. There is great variety and 
much delight in them; for the knowledge of which, consult with Boethiu. 
and other musiciaus. 
mellb.] Smelllng is an "outward sense, which apprehends by tho 
noswiL drawing in air ;" and of ail the test itis the wekest sense in mem 
Tho organe in the nose, or tvo small hollow pieces of ilesh a little aboie it : 
the medium the air fo men, as water to fish : the object, smell, arising from a 
mixed body resolved, which, whether it bea qmlity, fume, vapour, or exhalation, 
I will hot now dispute, or of their dittrences, and how tbey are causcd. This 
sense is an orgau of health, as sight and hcarlng, saith °Agelliu.% are of disci- 
pline; and that by avoidhJg bad smells, as by choosing good, which do as 
m,mh airer ad aflct the body may rimes, as diet itselt: 
aste.] Taste, a necessary scnse, "which perceivs all savows by th 
tongue and palate, and that by nea,sof a rhin spittle, or watery juice." IIis 
organ is tire tongue with his tasting nres; the medium, a watry juice; tho 
object, taste, or savour, which is a cluality in the juice, arising from the mix- 
ture of things tasted. Some make eight species or kinds of savour, bittcr, 
sweet, sharp, sait, &e., ail which siek men (as in an ague) cannot discern, by 
reasou of their ot'gans misaffected. 
'ouchig.] Touch, the last of the senses, an ] most iaoble, yet of as great 
necessity as the other, and of as much pleasure. This sense is exquisite in 
nen, and by his nerves dipersed ail over the body, perceives any tactile qmlity. 
ttis organ the nerves; his ob.iect those first qualities, hog, dry, mo£st, cold; 
and those that follow them, hard, soft, thick, thin, &« Many delightsomo 
questions are moved by philasophers about these iive sensesi their organa 
objecta mediums» which lbr brevity I omit. 

SUBSCT. VII.--0ft£ Inward Senses. 

Common Se.] INER senses are three in number, so called, ]ecause they 
be within the brain-pan, as common senoe, phantasy, memo T. Their objects 
are rot on|y thin,s present, but they perceive the sensible species of things 
corne, past, absent, such as were before in the sense. This common sense 
the judge or moderator of the rest, by vhom we discern all differences of 
objects; for by mine eye I do hot knov that I see, or by mine ear that I hear, 
but by my common sense, who judgeth of sounds and colours: they are but th 
organs to bring the species to be censured; so that all their objects are his, 
and all their offices are his. The forepart of the brain is h]s organ or seat. 
Plwrntasy.] Phantasy, or imagination, which some cal] estimative, or 
cogiative (confirmed. saith Fernelius, by frequent meditation), is an inner 
• ense which doth more fully examine the species perceived by common sense, 
of things present or absent, and keeps them longer, recallhg them to mind 
again, or malrJng new of his own. In rime of sleel ttds fculty is free» and 

oLib. 19. cap. 2. tl>hls. I. 5. ¢. 8. 



102 Anatorny «ft],e S,t:/. [Part. 1. Sec. 1. 
rnany tlmes eoneeives strange, stxlpeud, absurd shapes, as in sick mon we eom- 
mouly observe. ]:[is organ is the middle oeil of the brain; his objeets ail the 
«peeies eommuniea¢ed to him by ¢he eommon sense, by eomparison of which ho 
figns infinite other unto himself. In melaneholy mon thL faeulty is most 
powerful and strong, and ofteu hurts, producing mauy monstrous and prodi- 
gious things, espeeially if it be stirred up by some terrible objeet, preseuted 
fo it from eommou sense or memory. In poets and paiuters imauation forci- 
bly worE, as appears by their several fietions, anties, images: as Ovid' home 
of sleep, Psyehe's palaee in Apuleius, &e. In mon it is subjeet and governed 
by reason, or at least should be; but in btaxtes it bath no superior, and is 
'atio brutorum, ail ¢he reason they bave. 
21[emord. ] ]Iemory lays up ail tho speeies which ¢he seuses bave brought 
in, and records them as a good register, thag they naay be fortheonaing when 
they are ealled for by phantasy and reason. IIis objeet i8 the saine with 
i,hantasy, his seat and organ the back part of the brain. 
Affections of the Senses, sloop and waUng.] The affections of these seuses 
are sleep and waking, eommon to ail sensible ereaturez. "Sloop is a test 
binding of the outward sense, and of the eommon sense, for the preservation 
of body and sod" (as "Scaliger defines it)j for when the eommon sense 
resteth, the outward senses test also. The phantasy alone is free, and 
e«»mmander reason : as appears by those imagiuary dreams, which are of divers 
kinds, natural, divine, demouiaeai, &e., whieh vary aecording to humours, diet, 
etions, objeets, &e, of whieh Artemidorus, Cardanus, and Sambueus, with 
their everal interpretators, bave written greaç volumes. This ligation of 
senses proeeeds tom an inhibition of spirits, the way being stopped by whieh 
they shoul,! corne; this sopping is eaused of vapours arising out of the 
stomach, filling the nerves, by whieh the spirits should be eonveyed. When 
these vapours are spent, the passage is open, and the spirits perform their 
accttstomed duties: so that "wakiug is the action and moLiott oî the 
hich the spirits àiperscd over ail parts cause." 
Svsrcr. VIII.--Of th, Movîny 
Alrpet;e. ] TIIm moving faculty is the other power of the sensitive soul, 
which eauseth all those inward and outward animal motions in the body. If 
divided iuto two faeulties, the power of appetite, and of moving from place to 
place. This of aploetite is threefold, so some will bave it; natural, as if signi- 
fies auv such inclination, as of a sçone fo fall downward, and sueh actions as 
rctenton, expulsion, whieh depend hot ou seuse, but are vegetal, as the appetito 
of meat and drink; hunger and ghirsç. Sensitive is eommon to mon and brutes. 
Voluntary, the third, or intelleetive, which eommands the other two in mon, 
and is a eurb unto them, or at least should be, but for the mos pa is 
vated and overruled by them; and mou are led like bests by sense, giving 
teins to their eoneupiseence and several lusts. For by this appeite the soul 
led or inehned to follow that good whieh the sensea shall approve, or avoid tha 
which they hold evil : hiz objeet being good or evil, he one ho embraeeth, the 
ot.her ho rejeeteth; aeeording to that aphorizm, Omnia attoetunt bonum, ail 
things seek their own good, or at least seeming good. This power iz inso- 
parable from seuse, for where sense is, there are likewise pleasure and IxtiJl. 
Itis organ is the saine with the eommou sense, and is divided into two powem, 
or inelinatAons, eoncupisciblo or irascible: or (as *one translates it) coveting, 
anger invading, or impugning. Concupiscible covets always pleant and 
delightsome things, and abhor that whlch is diztasteftd, harsh, and unpleasat. 
• £xercit. 280. * . W. Jeuite in hin laion of the 



Mem. 2. Subs. 9.] Anatomy OEth'. Seul. 103 

Irascible, r quas aversans per iram e odium, as avoiding if with anger and 
indignation. Ail affections and perturbations arise out of these two foun- 
tains, which, althouh the Stoics make light of, we hold naturel, and net te be 
resisted. ïhe good affections are caused by seine object of the aame nature 
and if preseat, they procure joy, which dilates the hearç, and preserves the 
body: if absent, they cause hope, love, desire, and concupiscence. The bad 
are simple or mixed: simple fur seine bad object preseut, as sorrow, which 
contracts the heart, macerates the seul, subvcrts the good estate of the body,. 
hindering ail the operations of iç, causing melancholy, and many rimes death 
itsdf$ or future, as four. Out of these two arise those mixed affections and 
passions of anger, which is a desire of rcvenge; hatred, which is inveterato 
anger zeal, which is offcnded with him who hurts that he loves; and 
i«,«,e«*««, a compound affection of joy and hure, when we rejoice af other 
men's mischief, and are grieved af their prosperity; pride, self-love, emulation, 
er, vy, shame, &c., of which elsewhere. 
Movigfrom llace te place, is a faculty necessarily following the other. For 
îa vain were it otherwise te desire and te abhor, if we hd net likewise po,ver 
te prosecute or eschev, by moving the body frein place te place: by this 
£tculty thercfore we locally more the body, or any part of it, and go frein one 
place te another. Te the better performance of which, three things are requi- 
site: that which moves; by what iç moves; that which is moved. That 
which moves, is either the efficient cause, or end. The end is the ol,ject, 
which is desired or eschewed; as in a dog te catch a hure, &c. The efficient 
cause in man is reason, or his subordinate phantasy, which apprehends good 
or bad objects: in brutes ima-dnation alone, which moves the appetite, the 
appetite this faculty, ,vhich, by an admirable league of nature, and by me- 
diation of the spirit, commands the organ by vhich it moves i and that consista 
of nerves, muscles, cords, dispersed through the whole body, contracted and 
relaxed as the spirits will, which more the muscles, or " nerves in the midst 
of them, and draw the cord, and se per consexluens , the joint, te the place 
intended. That which is moved, is the body or seine member apt te more, 
The motion of the body is divers, as going, running, leaping, dancing, sitting, 
and such like, refewed te the predicament of sltus. Vorms creep, birds 
fishes swim ; and se of parts, the chief of which is respiration or breathing, 
and is thus pcrformed. Tho outward air is drawn in by the vocal artery, 
and set by mediation of the midriff te the lungs, which, dilating themselves 
as a pair of bellows, reciprocally fetch it in, and send it out te the heurt 
cool it; and frein thence new being hot, eonvey it again, still taking in fresh- 
Such a like motion is that of the putse» of which, be¢auso many have writtea 
'hole books, I will say nothing. 

SçSECr. IX.--O/th« atoa/ 

I the precedent subsections I bave anatomized those infrior faculties of 
the seul; the rational remaineth, "a pleasant but a doubtful subject" (as 
• one terres if), and with the like brevity te be discussed. Many erroneoua 
opinions ara about the essence and original of if; whether if be tire, as Zeno 
held; harmony, as Aristoxenus; number, as Xenocrates; whether it be orgaui- 
cal, or inorganical ; seated in the brain, heart or blood; mortal or immortal ; 
how it cornes into the body. ome hold that it is e traduce, as Phil. 1. d« 
Anima, 2'ertullia«, Lactantius de oloiftc. 1)e, cap. 19. Hugo, lib. de Sl)rit 
et Anima» Vincenti-us Bellavlc. slev, natural, lib. 23. ealo. 2. et 11. J:t_ippo- 

• Ve]cur]o. • lervi  Slirita moventur» SlIritua ab anim, Melnct. 

• g¢Icutio. Jucunlum et 



lO ,momy of /oE ,.%«L r«t. 1. Sec. 1. 
crates, A.vicenna, and mny ]ate wrlte; that one man gets another, 
body and soul ; or as a OEdIe ri-oto a OEndle, to be produced m the seed : 
otherwi, say they. a man begets but half a man, and  worse than a best 
that begets both mattcr and form ; d besides the thoee faculties of the soul 
naust be together infused, which is most absurd  they hold, beuse in beast 
they are begot, the two inferior I mean, and may hot be well separated in 
men.  Galen supposeth the so an se, tobe the empemture itself ; 
Trismestus, Musoeus, Orl,he, Homer, Pindam, Phoeri,les Syrus, Epic- 
refus, with the Chaldees and gyptians, affirmed the mul tobe immortal, 
 did tho Brith * Dids of old. The  Pythagor defend hIet.empsy- 
chais; and Palingenes, tha¢ souls go from one body to another, epotdius 
Zet undd,  men  wolves, bears, dogs, hogs,  they were ineed 
the hves, or participated  conditions. 
ci  inque fen 
Foum ire domu pecudque  coor cou,  
• Lucn's coek w r.t Ephorb a capti : 
• ' Ille cgo (nain memlnl) Tro]ant teindre 
Panthoid Euphorb eram." 
A or.e, a an, a sponge. Jlia the Apote thougt A]exa,er's 
w d«ceded into his body: lato in Timoeo, ad in his Phoedon (for aught 
I OE peweive), differs hot ranch ri-oto t, hic opinion, that it v ri'oto Goal at 
rt, and knew ail, but being inclosed in thc body, if forgets, ad learns ew, 
wh/ch he cMl minctia, or recalling, and tbat if w pt into the body 
fi,r a punihment; ad thece it go ito a best's, or man's,  appea by 
his p]eut fiction  rit anirm, . IO.  e». an afçcr  
thoud ycar  to tm into the fvrer body agaln. 
. u  post va.os annos, per mille 
Es ad hmoe fe por vi » 
Others deny te imoaIity of if, wich Foponatus of da decided out 
of Aristle hot long sice, llnis Avuncb, cap. 1. [ib. 2. e I. 7. cap. 
Serra, lib. 7. ept. ad Lucillum epist. 55 ; Drchus i T. T. 
rus, Arat, 11i2crates , Ga, Lucretius, l. 1. 
çreere nentims piterque nenr munira.)"  
Averroes, and I ow no how my oeteries. " TMs qutlon of th¢ 
immohty of the soul, is diveroely and wondcrfully impugned and dpud, 
especiMly among the Italians of late," aith J. Cor, l. de im»t. 
anim, cap. 1. The popes themlves have doubted of it : Leo Deeimus, 
that Eicurean pope, as  some reoerd of him, eauoed this qumtion to be dis- 
cussed pro and con before him, and e.nduded at last,  a prophane and 
atheistical mod«mtor, with that verse of Corneli Gallus, Et rit it num, 
qdfuit an nih. It began of nothing, and in notMng if ends. Zeno and 
his toi,  Il Austin quotes him, suppod the ul 8o long  continue, till 
the body was fully putrefied, and olved into taa lxima: but after that, 
infus evancere, to be extinshed and vanished; and in the mean rime, 
whit the bly wm« oeumg, it wandered 1 abroad, a è inq mta 
annuncre, and ( that Clazomenian Hermotimus averred) w pretty visions, 
and suffered I know nos what.  Errant eng  corl»ore  oss 
 oelenlua In ¢'x. ag. 302. Bright in ya. Serlb. !. i. David Ci [el¢thon, ippiua 
Zevlnus Lemniu c. ¢ Lib.  mor suant, c. * Cœer. 6. coin. d Rd  
diM. of tbe ImmortaHty of the Soul. Ovid. Met. 5. " We, who may take np onr abode in wild bet 
or be lodged in tbe brt$ of catle." • In 1o. Idem.  Nip,o hist. lib. 10. cap. . g Phoedo. 
• Claudian, 1lb. I. demp. Prox.  "Besid, we ob$e tbat themlnd i$  with the body, growa 
with it, and decays with it."  HOec qo multos r annos va ac mirabiliter impua 
 Colert ibid.   eecl, dog. cap. 16.  Ovid. 4. Met. « The bloooE sbad wiout 
by ci- bon 



bIem. 2. Subs. 10.] Analomy ofthe Seul 105 

umbroe. Ot, hers grant the imortality thereof, but they make many fahulou. 
fietio,. in the meantime of it, after the departure frein the body: like Plato's 
Elysian fields, and that Turkey paradise. The seuls of good men they dcified; 
the bad (saith a Austin) beeame devils, as they supposed ; with many such 
absurd tenet., which he bath eonfuted, l:[ierome, Austin, and other Father 
of the chureh, hold that the sotd is immortM, created of nothing, and se 
infused into the child or embryo in his mother's womb, six months after the 
'conception; net as those of brutes, which are e traduce, and dying with 
them vanish into nothing. Te whose divine treatises, and te the Scriptures 
themselves, I rejouru ail sueh atheistical spirits, as Tully did Atticus, doubting 
of this point, te Plato's Phoedon. Or ff they desire philosophieal proofs and 
demonstrations, I refer them te Niphus, Nie. Faventinus' tracts of this subjeet. 
Te Fran. and John Pieus in digress: sup. 3. de Anirn, Tholosanus, Eugu- 
binu.% te Soto, Canas, Thomas, Peresius, Dandinus, Colerus, te that 
rate tract in Zanchius, te Tolet's Sixty Ressens, and Lessius' Twenty-two 
Arguments, te prove the immorality of the seul. Campanella lib. de 
'erzrn, is large in the sarne diseourse, Albertinus the Sehoolman, Jacob. 
:Naetantus, rem. 2. op. handleth it in four questions. Antony Brunus, A.o,iius 
:Palearius, Marinus ]larcennus, with many others. This re.onable seul, whieh 
Austin calls a spiritual substance moving itself, is defined by philosophers te 
be « the first snbstantial act of 
man lires, pereeives, and understands, freely doing ail t-hings, and with elec- 
tion." Out of whieh deflnition we may gather, that this rational seul ineludes 
the powers, and per{brms the duties of the two other, whieh are contained in 
it, and ail three faeulties make ont seul, which is inorganieal of itself, although 
it be in all parts, and ineo,])oreal, using their organs, and working by them. 
It is divided into two chier parts, differing in office only, net in e.sseuce. Tha 
nnderstanding, whieh is the ratioual power apprehending; the will, which is 
the rational power moving: te whieh two, ail the other rational power. are 
subject and redueed. 

Susec. X.Of the Understanding. 

« Uvrsx-v is a power of the seul,  by whlch we perceive, know, 
remember, and judge as well sinmflars, as universals, haviug certain innate 
notiees or beginnings of arts, a refleeting action, by which it judgeth of 
own doings, and examines them." Out of this definition (besides his chief 
office, which is te apprehend, judge ail that he performs, without the help of 
my instruments or organs) three differences appear betwixt a man and a beast. 
As first, the sense only eomprehends singularities, the understanding univer- 
salitie Secondly, the sense bath no innate notions. Thirdly, brutes canner 
reflect upon themselves. Becs indeed make neat and curious works, and many 
other creatures besides; but when they bave doue, they eannot judge of them. 
-Iis objeet is God, Ens, ail nature, and whatsoever is te be understood : which 
sueeessively it apprehends. The objeet fixzt moving the nnderstanding, 
seine sensible thing; after by diseoursing, the mind finds out the coq)oreal 
substance, and from thenee the spiritual, ttis actions (seine say) are appreo 
heusion, composition, division, diseoursing, reasoning, memory, which seine 
indude in invention, and judgment. The commoa divisions are of the 
tmderstanding, agent, and patient; speculative, and pract.ical; in habit, or 
act; simple, or compound. The agent is that whieh is ealled the wit of man, 
acume, or subtilty, sharpness of invention, when he doth invent of himself 

• Bonornm lares, m|orum vcr lara et lemure& tSome eay at three day mme six week otherl 
etherwlne a Zlelancthon. 



106 Anatomy qfl So'.d, [Part. 1. Sce. 1. 

without a teacher, or learns anew, which abstl'acts those intclligible specles 
frein the phantasy, and transfers them te the passive understanding, "'because 
there is nothing in the understanding, which was net first in the sense." That 
v«hich the imagination bath taken ri'oto the seuse, this agent judgeth of, 
whether it be truc or çalse; and being se judged he commits it te the l,a.sil,le 
te be kcpt. The agent is a doctor or teacher, the passive a scholar; and his 
office is te keep and further judge of such things as are committed te hi 
charge; as bare and rased table at first, capable of ail tbr,,,s and notions. 
Now these notions are two-fold, actions or habits: actions, by which we take 
notions of, and perceive things; habits, which are durable lights and notions, 
which we may use when we will. Seine reckon up eight kinds of them, sense, 
experience, intelligence, faith, suspicion, errer, opinion, science; te which are 
a, lded art, prudency, wisdom: as aise msynterezis, dictamen 'ationis, con- 
science; se that in ail there be fomeen species of the understanding, of which 
seine are innate, as the three last mentioned; the other are gotten by doctrine, 
learning, and use. Plate will bave ail te ba innate : Aristotle reckons up but 
rive intellectual habits; two practic-M, as prudency, whooe end is te practise ; 
te fabricate; wisdom te comprehend the use and experiments of ail notions, 
and habits whatsoever. Which division of Aristotle (if it be considered aright) 
is ail one with the precedent; for three being innate, and rive acquisite, the 
test are improper, imperfect, and in a more strict examination excluded. Of 
ail these I should more amply «ilate, but my subject will net permit. Three 
of them I will only point at, a more necessary te my following diseourse. 
Synteresis, or the purer part of the conscience, is an innate habit, and doth 
signify "a conversation of the knowledge of the law of God and ature, te 
know good or evil." And (as out divines hold)it is rather in the under- 
standing than in the will. This makes the major proposition in a practieal 
syllogism. The dictann rationis is that which doth admonish us te de good 
or evil, and is the miner in the syllogism. The cormcience is that which 
approves good or evil, jnstifying or condemning out actions, and is the con- 
clusion of the syllogism : as in that familiar example of Regulns the Roman, 
ttken prisoner by the Carthaginians, and suffered te go te Reine, on that 
condition he should return again, or pay se much for his ransom. Tho 
synteresis proposeth the question; his word, oath, promise, is te be relig4ously 
kcpt, aithough te his enemy, and that by the law of nature. *"Do net that 
te another which thou wouldest net bave donc te thyselï. » Dictamen apphes 
it te him, and dictates this or the like: Regulus, thou wouldst net another 
man should falsify his oath, or break promise with thee: conscience concludes, 
therefore, Regulus, thou dost well te perform thy promise, and oughtest te 
keep thine oath. ])lore of thi in Religions ]Ielaacholy. 

Su,srcr. XI.Of t Will. 

WILL is the other power of the rational seul, °"which c0vets or avoids such 
thlngs as have been before judged and apprehended by the understanding." 
If good, if approves; if œevil, it abhors it: se that iris object is either good or 
evil. Aristotle calls this our rational appetite; for as, in the sensitive, we are 
moved te good or bad by our appetite, ruled and directed by sense; se in this 
we are carried by reason. Besides, the sensitive appetite bath a particular 
object, good or bad; this an universal, immaterial: that respects only things 
delectabie and pleasant; this honest. Again they differ in liberty. The 

t NlhK In intellect-a, qnod non prius fuerat ia sensu. Velcurlo. ffi The pure part of the conscience. 
• Quod tb! fieri non vis, alteri ne feceris. Re ab iatellecta motrata r¢cipit v¢l l'ejicit  $99rob&? 
¥cl imgobat  Philip. laoi null& culdo. 



llem. . Subs. 11.] An«tomy ofl ,.%ul. 107 

scnsual appetite seeing an object, if it be a eonvenient good, eannot but desiro 
it; if evil, avoid it: but this is ïrea in his essence, r"much now depraved, 
obscured, and fallen from lais first perfection; yet in some of his operations 
still free," as fo go, walk, move st his pleasure, and to choose whether it will 
do or hot do, steal or hot steal. Otherwise, in vain were laws, deliberations, 
exhortations, counsels, precepts, rewards, promises, threats and punishments : 
and God should be the author ofsin. ]3ut in «spi5tual thin we will no good, 
prone to evfl (except we be regenerate, and led by the Spirit), we are egged on 
by out natural concupiscence, and there is -'-;« a confusion in out powe], 
"'Sour whole wiil is averse i?om God and his law," hot in natural things only, 
as to est and drink, lust, to whlch we are led headlong by our tcmperatum 
and inordinate al)petite , 
• "Nec nos obniti contra, nec tendere tantùm 
we cannot resist, out concupiscence is originally bad, out heart evil, the seat of 
out affections captivates and enforceth out- will. So that in voluntary things 
we are averse from Goal and goodncss, bad by nature, by qgnorance worse, 
by art, discipline, custom, we get many bad habits: suffering them to domi- 
neer and tyrannize over us; and the devil is still ready af hand with his evil 
suggestions, fo tempt out depraved will fo some ill-disposed action, fo precipi- 
tate us fo destruction, except out will be swayed and counterpoised again with 
some divine precepts, and good motions of the spirit, which manytimes restrain, 
hinder and check us, when we are in the fuil career of our dissolute courses. 
So David corrected himse]f, when he had Saul af a vantage, levenge and 
malice were as two violent oppugners on the one side; but honesty, religion, 
fear of God, withheld him on the other. 
The actions of the wiil are vd/e and nolle, fo will and nill: which two words 
comprehend all, and they are good or bad, accordingly as they are directed, 
and some of them freely performed by himse]f; although the Stoics absolutely 
deny it, and will bave ail things inevitably donc by destiny, imposing a fatal 
necessity upon us, which we may v.ot resist; yet we say that out w",l is free 
in respect of us, and things contingent, howsoever in respect of God's deter- 
minate counsel, they are inevitable and necessary. Some other actions of the 
vill are performed by the inferior powers, which obey him, as the sensitive 
and moving appetite; as to open our eyes, to go hither and thither, hot fo touch 
a book, fo speak fait or foui: but this appetite is many times rebellious in us, 
and wi]l hot be contained within the lists ofsobriety and temperance. If was 
(as I said) once well agreeing with ason, and there was an excellent consent 
and harmony between them, but that is now dissolved, they often jar, ressort 
overborne by passion: 'ertur uis au'figa, e audit currus habe,ms, as so 
many wi!d horses rtm away with a chariot, and will hot be curbcoE 'e know 
many times what is good, but will hot do it, as she aid, 
• « TroEt lnvitum nova vis, alindqne eupid,o,, 
ten aliud ulet,. 
Lust comsels one thing, ressort another, there i a new reluctancy in men. 
"Odi, e possum, cutzies, no esse quod odi. We cannot resist, but as 
lhoedra confeased to ber nurse, • qvv/oçer/s, vers sttzt, sex] furw" 
segui ejora: she said well and truc, she did acknowledge if, but headstrong 
passion and fury ruade ber to do that which was opposite. So David knew the 
filtlriness of his fact, what a loathsome, foul, crying sin adultery was, yet 
• lelanethon. Operatione plerumqu¢ feroe, ¢tsi libera it illa In esSentia sus. « In eivilibus libera, 
ted non in spiritualibu Osiander. • Tota rltmtas averstt tf Deo. Omnis homo mendaz, • Virg. 
"We are neither able fo eontend agatust tbem, nor only to make way " t Vel propt¢r ignorantiam, quod 
boni studiis non it itruct me ut dcbuitt sut divil Ir¢eItis czcult. , l¢d. OvioE * 
• .. 



108 D,d ofIdandwbj. [Par. 1. ,. l. 

notwithstanding, he would commit murdcr, and take away anotl,er man's 
vife, enforced against reason, religion, to foilow his appetite. 
Those natural and vegetal powers are hot commanded by will at ail ; for 
"who can add o,m cubit to his stature?" These other may, but are hot : and 
thence corne ail those headstrong passions, violent perturbations of the mind ; 
and many times vicious habit custom feral disees; because we give .o 
much way to out appetite, and follow out inclination, like so many beast 
The principal habits are two in number, virtue and vice, whose peculiar defi- 
nitions, descriptions, differences, and kinds, are handled at large in the ethicv 
and are, indeed, the nbject of moral philosophy. 

IEMB. III. 

S[BsrCr. I.--1)finition of Mdancholy, ffame, Difference 

ftWG thus briefly anatomized the body and soul of man, as a preparative 
fo the test; I may now freely proceed to treat of my intended object, to most 
men's capacity; and after many ambages, perspicuously define what this 
rnelancholy is. show his naine ami differences. The naine is iml)od from the 
matter, and disease denominated from the material cause : as Bruel observes, 
,« quaz/» î, from black choler. And whether it be a cau or 
an effct, a disease or symptom, let Donatus Altomarus and Salvianus dco 
eide; I will hot contend about it. It hath several descriptions, notations» 
and definitions. Fraeastorius, in his seomd book of intellect, ealls tho:o 
melancholy, « whom abundance of that aame depraved humour of black eholcr 
bath so misaffected, that they b¢come mad thence, and dote in mosç thing 
or in ail, belonging to elction, will, or other maniïest operations of the under- 
standing." "lI«lanelius out of Galen, Ruffus, Etius, describe it to be « a bad 
and peevish disease» which makes men degenerae ino beasts:" Galen» Ca 
privation or infection of the middle cell of the head," &c. defining t from the 
par affected, which ° Hercules de 8axoniâ approve, l/b. 1. cap. 16. calling 
it "a depravation of the principal function :" Fuschius, l/b. 1. cap. 23. Arnoldus 
iBreviar, l/b. 1. cap. 18. Guianerius, and others: «]y reason of black choiera" 
1)aulus adds. talyabbas simply ealls it a "commotion of the mind." Are- 
¢oeus, "a perpetual anguish of the soul, fastened on one thing, vithout an 
ague ;" which definition of his, Mercurialis de affect, cap. lib. 1. cap. 10. taxeth: 
but JElianus 5lontaltus defends, lib. de morb. cap. 1. de Melau. for sufficient 
and good. The common sort define it to be "a kind of dotage without a 
lever, having for his ordinary companions, fear and sadness, without any 
apparent occasion. So doth Laurentius, cap. 4. 1)iso, l/b. 1. cap. 43. Donatus 
kltomarus, cap. 7. art. medic. Jacchinus, in coin. in l/b. 9. lhaMs ad Almansor, 
cap. 15. Valesius exerc. 17. Fuschius, institut. 3. sec. 1. c. 11. &c., which 
common definition, howsoever approved by most,  t[ercules de Saxoni. wfll 
hot allow of, nor David Crucius, Theat. morb. Herm. l/b. 2. cap. 6. he ho|ds it 
insufficient : "as rather showing what it is hot, than what it is:" as omitting 
the specific diffcrence, the phautasy and bmin : but I descend to particulars. 
The summumgenus is "dotage, or auguish of the mind," saith Aretoeus; "of 
the principal parts," Hrcules de Saxoni adds, to distinguish it from cramp 
aud palsy, and such diseases as belong to the outward sense and motions 
• Melaneholieos voeamua, quos exuberantia vel prsvitas Melaneholioe Ira male habet, ni Inde insanlang 
vel in omnibus, vel in pluribus iisque manifestis sire d rectam rationem, voluntstem pertinent, vel elec- 
tionem, vel. intel ectùs operafiones • Pe. i.m.um et pertinaci.simum morbum qui homines in bruta dee 
erare COglt. Panth. med. b kHgor aUI]TII III UH a contentlone defu abeque febro, Can / I1 
• Eorum deflnRl0 rnorbu quid non it lotiu quam quid it ezlic,tt -- -  ........ 



Iem. 3. Euba. .] Of l Pwr a.ff'eced, &c. 109 

[depraved_'] * to distinguish it from folly and madnesa (which 3Iontaltus rnakes 
angor animl, to separate)in which those functions are not depraved, but rather 
abolished ; [without an ague] is added by ail, to separate it from phrensy, and 
that melancholy which is in a pestilent lever. (Fear and sorrow) make it 
differ from madness: [without a cause] is lastly inserted, to specify it from ail 
other ordinary passions of [fear and SOITOW]. We properly call that dotage, 
as ° Lanrentius interprets it, "when some one principal faculty of the mind, 
as imagination, or reason, is corrupted, as ail melancholy persons bave." It is 
without a fe'er, because the humour is most pa cold and dry, contrary to 
putreçaction. Fear and sorrow are the tnm characters and inseparable coin- 
panions of most melancholy, not ail, as Her. de Saxoniâ, Tract. de posthumo 
de l[elancholia, cap. 2. well excepts; for to some it is most pleasant, as fo 
such as laugh most part; some are bold again, and free from ail manner of 
fcar and grieÇ as hereafter shall be declared. 

8vrsrc. I[.--Of the Part affected. Affect;an. Part «ffected. 

SO.tE difference I find mnongst writers, about the principal part affeted 
in ths diaease, vhether if be the brain, or heart, or some othr member. IMst 
are of opinion that it is the brain : for being a kind ofdotage, it canvo other- 
wise be but that the brain must be affectd, as a sirailar part, be it Iy * con- 
sent or essence, hot in his ventricles, or any obstructions in them, for then if 
would be an apop!exy, or elailepsy , as t Laurentius well observes, but in a cold, 
dl T distemperature of it in his substance, which is corrupt and become too 
cold, or too dry, or else too h,t, as in madmen, and su,:h as are inclined to if : 
amd this  Hippocrates contirms, Galen, the Arahians, and most of our new 
writers. ]Iarcus «le Oddis (in a consultation of his, quoted by  Hildesheim) 
and rive others there cited are of the contrary part; because fear and sorrow, 
wifich are passi«,ns, be seated in the heart. But this objection is sufliciently 
answered by tMontaltus, who doth hot deny that the heart is affected (as 
 Melanelius proves out of G"alen) by reason of his vicinity, and so is the mid- 
riff and many other parts. They do compati, and have a fellow feeling by 
the law of nature: but forasmuch as this malady is caused by irecedent 
imagination, with the appetite, to whom spirits obey, and are subject to those 
principal parts, the brain must needs primarily be misaflected, as the seat of 
ran ; and then the heart, as the seat of affection, tCappivaccius and Mercu- 
rialis have copiously discusaed this question, and both condude the suhject la 
the inner brain, and from thence it is communicated to the heart and other 
inferior parts, which sympa.thize and are much troubled, espccially whn it 
cornes by consent, and is cau.d by reason of the stomach, or myrach, as the 
Arabians terre it, whole body, liver, or "spleen, which are seldm free, pylo- 
ru«, meseraic veins, &c. For sur body is like a clock, if sue wheel be amiss, 
ail the re.st are disordered ; the whole fabric suffers : with such admirablo 
art and h«rmony is a man composed, such excellent proportion, as Ludovmus 
Vives in his Fable of Man bath elegantly declared. 
As many doubt.s almost arise about tbe "affection, vhether it he imanatiort 
or reson alone, or both, Hercules de Saxoniâ proves if out of Galen, 2Etius, 
and Altomarus, that the sole fault la in ° imaginati¢m Bruel is of the amo 

* Animoe functiones Imminuuntur, in fatuitate, tolluntur in munis, depravantur solum In melancholia. 
]lerc. de Sa cap. 1. tract, de Melanch. æ Cap. . de mel. * Per conaenaum aire per eavntiam. 
« Cal). t. 60 mel. • Set. "/. tàe mv.. vulgar. |lb. 6.  Spicel. de me|ucholia.  Cap. 3. de mel. pars 
affecta OE.rebrum sire per conaenmm, aire per cerebrum contingat, et proceram auctoritate et rations 
s!abilitttr. * Lib. de ldei. Cor vers vicinitatis rations un.à afflcitur, acceptum tranaversum se stomachu 
cure do'all apln,, &e.  Llb. I. cap. t0. ubjectum est cerebrum interius, m Rrè o, uisquam tumo,'cra 
ellugit lienis, qui hoc morbo afflcitur, Pia. Quia affcctua, a Set Donat. ab Aitomar. o Facu]taa imagi. 
andi, non cogitandi, nec memorandl IS hic. 



110 fer of Mdanchov. [Part. 1. Sec. 1. 

mind : lontaltus in his 2 cap. of Melancholy confutes this enet of thei, and 
i11tras the ,ontrar by many exampl: 
hell-fish, of a nun, and of a drate monk hat wod hOt be persuaded bu 
thaç he wm damned; tesson wm in faulç m well  imagination, whi did 
mt coct thh error: they make awv themoelv oftentimes, and suppo 
many absd and fidiculous things. Why doth hot rein detect the fally, 
ttle and uade, if she be tYeei • Avicenna therefore holds both coupç, 
fo whom most Abians suboeribe. The same is mfintained by « Areteus, 
• Oorgonius, Ouianeriug &c. To end the controversy, no man doubts of 
imagination, but that it is h and mffecd here; for the other, I deçer.. 
mine with " Albeinus tnus, a dr of Padua, that if h fiç in " ima- 
nation, and afgerwards in remon ; if the diœee be inveterate, or as if is 
nore or less of oenthuance; but by accident," as * Herc. de 8axoniâ adds; 
"faith, opinion, discoue, ratiocimtion, aoe ail accidentally depraved by tho 
default of imagination." 
Parti «ffected.] To the pa a.cfed, I may here add the pmoEies, whidt 
shall  more oppotunely spoken of elsewhere, now only signifie& 8uch as 
bave the moen, 8atun, Iercy misaffected in their genitures, such as lire 
 over cdd, or over hot climes: such m are rn of melancholy parents; as 
oflënd in thooe six non-natal things, are blk, or of a high nguine com- 
plexion, « that have litfle heads, that have a hot heur, mo brain, hot liver 
and oeld stomach, have been long sick : such as are lita by natte, greaç 
studentg given o mueh conteml,lation , lead a lire ou of action, are mot sub- 
j ect o melancholy. Of sexes both, but men mooe often; ye = women mis- 
aflected are far more olent, and ievously troubled. Of ssons of the year, 
the autumn is most mehncholy. Of culiar rimes: old age, from which 
naturM melancholyis almost an inoeparable accident; but this artificial malady 
is more frequent in such m are of a • middle age. 8orne assigm 40 yea, 
Gariopontus 30. gubeus excepts neither young nor dd from this adven- 
titious. Danid 8ennertus involves ail of ail sorts, out of common expefience, 
 in omnus omnino corpb jusoEue constituti mitur. tius 
and Amtitm q aribe into the number "hOt only "diontented, paionate, and 
miscrable persons, swarthy, black ; but such as are most merry and plant, 
scoffe and high coloured." "Genera!ly," saith his, "" the finest wits and 
most generous spifits, are fore other obnoxious 
omplexion, any condition, sex, or age, but n foels and Stoics, xvhich, accord- 
iug   Synesiu are never troubled with any manner of passion, but 
Auacrffs caoe, si sangui  lore; sim firè di nt. Ermus 
viadicates foeIs from this melanchoIy catalogue, because they bave most part 
moist brains and light heas; a they are free fmm ambition, en, shame and 
fear; they aro neither troubled in conience, nor maeerated with OEres, fo 
hich out whole life is most subject. 

suscr. III.--of a J[aller of [elancholy. 

OF the marrer of melancholy, there is much question betwixt Ax'icen and 
Galen, as you may read in "Cardan's Contradictions,  Valesius' Controversies, 

P Lib. a. Fen. I. Tract. 4. cap. 8. « Lib. 3. cap. 5. ,Lib. Med. cap. 19. part. 2. Trac. 15, cap. 2. 
• Hildesheim sp|cel. 2 de .ML']anc. fol. 20"1. et fol. 127. Qv-andoque etiam rationgIis si affcctus inveteratu| 
sit. * Lib. posthumo de Melnc. edit. 1620 deprivAtnr rides, dJ8cLlrttg, opJnio, &c., per vitium Imaginv.- 
ri .nis, ex Accidenti. t Qui parfaire capnt habent, in$ensati pleriqne sunt. Arist. in physioguumitt. 
 Areteua, lib. 3. cap. 5. = Qui propè stature sunt. Aret. Mediis convenir oetatibua, Piso.  De quartano. 
• Primus ad [elanml|am non tam moesttt* ced et h.ilares, Joc_o.s.i, c.achinnantes, irrisores, et. qui plerumque 
proerubri sunt. T Lib. 1. part. 2. cap. 11. • Mm sunt sUbtllJs Ingenii, et multoe perspicacitatis de facili 
|ncidun in ]4elancholim, ]ib. i. cont. Tract. 9. b/¢nquam sanitate mentis excidit aut dolore capitur. 
Ertrn. • In lantl, calvit, a Vacant consclentioe carnific|na, nec pudefitmt, nec verentur, nec di|ace. 
rm.tlr millibtt curaxum qttibus tota vit obnoxi« et. • Lib. L tract. 3. coutrathc. 18.  Llb. 1. cttit."L 



fem. 3. $ubs. 8.] Jl"atter of Mdandwry. 111 

Montanus, Prosper Calenus, "Capplvaccius, S P, rght, t Ficlnus, that bave 
writtcn eitber whole tracts, or copiously of it, in their several treafises of 
this subject, i« What ths humour is, or whence t proceeds, how it is engen- 
dcred in the body, neither Galen, nor any old writer, bath sufficiently dis- 
cussed, as Jacchiuus thinks: the Neoterics canuot aee. [ontanus, in his 
Consultations, holds melancholy fo be material or immaterial: and so doth 
Arculanus: the material is one of the four humours before mentioned, and 
natural. The immaterial or adventitious, acquisite, redundant, unnatural, 
artificial; which  Hercules de Saxoni. will bave reside in the spirits alonc, 
and to proceed from a " hot, cold, dry, moist distemperature, which, without 
malter, aller the brain and functions of il. Paracclsus 'holly rejects and 
derides this division of four humours and complexions, but our Galenists 
general]y approve of il, subscribing to this opinion of/Iontanus. 
This material melancholy is either simple or mixed; offending in quantity or 
quality, var3dng according to his place, where il settleth, as brain, spleen, 
meseraic veins, heart, womb, and stomach; or differing according to the mix- 
ture of those natural humours amongst themselves, or four unnatural adust 
humours, as they are diversely tempered and mingled. If natural melancholy 
abound in the body, which is cold and dry, "so that it be more  than tho 
body is well able go bear, il must needs bo distempered," saith Faventius, 
"and diseased;" and so the other, if il be depraved, whether il arise from 
that other melancholy of choler adust, or from blood, produceth the like effects, 
and is, as/Iontaltus contends, if it corne by adustion of humours, most part 
hot and dry. Some difference 'I find, whether this melancholy matter may bo 
engendered of all four humours, about the colour and retaper of il. Galea 
holds il may be engendered of three alone, excludiug phlegm, or pituita, whoso 
true assertion IValesius and ]lenardus stiffiy "-«aintain, and so doth Fuschius, 
lontaltus, ]/ontanus. How (say they) can white become black? But lier- 
cules de Saxonih lib. post. de mela. c. 8, and ° Çadan are of the opposite parg 
(il may be engertdered of phlegm, etsî rar6 con.ingat, though il seldom corne 
fo pass), so is Guianerius and Laurentius, c. 1. with lIelanct, in his Book de 
Animâ, and Chap. of liumours; he calls il Asininam, dull, swinish melan- 
choly, and saith that he was an eye-witnoss of il: so is «Wecker. From 
melancholy ad us ariseth one kind; tom choler another, wh ich is most brutish; 
another frora phlemn, which is dull; and the last from blood, which is best. 
Of these some are cold and dry, ottmrs hot and dry, "varying according fo 
their mixtures, as they are intended, and remitted. And indeed as Rodericus 
i Fons. cons. 12. 1. determines, ichors, and those serous matters being thick- 
ened become pMegm, and phlegm degenerates into choler, choler adust becomcs 
oeruginosa elanclwlia, as vinegar out of puresç wine putrefied or byexhalatiolt 
of purer spirits is so ruade, and becomcs sour and sharp; and from the sharp- 
ness of ghis humour proceeds much waking, troublesome thoughts and dreams» 
&c., so that I concludo as before. If the humour be cold, it is, sait.h "Faven- 
tinus, «a cause of dotage, and produceth milder symptoms: if hot, they aro 
rash, raving mad, or inclining fo il." If the braiu be hot, the animal s|drits 
are hot; much madness follows, with violent actions: if cold, fatuity and sot- 
tishnesst Cappivaccius. *" The colour of thiz mixture varies likewi:o according 

s Bright, ca. 16. a Lib. I. cap. 6. de sanit, tuend.  Quisve au¢ qua]fs sit Immor, aut quoe 
lifferemi$e et quomodo gigantur in corporc, scratadU.m, l/tc enim re rnuiti eterum |aboravernnt, 
facile accipere ex Gleno senteutioe ch loquendi varietatem. Leon. Jacch. com. in 9. Ih&is cap. 15. cap. 16. 
iz, 9. Rhasi. • Lib. posthum, de Melan. e..¢. Venetiis 1620. cap. 7 et 8. Ab inCemperie calid, humida, 
&c. kSecundum magis aut miuus si in corpore fuerit, ad itemperiem plusquam corpus sa]ubriter 
ferre poter]t: inde corpus morbosum eflltur. Lib. I. eontrovers, cap. zi. m Lib. |. scCt. 
cap. 4. = Coneil. 2. o Lib. 2. contradic, cap. 1 I. P De feb. tract, diff. 2. cap. I. non esc negandum 
ex bac fleri Mc|ancholics. q In Syutax. r Varie aduritur, et miscetur, unde varioe amentium speces, 
leianct. • Humor frigidus delirLi caus, furoris clidus, &c.  Lib. i. cap. 10. de affcct, cap. 
 NiKroecit hic humor» aliqundo mal)ercalefactus, aiiqundo uI'efxiefbctus :,. 



te the mixture, be if hot or cold; 'ris sometimes black, sometimes net, Alto- 
rnarus. The saine z llelanelius proves out of Galen; and Hippocrates in his 
]3ook of Melancholy (if af least it be his), giving instance in a burning coal, 
"which when it is hot, shines; when it is cold, looks black ; and se doth tho 
humour." This diversity of melancholy matter produceth diversity of effects. 
If it be within the "body, and net putrefied, it causeth black jaundice; if putro- 
fied, a quartan ague; if if break out te the skin, lel,rosy ; if te parts, severa| 
maladies, as scurTy, &c. If it trouble the mind ; as if is divcrsely mixed, it 
produceth several kinds of madness and dotage: of which in their place. 

Stmsc'. IV.--Of the edea or nda of Melanchol. 
WHE the malter  dive and consed, how should it otherwîse be, 
that the scies shouhl be divers and confed Many ltew and old writers 
bave spoken confusedly of it, confounding melancho]y and madn, as  Heur- 
nius, uianeH, Oordonius, Salutius, a[vianus, Jason Frateltsis, Savana- 
rola, that will bave madne no other than melancholy lu exnt, di.ring 
I bave raid) in degrees. Seine make two distiuc sci, as Rtff Ephesius, 
an old wt Çonstantin Afcnus, retoeus, "urelianus, Paulus i- 
nets : others acknowledge a multitude of kinds, and leave them in«lefinit 
tius in his Tetrabiblos, "vicenna, ib. 3. ffe. 1. r. 4. cp. 18. &rcu- 
lanus, cep. 16.  9. is, ontanus, . ar. 1. "« If natural melancholy 
be adusç, it maketh one kind; " blood, another; if choler, a third, dflXltg 
ri'oto the first; and se many several opinions there are about the kinds, 
the be men themselv."  Herculcs de Saxoni sers dovn two nds, 
"material and immaterial ; one frein spirits alone, the other iom humours and 
spiri." Savanarol R. 11. Tract. 6. cap. 1.  oegritud, capit, wifi bave 
the kinds te be infinite; oe frein the myrach, called myrachialL of the 
Arabiaas; an,»ther stomhalis, ri'oto the stomach; another frein the liver, 
hearg, womb, hemrods: *"one beginning, another consummate." hIelancthon 
oeconds m,  "as the humour is diversely adust and mixed, se are tke species 
divers;" bnt what these men spk of sciea I tbink ought te be understood 
of symptoms, and se doth Arculauus interpret hielf: iufinite speci, 
«, symptoms; and in that sense,  Je. Gorrheus acknowledgeth in his medi- 
ciual definitions, the spi are infinite, but they may be reduoed te the 
kiu ls by rein of theh" sent ; head, body, and hypochondries. This threctbld 
division  approved by Hippocrates h his ok of Melancholy (if it be his, 
xvhich seine suspect), by Galua, l. 3.  c. afft, cap. 6., hy Alexander, lib. 
1. cap. 16., Fs, lib. 1. CvntDnt. Tract. 9. l. 1. cap. 16., Acenna, and 
most of out new writers. Th. Erastus makes two kindsi one perpetual, which 
i head melaucholy; the other interrupt, which com and goes by fits, which 
he subdivides into the other two kinds, se th,t ail cornes te the saine pas 
ome again make four or rive kinds with dcricus à Ctro,  mrb m&r. 
lib. 2. c, T. 3, and Lod. hlcrcatus, who, in 
cap. 4, wdl bave that melancholy of nuns, vidows, and mor ancient malds» 
ço be a peciar speies of melaucholy diflbrmg h'om the rt: seine will redace 
ethmsts, extatical and dcmoniacal persons te this tank, ad.ling  love 
mclancholy te the first» and lyoEnthropia. The most rcoeivd dvsoa  into 
= Humor hic niger aliquando prœeter modum calefact et ali relgeratus adit : nain recentib 
rboutb ei quid aimile accidi qui dante flamma pelluciditme ndenç  extmcta prora nigre 
cttn. Hippoerat.  Guianc, diff. 2. p. 7. • Non t mani niai exn*a mclancholi • Cap. 6. 
hb. t.  2. er. 2. p. . Morb hic t omuifm. * Speci indeflni $uttt. t Si adurat 
naturali$ melahol aha fit pecm$, ai aguis ali $i flavabBia i divea a primi : magma t int 
h differenti et tot Doetorum aententi qnot ip$i nnmero *unt. * Trot. de meL cap. 7. t Qdm 
incipieit* quoedam conummata. « Cap. de humor, lib. de anima, va Iitr et miacetur 
th.lt ut[ viæ ameatium $peci. z Cap. i6. in . R.  Y ttiu ca.  e m¢L 



gem. 3. Subs. 4.] ,_qpecies of Metanchobj. I13 

three kinds. Tl,e £rst proceeds from the sole fault ofthe bra[n, and is called 
lmad melancholy; the second symptthetically proceeds from the whole body, 
when the whole temperature la melancholy: the third ariseth from the bowels, 
livcr, spleen, or membrane, called mesenterium, named hypochondriacal or 
win, ly melaucholy, which ' Laurentius subdivides iuto three parts, from thos 
three members, hepatic, splenetic, meseraic. Love melancholy, whichAvicenna 
calls Ilisha: and Lycanthropia, which he calls cueubuthe, are c,»mmonly 
included in head melancholy; but of this last, which Gerardus de Solo calls 
amoreus, and most knight melancholy, with that of religious melancholy, vir- 
tfinum et vidtarum, maintained by Rod. à C-stro and Mercatus, and the other 
kinds of love melancholy, I will speak of apart by themselves in my third par- 
tition. The three precedent species are the sttbject of my preseat discourse, 
vhich I will anatomize and treat of through ail their causes, symptoms, cures, 
together and apar ; that every man that is in any measure affected with this 
nalady, may knoxv how to examine it in himself, and apply remedies unto it. 
It is a hard marrer, I confess, to distitguish these thrêe species one from the 
other, to express their several causes, symptoms, cures, being that they are so 
often confounded amongst themselves, having such affinity, that they cas 
scarce be diseerned by the most accumte physicians; and so often intermixed 
xvith other diseases that the best experienced hve been plunged. 5Iontanus 
eonsæl. 26, names a patient that had this disease of melancholy and caninus 
ppetitus both together ; and co,sil. 23, with vertigo, 'Julius Coesar Claudi- 
tins, with atone, gout, jaundice. Trincavelllus with an ague, jaundice, caninu. 
appetitus, &c. "Paulns ftegoline, a great doctor in hi rime, consulted in this 
case, was so confounded with a confitsion of symptoms, that he knexv hot to 
what kind of melancholy fo refer it.  Trincavellius, Fallopius, and Francan- 
z.nus, famous doctors in Italy, all three contrred with about one party, st tho 
saine rime, gave three diffcrent opinions. And in another place, Trincavellius 
being demanded what he tlàought of a melancholy young man to whom he waa 
snt tbr, ingenuously cor, feascd that he was indeed melancholy, but he kne, 
hot to wbat kind to reduce it. In his seventeenth consultation there is the like 
disagreement about a mclancholy monk. Those symptoms, which othera 
ascribe to misaffected parts and huraours, « Herc. de Saxoni attributes wholly" 
to distempered spirits, and those immateril, as I have said. Sometimes they 
c:mnot wcll discern this disease ri'oto others, la leinerus Solinander's eotm- 
set_s, (,çect. consil. 5.) he and Dt'. Iraade both agreed, tht the patient's dizeaso 
was hypochondriacal melancholy. Dr. 5Iatholdus said if vas asthma, and 
othing else. ° Solinander and Guarionins, lately" sent for to the melancholy" 
Duke of Cleve, with others, could hot define what species it ,vas, or agreo 
amongst themselves. The speeies are so confounded, as in Coesar Claudinus his 
torty-iburth consultation for a Poloniaa Count, in his judgment r,, he laboured 
of head melancholy, and that which proceeds from the whole rem perature both 
st once. I cottld give instance of aome that bave had ail three kinds semel et 
siraul, aatd some successively. So that I conclude of our melancholy specie 
as + many politicians do of their pure forma of commonwealths, monarchies 
astocracies, democracies, are most famous in contemplation, but in practioe 
they are temperute and usually mixed, (so : Polybius informeth us) as tha 
Lacedoemonian, the Roman of old, German now, and many others. ,Vhat 
physieians say of distinctspecies in their books it much matters hot, slnce tha 
in their patients' bodies they are eommonly mixed. In such ohscurity, there- 
fo'e, variety and confused mixture of sïmltoms  causes how difficult  thing la 

t Cap. 13. 1480. et 118. eon,nlt, eonsH. 15.  Hildehelm, splcH, 2. fol. 16{]. • Trincavell|us 
tom. 2, eonsil. 15. et 16. s Cap. 13. tract. !msth. de mel,n. Guarion. cons, med. 2. • Laboraçit 
per essenti,m et , toto ¢orpore. " Machiavel, &c. Smithns de rep. Angl. cp. 8. lib. I. Bttscoldu, 
ti¢m'. poli[, dcur, b. ¢p. . Arit I. 3 .Doh[. vap. al. Keckcrm. ali/, &c,. ; IAb. 6. 



|!6 2Vature of DvIs. [Part. 1. Sec. 

e-,asidered: for the better understandin of which, [ will taake a briefdi'essioa 
of the nature of spirit.. A nd a!though the question be very obscure, aeeord- 
ing to ° Postellus, " full of controversy and ambignity," bêyond the reach of 
human capacity, fateor excedere viro intent[ons neee, saith * Austin, I eonfess 
I ara hot able fo understand if, .finitum de i,,.finito non potest statuere, we ean 
sooner determine with Tully: d nat. deorum, qui,1 non sint qu«m quoE sint, 
out subtle hoolmen, Cardans, Scallgers, profound Thomists, Fracastoriana 
and Ferneliana ac/es, are weak, dry, obscure, defective in these mysteries, and 
ail out quiekest wits, as an owl's eyes at the snn's light, wax dull, and are hot 
snffieient to apprehend them ; yet, as in the test, I will adventure to say some- 
thing to thia point. In former time as we read Acts xxiii., the St,l, lucees 
denied that there were any such spirits, devils, or angels. So did Galen the 
l, hysician, the Peripatetics, even Aristotle bimselï, as Pomponatius stoutly 
naœeentains, and Scaliger in some sort grants. Though Dandinus the Jesui, coin. 
tt lib. 2. de animâ, stiffiy denies it; substantiee separatoe and intelligences, are 
ihe saine wlfich Christians eMl angels, and Platonists devils, for they naine ail 
the spirits, dcemones, be they good or bad angels, as Julius Pollux Onomasticon, 
lib. 1. cap. 1. observes. :Epicures and atheists are of the saine mine! in general, 
because they never saw them. Plto, Plotinns, lPorphyrius, Jambliehus, lProclus, 
insisting in the steps of Trismegistus, Pythagoras rot,1 Soerates, make no 
doubt of it : nor Stoies, but tha there are sueh spirits, though mueh erring 
from the trtth. Coneeaaing the firs bcnning of them, the ° Tahnudists 
say tha Adam had a wife called Lilis, betbre he married Eve, and of ber he 
bega nothing but devi| The Turks' »Alcoran £s altogether as absurd and 
ridienlous in this point: but the Scripture informs us Christians, how Lueife; 
the chier of them, with his assoeiates, « tçll from heaven for his l'ride and ambi- 
tion; created of God, plaeed in heav.en, and sometime an angel of light, now 
cast down into the lower aerial sublunary parts, or into hell, "and delivered 
into ehains of darkness (2 t'et. il. 4.), to be kept unto damnation." 
zVature of De'ils.] There is a ïoolish opinion whieh some hold, that they 
are the souls of men departed, good and more noble were deified, the baser 
'ovelled on the ground, or in the lower parts, and were devils, the which 
vith Tertullian, I-'orphyrius the philosopher, bi. Tyrius aer. 27 maintain 
"These apirits," he +sith, "whieh ve call angels and devils, are nough but 
souls of men departed, whieh either through love and pity of their ti'iends yet 
living, help and assist them, or else persecute their eaemiez, whom they hated»" 
as Dido threatencd to perseeute _,ZEneas: 
«Omnibus nmbra ]oeis adero : dab|s, lmprobe, poena.  
« My anffry ghost arising from the deep, 
Bhall haunt thee waking, and distrb thy 
At least rny hade thy punishrnent hall know, 
Ad Faine sh særead the pleaing news below, °' 

They are (as others suppose) appointed by those hlgher powers fo keep men 
from their naivity, and to proteet or punish them as they sec cause: and are 
called boni et ali Genii by the omans. l:Ieroes, lares, if good, lemures or 
larvoe if bad, by the Stoies, governors ofeountfies, men, eities, saith ++ Apuleius, 
.De, os appdlant qui ex lwmium numero justè ac ffrudentèr vitoe curriulo guber- 
aato, pro numiw, postea ab hominibu prtediti fanl« et ceremonils vul9 adroit,. 
tuntur, t in 91»to Osylris , &e. Ircestits, Cal»ell callz hem, "whieh 
• Lib. 1. c. 7. de «rbls concordia. In nullh re major fait tllercatio, major obzurilaa, minor 
¢oncordia, quhm de dmmonibus et aubslantiis neparati. * Lib. 3. de Trinit. 
Geneln, lib. 1. In cap. 3. v. 23. 8ee Strozzius Ci¢ogna ornnifari /dag. iib. 2. c. 15. Jo. Aubnus, 
Bredenbachius. q Angelus per sperbiam separatus k Deo, qui in veritate non stetit. Austin. ç Iihil 
a}iud sunt Doernones qum nud animoe quoe corpore deposito priorem rniserati vitam, cognatis trccurrun$ 
comrnoti nisericordla, &c. $ De Deo Socratis. Ail those tnortas are called 
dtrc being pruden/ly b,Lided nd governcd are hououred by mn with tcmle 



[em. 1.8ubs. 2.] I¢atur« j l)evils. 1!7 

protccted particuIar men a. wclI 
Eutu.r»ti,tu»t et dnium, which of ail spirits  best,  bli cogitat 
animum egentem,  the Platonists suppd ; Plotinm h£s, and we Christhna 
out sting angeI, m Andre Victorellus, a copio writer of this subject, 
Lodovicus de La-Cerda, the Jesuit, in his volumino tract  Ang« Cte, 
Zanchius, and some divines think. But this absurd net of Tyrem, mclua 
confutes ai large in his boek de Anlm et mo». 
"sel[us, a Christian, and metimes tutor (sMth Cusplnlan) to Michacl 
Prapinatius, Emperor of Greeoe, a great obrver of the nature ofdels, bol, la 
they are "corp,real, and bave "aerial bodies, that they are mortM, lire and 
die," (which Martiauus Capella lewiso maintains, but out christian philoso- 
phe explode) "that 'they are nourished and have excrements, they feel pain 
if they be hur (which Cdan confirma and Scaliger justly laughs him to 
orn /br; 8 pascantur aere, cur no»t pugtant ob puem aera  &a) or 
stroken :" and if their bodies be cut, with admirable celefity they como 
togethcr again. &ustin, in Gen. lib. ifi. lib. arbi, approves as much, mutat,t 
casu co»Tora in derrenr 9ualitaten aer spsior, so doth Hierome. Com- 
ment. itt epist, ad Ephes. cap. 3, Origen, Teullian, Lactantius, and many 
ancient thers ofthe Church: tha in their ll their bodies vere changed to 
a more fial and gmm substance. Bode, lib. 4, Theatri Naturoe, and David 
Crusius, Hermeticœe Philoeophiœe, lib. i. cap. 4, by oeveral arguments provcs 
angcls and spirigs to be corporeal : qu&quld co,di»ur 
A t spiritus continetur in loco, ergo.  i spiritus sunt yua»tti, ermtt Corlrei : 
Mt sunt 9uanti, ergo. Sunt niti, ergo quami, &c.  Bodine goes farther 
yet, and w/Il haro these, «ltti, separat enii, pirits, gels, devi, and so 
likewise souls of men departed, if corporeal (which he most eagerly contends) 
to ho of some shape, and that absolutely rond, like Sun and Moon, becauso 
that is the most perfect form, q nildl habet aspeHtat, nihg angulis bwum, 
ihil a»¢'actus involutu»b nihg 
tsimum;  thercfore ail spirits are corporeal he concludes, and in the pmper 
shapes luntl. That thcy can assume OEher aerial bodies, ail manner of shapes 
at their pleu, appât in what likeaess they will themselves, that they are 
most swift in moEion, tan pass many mfies in an insnt, and so likewiso 
"tmnsform bodies of others into what shape they please, and with admirable 
celefity remove them from place 
Daniel, and as hilip the doecon w carried away by the Spirit, when he ha, l 
baptised the eunuch ; so did Pythagor and Apollous move themsdves 
and othe, with many such feats) ; th:t they n repeint ctles in the air, 
pMaces, armi, specgrums, prodigies, and such strange objoets to moal men's 
eyes, $ cause smells, savours, &e., deceive ail ghe sens ; mosg writers of this 
subject credibly believe; and tt they can foretel fu¢.ure events, and do many 
strange milles. Juno's image spake to Camillus, and FounCs statue to th¢ 
Roman marrons, with many such. Zanchius, Bodin Spondanus, and othqr 
are of opinion that they cause a te metamowhosis, 
really tramlatcd into a beast, Lo's we in a pillar of lt; Ulycd com- 
panis to ho aud dogs, by Circe's chams; turn themoelv and others, as 
they dz witches into cats, dogs, haoes, crows, &c. Strozzius Cicoa bath 
many example lib. i omni£ mag. cap. 4 and 

• He llved 500 years s|nee, •Apalelus : spirltns an|ma|la sn snlmo plil mente raflonall 
orc ae tpore tempite, t uit, et excrementa habenL quod psata dolent 
rcussa rpo. * Whatever pl ace is eooeat :it occi pxe 
 4. lib, 4. TheoL n. fol 535.  Wch  no roughn angle fractur, prominenc but is the 
most peffect ongst peffect booe, • Can in Ept. montes eti et enlmaHg transferrl 
pt: tbedetlldidChrt  thetopof tbe pinnacte; dwltcb are often tran$1ated. Seemore 
In Strozziut Cleo llb. 3. cap. 4. omnlf, m. Fer ra bdu¢ere et  sublime eorpora feue 
Birman. Fercu! dolent et uruntur  consœicuos cer Agripp ]iD. . cap. 
 Agrippa c oç¢t. Poe. b. . p. 



1 18 ratur of 1)evils. _ [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

Austin likewise doth, de civ. Dei lib. xviii. That they tan be seen when and in 
what shape, and to whom they will, saith Psellus, Tametsi til tale vid¢rim, nez 
optera vhlere, though he himself nevcr saw them nor desh'ed if; and use some- 
times carnal copulation (as elsewhere I shall "pmve more af large) with women 
and men. llany will hot bdieve they eau be seen, and if any man shall say, 
swear, and stiffiy maintain, though he be discreet and wise, judicious ami 
learned, that he bath seen them, they aceount him a timorous fool, a mclan- 
choly dizzard, a weak fellow, a dreamer, a sick or a mari man, they contemn 
him, laugh him to scorn, and yet [arcus of his cm,lit told Psellus that he ha,l 
often seen them. And Leo Suavius, a Frenchman, c. 8, in Commentar. 1. 1. 
Paracetsi de vittî longd, out of some Platonists, will bave the air fo be as fuil of 
them as ShOW falling in the skies, and that they may be seen, and withal sets 
down the menus how men may sec them ; Si ireverberatis oeulis sole splendente 
versres coelum continuaverint obtutus, &c.,  and saith moreover he tried it, 
preemissorum fec experimentu», and it was truc, that the Platonists said. 
Paroeclsus confesseth that he saw thcm divers times, and conferred with them, 
and so doth Alexandcr ab r Alexandro, "that he so found if by experiencc» 
when as before ho doubtcd of if." Many deny if, saith Lavatcr de spectris, 
part i. c. 2, and part ii. c. 11, " because they never saw them themselves;" 
but as he reports st large all over his book, especially c. 19, part 1. they ara 
ofen seen and heard, ami funiliarly converse with men, as Lod. Vives assurcth 
us, innumerable records, histories, and testlmonies evince in ail ages, rimes» 
places, and "ail travellers besides; in thc West Indies and our northern climcs, 
_Aïhil f«miliarius quam in agris et urbibus spi,'itus zqdere, audire qui vetent, 
ubeant, &c. tIieronimus vitâ Pauli, Basil ser. 40, qicêphorus, Eusebiu.% 
S,.,crates, Sozomenus, + Jacobus 13oissardus in histract de spiqtuu»t appari- 
tlonibus, letrus Loyerus 1. de spectris, YVierus L 1. bave iufinite variety of 
such examplesof apparitions ofspirits, for him to read that fitrtherdoubts, to his 
amlde satitaction. One alone I will briefly insert. A nobleman in Germany 
was sent ambassaAor to the King of Sweden (for his naine, the time, and such 
eircumstances, I rcfcr you fo ]oissardus, mine "Author). After he had donc 
his business, he sailed to Livonia, on set purpose to sce those familiar spirits, 
which are there said fo be conversant with men, and do their drudgery works. 
Amongst other matters, one of them told him where his wife was, in what 
room, inwhat clothes, what doing, and brought him a ring from ber, which, aç 
his return, non sie omnium admiratio, he found to be true; and so beileve,l 
that everafter, which before he doubted of. Cardan l. 19. de subtil, relates «,f 
his father, Facius Cardan, that after the accustomcd solemnities, An. 1491, 
13 August, he conjured up seven devils, in Greek apparel, about forty years 
ofagc, some ruddy of complexion, and some pale, as he thought; he asked them 
many questions, and they ruade ready answer, that they wcre aerial devil., 
that they lived and died as men did, save that they wet far longer lived (700 
or 800  years) ; they did as much excel men in dignity as we do juments, and 
were as far excelled again of those that were above them ; our ++ governors and 
keepers they are moreover, which § Plato in Critias delivered of old» and 
subordinate to one another, Ut enlm hamo homlni, sic damort doemon d,.nina- 
tut, they rule themoelves as well as us, and the spirits of the meaner sort had 
çommonly such offices, as we make horse-keepers, neat-herds, and the basel; 
of us, overseers of our cattle; and that we can no more apprehend their 
natures and fauctions, than a home a man's. They knew ail things, but mighg 

ParC. 3. 9ect. 2. Mem. 1. Subs. 1. Love Melancholy. * « By gazlng ateadfaatly on the  umlna[ed 
ith s bfightt raya." » GeaiS. diem. Ira aibi viaum et compeum quum pri an nt ambiget  
Fide suam libet, • Ll. 1. de veri Fid. Benzo» &c.  Lib. de Divlatioe et m. • Cap. 8. 
Transportat In Livouim capidite viddi, &c. b Sic Heslodus de Nvmphis vere dicit 10 oetato 
hoenicum vel 9. 7.20. $ Custos homin et provinciamm, &c. tant melior homib qutO 
brut tib.  Proeside Pre Gubor ho et i anim. 



[em. 1. Subs. "2_.] 2Yature of Sl?irits. 119 

n,,t reveal them te men ; and rulcd and domineered over us, as we de over out 
]torses; the best kings amongst us, and the most generous spirits, were net 
comparub!e te the basest et" thcm. Sometimes they did instruct men, 
con,municate thcir skill, rcward and cherish, and somctimes, again, terrify and 
punish, te keep thcm in awe, as they thought fit, ]Vihil magls cuplentes (saith 
Lysius, lhis. Stoicorum) quam advrationem homlnum. ¢ The saine Author, 
Cardan, in his tIyperchcn, out ofthe doctrhm of Stoics, will bave seine of theso 
Genii (for se he calls them) te be «desirous of mcn's company, very affable and 
tïan,iliar with them, as dogs are; othcrs, again, te abl,or as scrpents, and cure 
net for-them. The aame belike Tritemius calls Ignios e2 sublunares, 
nunquam demergunt ad ilfmoEora, sut v ullum ]tabent in terris commercium : 
"  Geumlly they far cxcel men in worth, as a man the meanest wÇrm; though 
seine of them are inferior te those of thcir own rank in worth, as the black- 
guard in a prince's court, and te men again, as seine dcgencrate, base, rationaI 
creatures, are excelled of bxate beasts." 
That thcy are mortal, besides these testimonles of Car&m, artianus, 
many other divines and philosophcrs hold, post prolixon temlms mariuntur 
omnes; The ®Platonits, and seine Rabbivs, lorphyrius and Plutarch, as 
appears by that relation of Thamus: "tThe great god Pan is dcad;" Apollo 
]'ythius ceased ; and se the rest. St. Hierome, in the lire of Panl the ]Iermit, 
tells a story how one of them appeared te St. Anthony in the wildcrness, and 
toId him as much.  laracelsus of out laie writers stiflty maintains that they 
are mortal, lire and die as othcr creatures de. Zozimus, 1. 2, further adds, tha 
religion and policydies and altcrswilh thcm. The  Gentiles  gods»he saith, were 
exl,clled by Constantine, and together with thcm, Imperii R,,manl mttjestas, 
et fortuntt interiit, et profligata est/ The fi»rtune and majesty of the lman 
:Empire decayed and vanished, as that heathen in  Minutius formerly bragged, 
whcn the Jews were overcome by the Romans, the Jews' God was likewise 
captivated by that of Reine; and lZabsakeh te the Israelites, no God should 
deliver them out of the hands of the Assyrians. ]3ut these paradoxes of their 
power, corporeity, mortality, taking of shapes, tmnsposing bodies, and carlml 
copulations, are sufficiently confited by Zanch. c. 10, 1.4. lererius in 
comment, and Tostatus questions on the 6th ofGen. Th. Aquin., St. Austin, 
Wierus, :Fh. Erastus, Delrio, tom. 2, l. 2, quoest. 29 ; Sebatian 3Iichaelis, 
e. 2, de spiritibus, D. Reinolds Lect. 47. They may deceive the eyes of men, 
yet net take true bodies, or make a real mctamorphosis; but as Cieogna 
proves ai large, tl,ey are i ]llusorice et Frcestigiatrices transformatianes, omuif. 
mat. lib. 4, cap. 4, mere illusions and cozenings, like that tale of Pasetis 
obulus in Suidas, or tl,at ofAutolicus, [ercury's son, that dwelt in laarnassus, 
vho got se much treaaure by cozenage and stealth. His father hercury, 
because he couhl leave him no wealth, taught him many fine tricks te ge 
means, ++ for he could drive away men's cattle, and if any pursued him, turu 
them into what shapes he would, and se did mighily enrich himaelf, hec ast 
maximamprcedam eo't adsecutus. This, no doubt, is as true as the rest; yet 
thus mueh in general. Thomas, Durand, and othcrs, granç that they bave 
understanding far beyond men, can probably conjecture and  foretel many 
things; they can cau:e and cure most disease% deceive our senses they haro 

*" Coveting nothing more than the admiration of manklnd, » • N'atnra famillares ni canes homlnlbtm 
rnuiti aversantur et abhorrent, d Ab homlne plus ditant qtmm home ab ignobilissimo verne, et tamen 
quidam ex his ab homimbus superan[ur ut homlnes h feri &c. • Cbo et potu nti et venere cure 
hominibus ac tandem morl Cicogn. 1. part, lib. 2. c. 3. rplutarch, de defect, oraculorum, « Lib. 
de Zilphis et Pigmeis.  Dii gcntium a Constantio plfligati sunt &c. " Octovian dial. Judoeorum 
deum fuisse Romanorum numinibus uns cnm tente captivnm.  Omnla spiritibua plena, et ex eorum 
concordia et discordia omneS boni et malt eff¢ctuspromanant, omnla humana reguntur : paxadoxa veterum 
de quu Cicngn. omniL mat. 1.2. e.B. : Ove qua abacturu erat in quaaeunque ferrons çelAebat Pansu, 
liaa, Hyghms.  Austin in 1.2. de Gen. ad literam cap. 17. Partira quia subtilioris sensns acumine 
partira scienti, c, alidlor0 vigent et experieatia propted rnaKaam longitudinm ¥it pro'tire ab AlgelL 



120 'alure fSpirlts. [Park 1. Bec. 2. 

excellent skill in ai1 Arts anl Sciences; and that t])e most illiterate dcvil is 
Quovis hoenine »cledlar (more knowing than any man), as  Cicogna maint:tins 
out of others. They know the virtues of herbs, plants, stones, minerals, &c. ; 
of all crcat,res, birds, beasts, the four elements, stars, planets, can aptly apldy 
and make use of them as they see good; perceiving the OEes of all meteom, 
and the like : Dane se coribus ( « Austin hath if) com»wdan sefigur, 
adhoerent son, ji4unt se odus, ioEundunt se saporus, omn sensus 
etktm ipsam inlljentn doen fallunt, they deceive all our senses, even 
out understanùing itself at once. They can produce miraculous Mterations 
 the air, and most wondefful effecçs, conquer armies, give ictori, help, 
further, hurt, cross and alter human attempts and projecçs (Dd rm) as 
they e good themselves, fWhen Charles the Great tended fo make a chan- 
riel betwixt the Rhine and the Danube, look what his workmen did in the day, 
these spirits flung down in the night, Ut conat Rez isteret, pewe. Such 
feats OEn they do. ut that which Bodine, 1.4, Theat. nat. thin (followg 
Tyrius belike, and the latonists,) they caa teH the coets of a man's heart, 
aut cogitatimtes hominum, is most alse; his ferons are weak, and suoEie,tlï 
confitted by Zanch. lib. 4, cap. 9. ierom. lib. 2, coin. in hlaç. ad cap. 15, 
Athanasius quoest. 27, and Antiochum rincipem, and others. 
Or&rs.] As for those order of good and bad Devfis, which the latonists 
hold, is altogether erroneous, and those Ethnics boni et mali Gd, are to b 
exploded: these heathen writcrs agree hot in this point among themsdves, as 
Dandinns notes, An dnt li non convenu, some will bave ail spirits good 
or b to us by a mistake, as if an Ox or Horse could discouroe, he would say 
the Buçchc w  enemy because he killed him, the Grazier his friead 
bause he fed him; a unter preserves and yet ls his gaine, and is hatcd 
nevcrtheless of his gaine; n pcatorem pc amare pot, &c. Buç Jam- 
blichus, Paellus, Plutarch, aad most Platonists acknowledge bad, et ab eu»t 
mai cavendum, and we should beware of their wickedness, for they aro 
enemies of mankd, and th lato learned in Egypt, that they quarrelled 
xvith Jupiter, and were driven by him do to hell.  That which "Apuleius, 
em»phon, and Plato contend of Socrates' Doemotium, is mosç absd : Thaç 
which Plotinus of his, that he had likewe Deu pro D»to,OE; and tha 
which Porphiry concludes of them ail in geneml, ff they be neglected in thcir 
srifioe they are angry ; nay more,  Cardan in his Hyperchen w, they 
feed on meu's souls, Enata sunt pnt entmn, animibus 
't m natura à nostrâ, qproTter doennus : and so belike that we hae 
so many battles foughç in ail ages, countries, h to make them a fet, and 
their sole delight: but fo retura to that I said belote, if displed they tk'et 
and chafe (for they feed belike on the uls of bet as we do on thcir 
bodies), ad send many plairas amongst ; but ff plscd, then they do much 
good; is  vain  the test and conthted by Austin, 1. 9. c. 8. de Civ. Di. 
Eseb. 1.4. proepar. Evang. c. 6. and oçhers. Yet tl much I find, that our 
School-men and other  Dives make nine kinds of had spirits,  Dionysius 
th done of Angels. In the first rank are those faloe gods of the Gençiles, 
mhich were adored heretofore in several Idu, and gave Omcles aç Delphos, 
d ewere; 'ho rce ia Beehebub. The cond rank h of rs and 

! L]b. 8. omni£ mag. cap. S. * L. 18. quest, m Quum tantl sit et tare profunda $p|r|tum cleut]a 
mirarn non et rot tantasque res vlsu adrnirabiles ab ipsia patrari et quidem rerum naturalium ope quia 
multo meliaa lntelllgunt, rnultoque perttius suis lotis et temporibus appllcare uorunt, quam homo, Cieogna. 
 Aventinus, qnicquid tnterdiu ehauriebatnr, octu expieba¢oEr. Inde pavefacti curatorea, &c. : lu iib. 2. 
d Anim teï2.9 H ?m_ _e__ _r. _. «ic.ri.niu.a.t!m.. o.mnea spirtus dze.monea vocal:., § A Jove ad Infero, pulsl, 
OEc. e a)e u:ratl$. aoest mini (l|Vllla sorte toemomum quoddarn a prima puerltia me secutum» 
s.pe dissuader, impcllit noununquam instar ov-I'laIo Ar.i'ma llb u d ...... " »-', - o  • 



lem. 1.8ubs. _,o.] 2Vature of Slr-2. 121 

ASTfivocators, as Apo]lo Pythius, and the like. The thrt! are those vesscl. 
of auget, iaventors of all mischief; as that Theutus in Plato; Esay calls them 
»veels of fi,ry; their Prince is Belial. The fourth are malicious revenging 
Devils; and their Prince is Asmodoeus. The fifth kid are cozeners, such 
as belong to hIagicians and ,Vitches; their Prince is Saton. Tbe six'th aro 
those aerial devils that qcorrupt the air and cause plagucs, thundcra, rires, &c. ; 
spoken of in the Apocalypse, and Paul to the Ephesians names them tho 
Princes of the air; Meresin is heir Prince. The seventh is a destroycr, 
Captain of the Furies, causing wal-s, tumults, combustions, uproars, mentioned- 
in the Apocalypse; and called Abaddon. The eighth in that accusing or 
caIumniating Devil, xvhom the Greeks call ,=o0, that drives meu to 
despair. The ninth are those tempters in several kinds, and their Prince is 
]SIammon. Psellus makes six kinds, yet none above the lIoon : Wierus in 
Pseudomonarchia Doemonis, out of an old book, makes many more divisions 
and subordinations, with their several names, numbers, offices, &c., but Gazoeus 
cited by "Lipsius will bave ail places full of Angcls, Spirits, and Devils, abovo 
and beneath the Moon, ° oetherial atd aerial, which Austin cites out of Varro 
1. vil de Civ. Dei, c. 6. "The cclestial Devils above, and aerial beneath," or, 
t%s some vill, gods above, Semidei or ha|f gods beneath, Lares, l{eroes, Genii, 
which climb higher, il' they lived well, as the Stoies held ; but grovel on tbe 
ground as they were baser in their lires, nearer to the earth : and are Maue, 
Lemures, Lamine, &c. t Tbey xvill bave no placê but all full of Sl, irits, 
Devils, or some other inhabitants; Plenum Çoelum, ner, aq*, terra, et omnl¢t 
sub terrâ, saith Gazoeus; though Anthony Rusca in his book de lnferno, lib. 
v. cap. 7. would confine them to the Iniddle Region, yet they will hure them 
eve,Twhere. "ot so much as a hair-breadth empty in heaven, earth, or 
waters, above or under the earth." The air is hot so full of flies in summer, 
as itis ai all rimes of invisible devils : thi *Paracelsus stiffiy maintaias, and 
that they bave every one their several Chaos. others will bave infinite worlds, 
and each wox'ld his peculiar Spirits, God 6 Angela, and Dcvils to govera and 
punl.sh if. 
« Slng'ula * nonnulll credunt qloqe aidera poB 
]Dici orbes, tcrramque appcllant sidus opacum 
Cui minimUs div/m pt'eit." 
 .gome person believe each star to bc • world, and thi earth an opaque star, ovcr wlfich the 
gott 
 Gregorius Tholsanus makes seven kinds of œetherial Spirits or Angcl., 
accordiug to the number of the seven Planers, Saturnine, Jovial, ]Hartial, 
vhich Crdan discometh lib. xx. de subtil, he culls them subs«ls primes, 
Olymlco dcemanes Tritemius, qui præsunt Zodiaco, &c., and will bave them 
tobe good Angels above, Devils beneath the hloon, their several names ami 
offices he there sets down, and which Dionysius of Angels, will bave several 
spirits for seveml eountries, men, offices: &e., vhich ]ive about them, and as so 
many assisting powers cause their ol)erations, will bave in a word, innumerable, 
as many of them as there be Stur- in the Skies.  Marcilius Ficinus seems 
to second this opinion, out of Plato, or from himself I know hot, (still ruling 
their inferiors, as they do those under them again, ail subor4inate, ad th 
nearest to the eah rule us, whom we subdivide into good and bad angels, call 
gods or devils, as they help or hurt us, and so adore love or hate) but it 
most likely from Plao, ïr he relying wholly ott Socrates, quem moe'i potiu« 
quam mentiri voluisse scribit, whom he says would rathcr die than tell a ridse- 
hood out of Soerateg authority aloe i ruade nine kinds of them : which opinion 
 Vasa lrœe. c. 13. q QuIbus daturn est nocere terroe et mati, &c.  Physlol. Stolcorum è Senec. |ib. 1. 
cap. 28. • Usque ad lunam animaS esse oethereas vocarique heroas» lareS, genios. Mart. C,*pell,. 
e Nihil vacuum ab hl ubi vel capUlum in aere vel aqua Jaeea. z Lib. de Zilp. 
 Lib. 7. cap. 34 et 5. Syntax. art. mirab. " Comment lu dial. Plat. de amore, cap. 5. Ut p...v.ra quoelibc| 
super no ira lr.-,tanUores habent habitatoa su sphr -- conforte,% ut lmbct nostra. 



bclike Socrates took from Pythagoras, and he ri'oto Trismegistus, he from 
Zoroaste3, first God, second idea, 3. Intelligences» 4. Arch-Angels, 5. Augel.% 
6. Devils, 7. Heroes, 8. Principalities, 9. Princes: ofwhich some were abo- 
lutely good, as gods, some bad, some indifferent inter deos et lwmiies, as herocs 
and doemons, which ruled mcn, and were called genii, or as *Proclus and 
Jarablichus will, the middle betwixt God and men. lrincipalities and lrinees, 
,vhich commanded and s.vayed Kings and countries; and had sevcral places 
in the Sphcres pel'haps, for as every sphere is higher, so hath it more excellent 
inhabitants: which belike is that Galiloeus à Galileo and Kepler aires at in 
his Iquncio Sydcrio, when he will have "Saturnine and Jovial inhabitants: 
an,1 which Tycho ]3rahé doth in some sort touch or insinuate in one of 
Epistles : but thcse things Zanchius justly explodes, cap. ô. lib. 4. 1 . hIartyr. 
in 4. Sain. 28. 
So that accor, ling to thcse men tha nu:nber of oethcrial spirits must needs 
be infinite: for if tiret be true that somc of our matbematiciaus say : if n stone 
couhl fall from the starry heaven, or eighth sphere, and should pa.ss every hour 
an hundred mlles, it wouhl be 65 years, or more, before it would corne to 
ground, big reason of the great distance of heven from earth, which eoltzins 
as some say 170 millions 803 mlles, besides those other hcavens, whether they 
be crystalline or watery which Maginus adds, which peradventure holds as 
much more, how many such spirits may it contain ? And yet for all this 
"Thomas Albert«ts, raid most hold tlmt there be far more autels than devils. 
,b'ublunm T devils, and their kinds.] But be they more or less, Quod 
ws n{hil ad nos (what is beyond our comprehension does hot concern us). 
l[owsoever as Martianus fooli»hly supposeth, Elherii Dce»w»wz wn cura«$ 
res Au»mnas, they care hot for us, do hot attend out actions, or look for us, 
those oethel5al spirits have other worhls to reign in belike or business to follow. 
"We are only now to spcak in brief of these sublunary spirits or devils: for 
the rest, out divines determine that the Devil had no power over stars, or 
heavens; Car»dni5us ccdo possum deducem lunam, &c. (by their chaans 
(verses) they can seduce the moon from the heavens). Those are poetical 
fictions, and that they can *dztere aquam fluviis, e$ vertere sidera 'etro, &c., 
(stop rivers and turn the stars backwards in their courses)as Canadia in 
]=[,,race, 'ris all false aThey are confined until the day ofjudgmcnt to this 
sublunary world, and can work no farther thau the for elements, and as God 
pcrmits them. Wherefore of these sublunary devils, though others divide them 
otherwise according to their several places and offices, 1)oellus makes six kinds, 
fiery, aerial, terrestrial, watery, and subterraneatt devils, besides those fairies» 
sat) rs, nyml,hs , &c. 
Fiery spirits or devils are sueh as commonly work by blaz[ng stars, tire- 
drakes, or ignesf«tui; which lead men often i«flumina aut lorœecipitia, saih 
Bodine, lib. 2. Theat. naturoe, tbl. 221. Qvos inqui$ a'cere si volvm via$,'es, 
clarâ vooe Deum appellare, aut pronam fa terran contijente adoram oportet, 
et lwc anuletun m«joribus notris acceptum ferre debemus, &c., (whom if tra- 
reliefs wish to keep off they must pronounce the naine of God with a clear 
voice, or adore him with their aces in contact with the grouad, &c.); likewiso 
they counterfeit suns and moons, stars oftentimes, and sit on ship toasts: I, 
navigiorum summitatibus visuntur; and are called dioscuri, as Eusebius L 
contra Philosophos, c. xlviii, ir'ormeth us, out of the authority of Zeuophanes ; 
or little clouds, ad motzm nescio teen volantes; which never appeax, saith 

* Lib. de Arnica. et dmmone med. Inter deos et homines, dicta ad nos et nostra oequaliter ad deos ferunt. 
• Saturninas et Joviales accolas. " In loca detrtmi sunt infra OEleste$ orbes in aerem cilicet et infra ubi 
Judicio generali reservantur. =q. 36. art. 9. b Virg. 8. Eg. • ff..n. $.  Attstin : hoc dixi, ne 
quis existlmet habitare lb| mala d:emonia ubl Solem et Lunam et Stella Deus ordinavit, et alibi nemo 
arbitrarctur Doemoncm coelis habit, are cure Angells suis tmde lapsum ere.dimtm. Idem Zanch. I, . c. 3. d@ 
Augel. malis. Pcreritm în Gea. ca. 6. lib. 8. lu vt:r. 2. 



Cardan, but they signify some mischicf or other fo corne nnto men, thogh 
agaia will bave thcm to pretend good, and victory to tha side thcy corne 
towards in sea rights, St. Elmo's rires thcy commoniy call them, and they do 
likely appear after a sea storm; Radzivillius, tho Po|onian duke, cMls this 
apparition, Saucti German sidas; and saith moreovcr that he saw tho saine 
after in a storm as he was sailing, 1582, from Alexandria fo P, hodes.  Out 
stofics arc fui| of such apparatious in ail kinds. $ome think they keep their 
rcsidenco in that ttecla, a mountain in Iceland, ,Etna in Sicily, Lipari, Vcsu- 
vius, &c. These devils wer worshipped heretofore by that supettitiou- 
no,o,,,« and the like. 
Aerial sI,irits or devils, are such as keep quarter most par in the tait; 
cause mmy tempests, thunder, and ligiltnings, tear oaks, rire steeples, bouses, 
strike mon and beasts, make if tain stones, as in Livy's rime, wool, frogs, &c. 
Counterfeit armies in the air, strange noises, swords, &c., as at Vienna beIbre 
the coming of the Turks, and many times in Rome, as Scheretzius 1. de spccr. 
c. 1. part. 1. Lavater de spect, part. 1. c. 17. Julius Obsequens, an old 
loman, in his book of prodigies, ab nrb. cond. 505. Iachiavel bath illus- 
traed by many examples, and Josephus, in his book de bello Judaico, before 
the destruction of Jerusalem. Ail which Guil. Postelhs, in his first book, c. 7, 
de orbis concordi', useth a an cffectual argument (as indeed it is) to persuade 
them that will hot belicve there be spirits or dcvils. Tlley cause whirlwinds on 
a sudden, and tempestuous storms; which though out mcteorologists geuerally 
refer to natural cauoes, yet I ara of Bodine's mind, Theat. qat. 1.2. thev aro 
more offert caused by those aerial devils, in their several quarters; for 
pestatibus se ingerunt, saith + Rich. Argentine ; as when a dcsperate man makea 
away with himself which by hangiug or drowning they frequently do, as Korn- 
raannus observes, de mirac, mort. part. 7, c. 76. tripudiun agentes, dancing 
and rejoichg af he dcath of a sinner. These can corrupt the air, and cause 
1)lague sickness, storms, shipvrecks, rires, inm,dations. Af 5Ions Draconis 
in Italy, thm is a most memorable example in Jovianus 1%ntanus: and 
nothing so fami|iar (if we may believe those relations of Saxo Gmmaticus, 
Olaus 5Iaus, Damianus A. Goes) as for witches and sorcers, in Lapland, 
Lithuania, aud ail over Scandi, fo sell winds to mariners, and cause tempests, 
hich BIarcus Paulus the Venetian relates likewise of the Taars. Ïhe 
kind of dcvils are much 'delighted in sacrifices (atith Porphiry), held all thu 
world in awe, and had several names, idols, sacrifices, in Rome, Greece, Egypt, 
and at this day tyrannise over, and deceive those Ethnics and Indians, being 
adored and worshipped for gods. For the Gentiles' gods were devils 
STrismegistus coufesseth in his Asclepius), and he himself couId make them 
corne to their images by marc spells: and are now as mueh "respected by 
our papists (saith Pictorius) under the naine of saints." These are they 
which Cardan thinks desire so much caxnal copulation with witches(Incubi and 
Sttccubi), transform bodies, and are so very cold if they be touched  and that 
serve macians, tIis father had one ofthem (as he is hot ashmned to relate'), 
an aerial devfl, bound to him f.»r twenty and eight years. As Agrippa's dog 
had a devil tied to his collar; some think that Paracelsus (or else Erastus 
belies him) had one confined to lfis sword pummel; others wear them in rings, 
&c. Jannes and Jambres did many things of old by their help; Simon :S[agus, 
Ciuops, Apollorùus Ïianeus, Jamblichus, and Tritemius of lute, that sho cd 

* Pertgr«m. I]!erosol. * Fite-worhp, or div|nnt¢ra by Ire. t Dorons dirunnt, mnros 
Immiscent se turblntbus et proeellls et puiverem instar columnoe evehunt. Cicogua 1. . c. 5. 
e Quest. In t.iv. " De pr-'v-tiglis dœemonum, e. 16. Convelli cuimina riderons, prosternt sata, &c.. 
 De belio Neapolltano, l|b. 5. i ttflttibu gandent. Idem Justln. Martyr Apolog. pro Christian|s. 
 In Del lmitattonem, eaitla Euseblns.  Dit geatium Dœemonia, &c. ego In eorum statua pellexL 
t Et nunc tub divorum nomine coltmtur  Pontificiis. ' Lib. 11. de rerum ver. 



Digression «,]',Kl)î4g. [Part. 1. Sec. 

,[axilnilian tho emperor his wife, after sho was dca,1 ; Et verrucam in colla 
ejus (saith nGodolman) sa much as the wart in her neck. Delrio, lib. ii. hath 
divers examples of their fe.ats: Cicogna, lib. iii. cap. 3. and Wierus in 
book de lreestig, dcemonum. Joissardtts de nagls et renâcle. 
Water-devils are those Naiads or water nymphe which have been heretoforo 
eonversmat about waters and rivers. Tho watcr (as Paracdsus thinks) is thcir 
chaos, wherein they lire; saine call them iairies, and say that Habundia is 
their queen; these cause inuudations, many times shipwrecks, attd deceive 
men divers ways, as Succuba, or otherwise, appearing most part (saith ïrite- 
mius) in women's shapes, °larucelsus ]aath several stories of them that haro 
lived and been married to mortal men, and so continued for certain years with 
them, and after, upon some dislike, have forsaken them. Such a one as 2Egeri;r, 
with whom lluma was so tamiliar, Diana, Cerfs, &e. POlaus hlagtms bath 
long narration of one I{oherus, a king of Sweden, that having lost his com- 
pany, as he was hunting one day, met with these water nymphe or tai,'ies, and 
was feasted by them; and tIector Boethius, of Macbeth, and Banquo, two 
Scottish lords, that as they were waudering in the woods, had their/brtuncs 
told them by three stmnge women. To these, heretofore, they did use to 
sacrifice, by that bSot*,=,*, or divination by waters. 
ïerrestrial devils are those «Lares, Gcnii, Fauns, Satyre, « Wood-nymphs, 
:Foiiots, Fairics, Robin Go»diillows, Trulli, &c., which as they are nmst con- 
reliant with men, so they do them most harm. Some think it was they alone 
that kept the heathen people in awe of old, and had so many idols and templcs 
erected to them. Ofthis rangewas Dagon a,nongst the lhilistines, Bel amougst 
the 13abylonians, Astartes amongst the Sidonians, Baal amongst the 
titans, Isis aud Osiris amongst the Egyptiaus, &e. ; some put out qikiries into 
this rank, which bave been in former times adored with much superstition, 
with sweeping their bouses, and setting of a pail of clean water, good victuuls, 
and the like, and then theyshould hot be pinched, but find money in their shoes, 
and be fortunate iu their enterprises. ïhese are they that dauce on heaths 
and greens, as 'Lavater thinks with Tritemius, and as "Olaus :SIagnus adds, 
leave that green circle, which we commonly fiad in plain fields, which othcrs 
hold to proceed from a meteor falling, or some accidental rankness of tho 
g,'ound, so nature sports hetself ; they are sometimes seen by old women and 
childrcn, lIierom, lauli, in his description of tho cit.y of t3ercino in Spain, 
relates how they bave been familiarly seen near that town, about tbuntains and 
hills; _A'onnmquart (saith Tritemius) irt sua latibula wntium siml»liciores 
lwminas ducmtt, stupenda mirantibus ostendentes miracuht, wlarum sonitus, 
spectacula, &c: Giraldus Cambrensis gives instance in a monk of Vales thaç 
was sa deluded. Paracelsus reckons up many places in Germany, where thcy 
da usually walk in httle conte, saine two feet long. A bigger kind there is of 
them called with us hobgoblins, and Robin Goodfllows, that would in those 
superstitious rimes griud corn for a mess of milk, cut wood, or da any manncr 
of drudgery work. They would mend old irons in those 2Eolian isles ai Lipari, 
former ages, and bave been often seen and heard. "Tholosanu callsthem 
£rnllos and Getulos, and saith, that in his days they were common in many places 
of France. Dithmarus 131eskenius, in his description of Iceland, reports for 
¢et¢ainty, that almost in every family they bave yet saine such familiar spirite 

 Lib. 3. cap. 3. de mng's et venefiels, ic. ereldes. e Lib. de Zilpbls. P Lib. 3. q Pro salure 
hOminum exctlbare se illlU|allt sed in eorum perniciem omnia moliuntur. Aust. * Dryades, 0riades, 
]famadryades. f Elvas O]aus vocat lib. 3. t lart. 1. cap. 19. • Lil. . cap. 11. E]varmn 
chorea80laus lib. . voctt s&ltum ttdeo profundè lt terras imprlmtlnt, ut locus insigni deinceps viro.e 
orbicularls sit, et gramen nOn pereat.  Sometirles they eeduce too simple men into their mOuntain retrcat«, 
where they exhlbit wonderful slghts to their marvelling eyes, and astonish ,heir ears by the sound of belt 
&c. « Lib. de Zilph. et l'igrnœis Olaus lib. 3. • Lib. 7. cap. 11. qui et in famulitio virls et fmin 
i»erviunt» cot¢lai copts p,t'ant, patlnas mundant, llgna portnt» equos ctu'ut æ 



]$Icm. 1. Subs. 2.] 

125 

and Foelix hlalleolus, in hls Look de crudel dvemo, affirms as m,,ch, that these 
Trolli or Telchiues are very common iu Norway, "and "seeu fo do ddge 
work ;" fo draw water, mith Wierus, 15. i. cep. 22. dress mt, or aay such 
thing. Another rt of these there are, which frequent forlorn z hottçes, which 
the Itians call foliots, most part innoxio, * Cardan holds; "They 'ill make 
strange noises in the night, howl metimes pitifidly, and then la:tgh again 
cause great flame and sudden ]ights, fling stone rattle chain shave men, 
open doem and shut them, fliug down plattel, stools, ehests, som,.times appât 
in the likeaess of haro, crows, black dogs, &c." ofwhich rd " Pet. Thyroeas 
the ŒEesuit, in h Tract. e& ioEt, part. 1. et cap. 4, who MIl hure them 
fo  devila or the aouls of damned men thaç ek revenge, or else souls out of 
purgtory that seek e-aoe; for sueh examples peruse" Sigismundus Seheretzius, 
lib. de sptris, part 1. e. 1. which he saith he took out of Luther most part 
there be mnyi»stnoes. PliniusSecundus oemembers such a bouse at Atheng 
wbich Athenodor fle philosop]ler hired, which no man durst inhabit for leur 
of deviis. Austin, t Cie. Dei, lib. 22, cap. 1. relates  mueh of Hespefiua 
the Tribune'a house, at Z«beda, near their eity of ippos, vexed with evil 
sl»iris , fo his grt hindmnce, Cure «ictio anilium et servum 
Iany such instances are to  rem in Ei, lerius Formicar, l. 5. cap. xii. 3. 
&c. Whether I may oeil these Zim and Ochim, which Iiah, cap. xifi. 21. 
speaks of, I muke n doubt. Sec more of theoe in the 
spot. eaU. 4. he  full of examples. The kinds of devih many rimes appât 
t » men, and affright them out of their wits, sometimes walking at "nn-day, 
sometimes af night counterfeiting dead mes ghoets,  that of Caligul 
which (saith Suetoni) w n to walk in Lavinia's garden, where his body 
w bm'ied, spirits hauuted,.and the houso where he died, 
« traactt, do in« consumpta; every night this hapned, there w 
no qetne, till the bouse w burned. About ed in Iceland, ghosts com- 
monly walk, ani»s wrtuorum muntes, ith Joh. Anan. lib. 3. « nat. 
«m. Ola, l. 2. cap. 2. ataL 2'allopid. l.  apparit, spir. A%r, tmann 
e sirac. t. pt. 1. p. 44. sueh aight.s are frequently oeen r sehra 
et sr, ith vat. l. 1. cap. 19. in monteries ami about ehurch- 
yards, Noe aludbwsa, aspla oed, s»litar, a coee hominum tata, &c. 
(mumhes, great buildings, solitary plaoes, or remarkuble as the soene of me 
murdea. Thyreus udds,  gravius Tcatum t 
l»um o2prse$ et u iW 1gtbint (where some vert heiaous cme 
w oemmitd, there the.impious and infamo genemlly dvell). The spkits 
ofn foœetel men's dths byseveral sis, knkg,ganings, &e.,  though 
ich. Argentine, e. 18.  prœestigi doenum, will efibe these preetions 
to good gels, out of the authoty of Fieius and others 
l»im i coiunt, &c. (prodigiea frequently oceur ut the deaths of 
illtrio men),  in the teraa chureh   Rome, the po¢ deaths are 
foreld by Sylvesr's mb. Near Rupes Nova in Filand, in the kgdom 
of Sweden, there is a lake,  which, betbre the governor of the castle dies, 
poetrum, in the habit of ion with bis harp, appears, mtd mak exoeBent 
mtui% like those blks in Cheshe, whidt (they y) p]«g deuth to thc 
mter of the family or that "oak in Lathadran park in Cornwall, whicb 
tbreshows as much. Iany tmilies i Europe are  put  d ofthek las 
by such predietion and many mea are forewarned ( we may believe Paceus) 

= Ad minlsterla utntnr, • Where treaeare ! nid (s s0me thlnk) or sme murdcr, Or e like vllly 
eommitted. * Lib. 16. de rerum vaetat, s Vel iri sont hujusmo damnatoru vel è pgatori% 
• "el Ipsl mon e. . • Quidmn lemur domtiç Instrumenti noctu ludt : patin olla 
lh, et i$ v deJc et quidam voc emlttunt, ejulan um itt &c. ut can ni fel 
v fofls, &c. n Epht. Hb. 7. * Merional Dæmon Cicoa  them oe AltoE 1.3 p. 9. 
• Sueton. c. 9. In Cale,la.  S{rozzi Cico b. 3. mag. cap. .  Id c.  * . Cew, 
lt y Of CoI'uw» Hb.  foo 



by thmiliar spirits in divers.shapcs, as cocks, crows, owls, which oftcn hovcr 
about sick men's chambers, vel quia norlentium fceditatem sentiuut, as « Bara- 
callus conjectures, et ideo super tectum infirmorum erocitant, because they smell 
a corse; or for that (as « 13ernardinns de 13ustis thinketh) God permits the 
devil go appear in the ferre ofcrows, and such like creaures, te scare such as 
lire wickedly here on earth. A litle bcfore Tully's death (saith t'lutarch) tho 
crows marie a mighty noise about him, tumultuosèperstrepentes, they pulled the 
pillow ftam under his head. Ilob. Gaguim|s hist. Franc. lib. 8, telleth such 
anoher wonderful story ai the death of 3ohalmes de Monteforti, a French lord, 
arme 135, tanta corvorum multitttdo cedibus »wrientis itsedit, quattam esse 
Gallia nemojudicâsset (a multitude of ctws alighted on the honse of the dying 
nmn, such as no one imagined existed in France). 8uch prodigies are verv 
frequent in au,hors. 8ce more of these in the s:ti,l Lavater, TlqlreUs de loc.i 
i,oEestis, part 3, cap. 58. lictorius, Delrio, Ci«o.qna, lib. 3,cap. 9. /çecromancers 
take upon them te raise and hy thcm ai their pleasures: and se likewise 
t,hose which llizaldus calls Ambulones, that walk about midnight on gtat 
heaths and desert pl:tces, which (saith  Lavatcr) "draw men out of the way, 
and lead them ail night a bye-way, or quite bar them of their way ;" these 
llave several names in several places; we comlnonly call them lucks. In the 
deserts of Lop, in Asia, such illusions of walking spirits are offert perceived, 
you may read in M. laulus, the Venetian hi. travels; if one lose his company 
by chance, these devils will call him by lais naine, and counterfeit voices of his 
companions te seduce him. Hieronym. Pardi, in his book of the hills of Spain, 
rclas of a great t naount in Cantabria, where such spectrums are te be seen 
L«ivater and f2icogna bave variety ofexaml,les of spirits and walking devils in 
this kind. Somelimes theysit by the highway side, te give men f, dls, and nmke 
their horses stumble and start5 as they ride (if you will believe the relation of 
t.hat holy man Ketellus in * Iqubrigensis, that had tre especial grace te sec 
dcvils, Gratiam divinitus collatam, and talk with them, Et imloavidus cure sli- 
'itibus sernwne.m «tlscere, withou offence, and if a man cttrse or spttr his herse 
for stumbling, they de heartily rjoice ai if.; with many such prety feats. 
Subterranean devils are as common as the rest, and de as much harm. 
Olaus Iagnus, lib. 6, cap. 19, makes six kinds of thenl; seine bigot, seine 
less. These (saith  Munst.er) are comtnonly seen about mines ofmeta.ls, and 
are seine of them noxious; seine again de no havre. The metal-men in many 
places account if good luck, a sign of treasure and rich ore when they seo 
them. Georgius Agricola in his book de subterraneis animntibus, cap. 37, 
reckons two more notable kinds of them, which he calls  Getuli and Cobali, 
both " are clothed after the manner of metal-men, and will many rimes 
iiuite thcir works." Their oflîce, as Pictoritts and laracelsus think, is te 
keep treasure in the earth, that it be no ail ai once revealed; and besicles, 
' Cicogna avers that they are the frequent causes of those horrible earth- 
quakes "which offert swallow up, net only bouses, bu whole islands ana 
¢ities;" in his hird book, cap. 11, he gives many instances. 
The last at conversant about the centre of the earh te torçure the seuls 
of damned men te the day of judgment ; their egresz and regress seine sup- 
pose te be about 2Etna, Lipari, lous Hecla in Iceland, Vesuvius, Terra del 
Fuego, &c., because many shrieks and frful cries are continually heard there- 
abouts and fmiliar appas'liions ofdcad men, ghosts and goblins. 

tHorto Ger, iali, folio 137. g l'art. 1. c. 19. Abducunt Ces à recta via, et vlam iter facientibs |nter- 
eludunt.  Lib. 1. cap. 44. D.'emonum cernuntur et audiultur ibi frcquentes illusiones s unde viatoribus 
¢vendum ne r,c dlsocieut, sut  tergo maneant, voces enim fingunt socioram, ut  recto itmere abducant, 
&c. « Mons sterills et nlvosus, ubi intempesta nocte umbroe apparent. * Lib. 2. car 21 Offendieu| 
faciunt transeuntibus in a, et petulanter rdet cure vol bommcm vol jumentnm ej«s perles atterere faciant 
et max|mè si h»mo malcdi¢tis et calcaribus soevtat.  In Cosmogr. » Vestiti nmre metailicorum, gestus 
et opera eorum imitantur.  Immis,o in tcrræ carceros vento horribiles terr motus OEciunt» quibtm 
pe noa domus modo et tu|Tes: eed civitatca integroe et iasul hut« ettnt. 



T/wir O.ffïees, Operatons, Stu, ly.] Thus the devil reimas, and in a thonsan,l 
several shapes. " a roaring lion still seeks whom he may devour," 1 Pet. v., 
1,y eartb, sea, land, air, as yet uneonfined, though %orne will have his pmper 
1,lace the air; ail that spaee between us and the moon for thcm that tran 
gressed let, and hell $»r tho wickedesç of them, H vdut in earce adfin 
nundi, tu in 1,cum fu,restiem trudendl,  Anstin holds  Civit. Dei, c. 
22, lib. 14, cap. 3 et 23; but be where he will, he ageth while he may to 
eomfort himself,  * Lacntius thiuks, with other men's falls, he labours MI 
heoEn to bring them into the me pif of perdition with him. « For *men's 
miseries, calamities and rns aoe the devil's banqueting dish." By many 
temptations and several engines, he eks to captivate ont souls. The Lord 
«,f Lies, ith » Austin, " As he was deived himselE he seeks fo dciv¢ 
othe, the ringleader o ail naughfins,  he did by Eve and Cain, Sodom 
and Gomorrah, so would he do by ail the world. Sometimea he temp by 
c»vetousn drunkenness, pleure, pfi,lc, &e., erg, dejeets, saves, kills, pro- 
teck, and rides some men,  they do their horses. He stud[es out overçhrow, 
and generally ks our dstletion ;" and although he pregend many imes 
human good, and vindeate himself for a go,1 by curing of veral diseases, 
œegs sanitatem,  coecis laminis tsu rit.ue,  Austin declares, lib. 10, 
de Civlt. 1)ei, cap. 6, as Apollo, sculapius, Isis, of old bave done; ver 
plagu, assist them in wa» pretend their happiness, ye niltR his i»tpaus, 
sceztius, ihil hano gene infti, nothing so impure, nothing so per- 
nicio, as may wdl appear by their tyrannical and bloody sacrifioes of mea 
to turn and Moloch, which aoe still in e among those barbarous Indians, 
their several deeeits and cozenings to kp men in obedicnce, their falso 
oracles, mcrifices, their superstitious impositions of fasts, penu, &a Heresies, 
sutitious observations of meats, rimes, &c., by which they « crucify the souls 
of mortal men, as shall be showed in out Treate of Religious Ielancholy. 
lodico adh tempoe'e nitur maligna, as "Bemard exptaseth it, by God's 
permission he rageth a while, herfter to be coufiaed to heH aa«l darkues, 
"which is prepared for him and his angels," 5Iat. xxv. 
ow ar their power doth extend it is hard to dotermine; what the ancienta 
hdd of their e:cts, foroe and opemtions, I will briefly show you : Plato la 
Cfitias, and after him his followem, gave out that thcse spirits or de,s, "wero 
men's veors and keers, out lords and mastem,  we are of our cattle." 
"'They govern provinces and kingdoms by omcles, auguries, drms, rewards" 
and pishmeuts, prophecies, inspirations, crifioes, and rdigious supersti- 
tiom, varied in as alany forms as there be divemity of spirits; they nd wars, 
plagu, peace, sickn, heahh, dearth, plenty,  Adsnt hjam nob, 
tan, et arbitrant, &c. as appears by those histories of Thucydid, Livius, 
Dionysius Halicamassus, -ith many others thuç aoe full of their wondehl 
stratagems, and wet themfore by thooe Roman and Gk commonwealtha 
adored and worshipd fi»r go( with prayers and sacrifie, &c.  In a word, 
ih is quwrunt qm »tam  admiratnem minum ; "and s anothet 
bath if, ici non l)st, qn iatpotenti ardore i Iwmi, dominiun, et 

* IllrOrao in 3. Ephe$. ldera Mieh.elis. c. 4. fie iritih. Idem Th)e de ! infest.  Laettiç 
2. fie origine eofis cap. 15. hi maligni spiritus per omnem terrain vagantur, et solatium perditionis 
perdendia hominibm operantur. * blortalium ealamito epuloe sunt malotru monu,n, 8ynius. 
, Domin mendacii à seipso decept, alios degipere cupit, adverrius humani generia, lnventor morti 
surbioe inatitutor, radix malitiœe, celerum eapu princeps oto nium vitiorum, fuit indc in Dei contumeliam 
hominum peiciem: de Iom conatib et operationibus lege Epiphanium. 2 l'oto. b. 2. Dionyium. 
c. g. Ambros. Eplatoi. lib. 10. ep. et 8. August. de ciç. Dei lib. .  9. lib. 8. p. 22. iib. 9. 18. lib. 10. 
beopll.  12. at. Fasil. ep. 14L Leonem Ser. OEheodoret. in 11. Cor. ep. 22. Cya. hom. b3.  12. 
Gcn. Greg. In 1. c. Joim. Barthol. de prop. 1.  c. 20. Zanch. I. . de malis angelis. erer. in Gen. !. 8. in 
optatos soepe proent suec Pet. Mar. in Sain. &c. Rtm de lvferno, q Et velut mancipin eircum- 
fert Fs. t Lib. de ffns, tout. e. ep. • Ctod ant hominum» et rum, t n imium: 
tutu et prodneiis proepositl nt auri somnU oraeuli proemii &e. t Lypsius Fhyaiol. Stoi 
b. 1. cap. 19. • Leo Suave. idem et Tl'itcmi. v ,, hcy eeeg uotoEng me e'atly tà 
d 4'ation of m." 



118 Digression of oE,i,.it. [Par. 1. Sec. 
ivinos cultos maiçnl spitu.ç 'ctent.  T»'itmlus in ]»is bnlz 
s«undls, igns names to sueh angels  are gverno of partieular provinces, 
by what authority I know hot, and v them oeveral jurisdietions. 
piades a Gcian, Rabbi Achiba theffe v, A braham AvenoEra, and RabbiAzariel, 
Arabians, (as I find them clted by "Cicogna) farther add, that they are hOt out 
goveors only, ,Sd e eorum eoncord et dcordiâ, boni et mai 
OE,anant, but  they agr,  do we and onr pn, or disaee; stand or 
fall. Juno was a bitter enemy fo Trny, Apollo a good fi'ieud, Jupiçer iudiffe 
ent, qua Venus eu, l'als iulq« .fu; some are for us stiil, some 
against u Pre»wnte Deg,rt Det alto @e Religion, policy, pubfic and 
l,riva quart-ris, wars are procured by them, raid they are rdelighted perhaps 
to sec men fight,  men are with oed{s, bulls, and dogs, bears, &c., plaes, 
dhs depend on them, out ,k and alk se, and ahnost ail out other 
ecnliar aoEion tor (as Ant.hony Rusca contends, lib. 5,p. 18, every man bath 
n good and a bad angd attending on him in particular, ail h lifç long, which 
Jamblichns cal m,) preferments, loss, weddings, death oewards 
and punishments, and  "Frocl will, all offices whatsoever, alii gerizem, 
«Hi optera pottam haut, &c., and veral names they give them according 
o their offic«q,  Lares Indegites, Prœestites, &c. When the Aroedes in 
that bate st Chemnoe, which was fonght against King Phfiip for the lirty 
of Greece, had deceitfully carned themoelves, long ater, in the very 
place, Diis GroEclœe êo;qbus (saith mine author) they were miserably slain by 
Xletellus the Roman: so 1oEewloe, in smaller matters, they will bave things 
£dl out,  these boni and ali genli favour or dislike us: $turni n omve- 
çdunt Jial, &c. He that  Satuinus shall never likely be prefcrred. 
"That base fellows are often advanoed, undeseing Gnatho, and cio 
sites, wheoeas disctvet, wise, vh.tuous and worthy men are neglected and unr 
warded; they refer to thooe dominring spirit or subonate Genii ;  they 
are inclined, or Iavour men, so they thrive, are ruled and overcome; for as 
Libanius supposethin oto" ordinary conflic and contentions, Genius enio cit 
et obtemperat, one genius yields and is overcome by another. 1 particur 
events almost they mfcr to these private spirits; and ( Paracelsus adds) they 
diroet, teach, inspire, and instruct men. ever w any man extraordinary 
Eunous in any art, action, or goeat commander, that had not.ft»tigrem 
em to inform him, s uma, Socm and ny such, as Cardan illustrat, 
cap. 128, A rcanis pntiæ , ¢ Spii siquim gratia, si à D do»ta«i" 
assunt magi, à 6'eni coetibus itrui, ab i cer£ But the e most 
erroncous paradoxe, 4ptoE  fabusœee nuoE, rejecd by our divines and 
Christian churches. "Tis te thcy bave, by God's permission, lwer over 
us, and we find by expefience, that they can « ht not out fields only, OEttle, 
good but our bodies and mind At Hammel in Saxony, A»t. 1484, 20 
Junii, the deS, in likeness of a pied pir, cied away 130 children 
vere never after seen. Iany rimes men are "affrighted out oî their wi, 
carried away quite, as Scheretzius fllustrat, l. 1. a iv., and verally mol 
ed by his mns, Plotinus the Platonist, I. 14, advers. G». ug them to 
scorn, that hoid the del or spit4ts can use any such disses. 3Iany think 
he can work upon the body, but hot upon the minoE But expefienoe pro- 
noceth otherwi, that he can wm'k bth upon body and md. Te@ian 
 "]t ls srareely poiVle to defibe the lmptcnt ardour 'ith which te malignant spirigs 
anour of being divinely wotllipped." • Omnif. mag. lib. 2. cap. 23. Y Lu,lus de,»rum sumt. = Lib. 
de anima et dœemone, • Quoti fit, nf Pncip novitiam auiicum divitils et diitibas pene oban 
et mtorum annarum miniature, q non semel pro hero permulum subiR, ne teruntio donen 
Idem. Quad Plxilosophi non remunerentut; cure a et ineptu oh iusatsm jocam soepe proemium 
reporte inde fl e. b Lib. de Cruent. Caaver. • Bolardus c, 6. mis. « Godelman cap. 3. 
lib. I. de Maffis. idem Zanchius lib. . cap. I0 et II. de mal augelis. = Nocva elancltolia furi«»so$ 
OEHcit et qnd penttus lnterficit. G. icolomines Jdemque Zanch, p. I0. lib. 4. si Deus permittat, 
corpo nostr move poss alr uov motborum et mat' g'e r% 



]fem. 1. Subs. 2.] Nau'e oJ 3pir,». 

oï tbis opinion, c. 22. '«Tbat he can cause both sickncss and health," and that 
scmtly. *Taurellus adds "by clancul.r poisons he can infect the bodies, and 
hinder the operations of the bowels, though we perceive it net, closely crêep- 
ing into them," saith Lipsius, and se crucify our seuls: .E$ nocva mehtt- 
cl«dia furiosos eï«t. For being tt spiritual body, he st,uggles with out 
spirits, saith Rogers, and suggests (ccording te *Cardan, verba si voce, 
$pec/es sm vu, envy, ltt, anger, &c.) as he secs mon inclincd. 
The manner how he performs if, Biarmannus in his Oration ag.inst Bodlne» 
sufficiently declares. "]=Ie begins first with the phantasy, and moves thal; 
se strongly, that no reason is able te resist. New the phmtasy he moves by 
mediation of humours; although many physicians are of opinion, that the devil 
can alter the mind, and produce this disease of himself. Quibusdam medicoru 
;isum, saith aAvice**na, qud ]Ielancholia coninga à dw»wnio. Of the saine 
mind is Psellus and Rhasis the Arab. lib. 1. 'rac. 9. Con. " That this 
disease proceeds especially from the devil, sud frein him alone." Arculanus 
cep. 6. n 9. Rhasis, 2Elianus hIontaltus in his 9. cap. Daniel Sennertus l/b. l. 
ï0oEr 2. cap. 11. confirm as much, that the devil eau cm*se this disease ; by 
tesson many times that the parties afiécted prophesy, speak strange language 
but non sne nterverdu humoris, net without the humera; as he interprets him- 
elf; no more doth _vicenna, s eonaga$ à dwmono, suJfici nobis u$ conver- 
rat coml)lexionem ad chleram nlgram, et sit causer jus proloinqua cholera nigra ; 
¢he immediate cause is choler adust, xvhich * lomponatius likewise labours te 
rnake good: Galgerandus of ]Iantua, a famous hysician, se cured a doemoni- 
ac:tl woman in his rime, that spake all languges, by purging black choler, 
and thereupon belike this humour of ]Kelaneholy is called Balneum Diaboli, 
tho Devil's Bath; the devil spying his opportunity of such humours drives 
hem many rimes te despair, fury, rage, &e., mingling himself amongst these 
humomu. This is that which Tertullian avers, C'orporibus in.fligttnt averboa 
¢asus, animceue 'epentn9a, .embra distoruent, occultè 'epentez, &c. and which 
Lemuius goes about te prove, Immiscent se m,di Genii pravis Itu»wribus, atyu 
atïce bili, &c. And °Jason Pratensis, "that the devil, being a slender iucom- 
lrehensible spirit, tan easily insiuuate and wind himself into bureau bodies, and 
cnnningly couched in out bowels vitiate out healths, terrify our seuls with lest- 
fui dreams, and shake our mind with furies." And in another place, "Thes 
unclean spirits settled in out bodies, and new mixed with out melaucholy 
humom, de triumph as it were, and sport themselves as in another hcaven." Thua he argues, dnd that thcy go in and out of our bodies, as becs de in a 
hive, and se provoke and tempt us as they perceive out temperature inchued 
of itself, and most apt te be deluded, °Agrippa and rLavater are peuaded, 
that this humour invites the devil te it, wheresoever it i in extremity, and of 
all other, melancholy persons are most subject te dlabolical temptutions and 
illusions, and most apt te entertain them, and the Devil best able te work upoa 
them. But whether by obsession, or possession, or otherwise, I will net deter- 
mine; 'ris a difficult question. Deh'io the Jesult, 'om. 3. lib. 6. Springer 
and his colleague, all. rdf. Pet. Thyreus the Jesuit, l/b. d dt0n/xds, da 
lo¢is in.]èstis d l'erH.ftcativtibua noctm'ia, Hieronimus Ktengus Flagel. doerr). 

lotit eorp it»flcere.  Irrepent oriu cult morbot fingunt» ment teenl, membra 
çuent. Lips. Phil. Stoic. 1.1. e. 19.  De rerum var. 1.16. c. 93. k Qu mens immediatè decpl 
equl pmum movet phantiam, et lt obtient vanis nceptib aut ut ne quem facttl mativw 
ration lum reiinquat. Spiritus mal vt imam, turbat sensuN  foeor njicit. Austin. de t. 
t. tb..Fen, i. Trct. 4. c. 18.   Done maxime proflcct, et æpe solo. 
• Cœep. de manla Mb. de morbis oereb; D,emon qu sint tenu et inmprehensi Æpitu$»  
s}uar ob humanis pount, et ote la oeb opoe vedlnem vitiare, somni lm 
toeere et ment ob qtere. Inslnnt  meiaucholl penetrib tnt tque coidunt 
et dellclantur nqu in regione claom siderum, contque um fm'e. « Lib. 1. cap. 



130 C,uses of .lleanchoy. [ Par. l. ,S'ec. . 

and others of that rank of pontifical writers, if seems, by their exorcisms and 
comqrations approv of if, havng forged many stories fo that pro'pose..A_ nus 
did eut a lettuce «without grace, or signing it with the siga of the croc, and 
was instantly possessed. Dur.and. lib. 6. 1Ratiotlall. c. 86. qumb. 8. relates that 
he a'tw a wench possessed in Bononia with tvo devils, by eating an unhal]ov¢ed 
pome-ranate, as she did afterwards confess, when she was cured by exorcisms. 
-_nd therefore out :Papists do sign themselvs so oftea ,vth the sign of the 
cross, e deemon i«gredi ausit, and exorcise ail manner of meurs, as bcing 
uaclean or accursed otherwise, as .llarmine dcfends. ]Iany such stories I 
tind amongst pontifical writers, to prove their asse¢ions, let them free their 
own credits; some few I wi]l retire in this kiml outof most approved physicians. 
Oornelius Gcmma lib. 2. de nat. mlrac, c. 4. relates of a young mai I, called 
]atherine Gua]ter, a cooper's daughter, Au. 1571, that had such strango 
passions and convulsions, three men could hot sometimes hold ber; she purged 
a lire eel, which he saw a foot and a half long, and tou,:]wd it hinaself; but the 
eel afterwards vanished; she vomited some twenty-fonr ponnds of ful.some 
stuff of ail colours, twice a day for fourteen days; and after tbat she voided 
great halls of huit, pieces ofwood, pigeons" dung, parchment, goose dung, coals; 
and after them two pounds of pure blood, and then again eoals and stones, of 
which some had inscriptions bigger than a walnut, some of them pieces of 
glas, brass, &c. besides paroxysms of laughing, weeping and ecslasies, &c. JEt 
]toc (inquit) cun horrore vi:li, this I saw with horror. They could do nogood 
on her by physic, but left ber to the clergy. :Marcel]us Donatns llb. 2. c. 1. 
de med. mb'ab, bath such auother story of a country fel]ov, that had four 
knives in his belly, Instar serræ dentatos, indented like a sa% every one a span 
long, and a wreath of hair like a globe, with much baggage of like sort, won- 
derfid fo behold: how it should corne into his guts, he eoncludes, Certè non 
alio qant doemons astutiâ et dolo (could assua'e,lly only bave been through 
the artifice of the devil). Lanus Epist. med. lib. 1. Epi,t. 38. l)ath many 
relations fo this effect, and so bath Christopherus à Vega: Wierus, Skenkius 
Scribonius, all agree that they are donc by the subtilty and illusion of the 
devil. If you shall ask a ressort of this, 'ris fo exercise out patience; for as 
«Tertullian holds, Virtus non est virtus, nsl comparen h.tbet aliqtera, i q,to 
superando rira suara ostendat, 'tis fo try us and out iaith, 'ris for out offcnces, 
and for the punisbment of out sins, by God's permission they doit, Ca'ni.fices 
ndicte justoe Dei, as "Tolosanus styles them, Executioners of his will ; or 
rather as David, Ps. 78. ver. 49. "He east upon them thë fierceness of his 
auget, indignation, wrath, and vexation, by semling out of evil angels:" so did 
he afltict Job, Saul, the Lunatics and doemoniacal persona whom Christ cured» 
2Iat. i. 8. Luke iv. 11. Luke xiik bIark ix. Tobit viii. 3. &c. Tbis, I say, 
happeneth for a punishment of sin» tbr their want of taih, incredulity, weak- 
ness, distrust, &c. 

SUBSECT. III.--Of Witches and Magiqans, Itow they cause Mdancholy. 
o bave brd wat the devil can do of hlmself, no you shall heur what 
he eau perform by h[s instruments, who are many time worse (if if be psible) 
than he himlf, and to tisfy their revenge and hmt cause more mischi 
[ta enim ma n egisset doe»wn, n'i provocatus à sagi,  "Et't 
thinj ranch harm had never been doue, had he hot bn provoke« by wi¢hes 
fo it. He had hot appeared in Samuel's shape, if the Witch of Eudor had 
let him one;  reprented th serpents in Pharo's présence, d aot th 
magiciana urged him unto it; ff b vd homlnib, vd br infld 
{Ertus maintains) d sa9oe quêtent; mes and tle mighg go free, if th 
qGreg. p, c, 9, * ent. da opific. D. L;b. , cap. 2q. tom.  sDe L 



em. 1. Subs. 3.] Nature of Dvigs. 131 

• vitches would let him alone. :5Iany deny witches af all, or if there be any 
thcy can do no harm; of this opinion is Wierus, l/b. 3. cap. 53. deprcrstig, aoem. 
Austia Lerchemer a Dutch writer, Biarmanaus, Ewichius, Euwaldus, out 
countryman Scot; with him in Horace, 

u Somnla, {:errores Magïeon, miracula, sale'a, 
Nocturnos Lemures, porentalUO Thesa&la rlsu 
Excipint.  

Say, can you laugh lndigalant af the schem 
Of magic terrors, visionary dreams, 
Portettous wonders,  itch[ng, [reps of Hell, 
The nightl}" gobhn» and enchanting spell [. 

They laugh at ail such stories; but on the contrary are most lawyers, 
divines, physicians, philosophers, Austin, Hcmingius, Danoeus, Chytroeus, 
Zauchius, Aretius, &c. Dc[rio, Spriuger, * Niderius l. 5. Fornicar. Cuiatius, 
Baolns, cool. 6. tom. 1. Bodine »wnlan. lib. 2. cap. 8. Godelman, Dam- 
hoderiu &c. Paracelsu Erastus, Scribanius, Camerarius, &c. The parties 
by whom the devil dea[s, may be redud to these two, such as command him 
in show at least,  conjurot% and magicians, whose detestab[e and horrid 
mysteries are contaiued in their book called  Arbate[l; mos eaim advo- 
c«i proesto nt, sc exdsmis e cojuranib si cog patiuntur, 
mlseru», agorum genus, in impietate tinea. Or such as are commanded, 
as witches, that dcal ex part« impl&è, or explic'it$,  the tking hath well 
dcfined; mauy subdivisions there are, and many severa[ species of sorcerem, 
witches, enchaatcrs, charmers, &c. Thcy have beeu to[rated heretofo 
some of them; and magic bath been publicly pmfced  former tim, 
in SMamanca, $Cracow, and other places, though ter censmd by 
several »Universities, and now gcnerally contradicted, though practised 
by some still, maiuined and excud, Tanç» r creta q no, nisl 
vlris gn e plia beio de Clo itructls communicur (I use 
Boesaus his words) and so far approved by uome princes, 
au aggred$ i» politi, i» sacr, i coilii¢ si r¢a arbitr; they 
consult sill with them, and date indeed do nothing without their udvice. 
ero and Heliogabal»% 5[axentius, and Julianus Apostata, were never so 
much addicted to magic of old,  some of out modcrn prin and pos 
themselves are now-a-duys. Erricus King of Sweden had au  enchanted cap, 
by virme of which, aud some magical murmur or whisring 
could command spirits, trouble the ai Land make the wind stand which way he 
wouhl, insomuch that vhcn there ws any grcat wind or storm, the common 
people wcre wont to y, the king now had on his conjuriug cap. at such 
exumples are infinite. Thut which they can do, is  much a[moet as the devi[ 
himlf, who is still ady to satisfy their desires, fo oblige them the more unto 
him. They can cuuse tempests, storms, which is amilial'ly practd by 
witches in orway, Ioeland, as I bave proved. They can make kiends 
enemies, and enemies friends by philters; • Turp amies conciliare enfroe 
love, ll any man where his fi'iends are, about whut employed though in th 
most remote plaoes; and if they will, ¢" bring their sveeths to them by 
ight, upon a goat's back flyi»g in the air." Sismund Scheretziu part. 1. 
cap. 9. de spect., repos confidently, that he conferred with sundry such, thag 
had been so caied many m:l, and that he heard witch themselv conf 
 much; hu and infect mea and beasts, vines, corn, tle, plants, mako 
women aboive, hot fo conceive, Sbarren, men and women unapt and unabl% 
married and unmarried, fiy several ways, saith Bodine, lib. 2, c. 2, fly i tho 
air, meet when and where they will, as Çicogna pmves, and Lavat. de 
. 2, c. 17, "steM young children out of their cuoe% min 

* Et quomodo veneflc| fiant enarrat. " De quo plura legas in Bolssardo lib. l. de proestig. 
Jaoeb I»oemonol. 1. l. c. 3.  An university In Spain In old Ctile. The chier town in Polan 
a Oxford and Pas, see fln P. Lombar.  Proefat. 
habebat, quo ventos violetttos c[eret, aerem turbare et in quam paem, &c.  Erres.  Ministec hirci 



132 Cuses o./Mdawt, ol. [Par. 

and put defotvaed in their rooms, which we call changelings, saith § 8cheretzius, 
lart. 1, c. 6, make men victorious, fortunate, eloquent ; and thereforê in thoso 
ancient monomachies and combats they were searched of old, "they had no 
tnagical charms; they can make "stick frees, such as shall endure a rapier's 
point, mtsket shot, and never be wounded: of which rend more in Boissardus, 
cap. 6, de Mage, the manner of the adjuration, and by whom 'ris ruade, where 
and how te be used in exgexlitionibus bdlicis, prwliis, duellis, &c., with ruant" 
peculiar instances and examples; they eau walk in fiery furnaces, make meŒEE 
feel no pain on the wrack, sut ails, torturas s«ntir,; they can stanch blood, 
represent deaà men's shapes, alter and turn themselves and others into severaJ. 
ferres, ai their pleasurês. *&gaberta, a ftmous witch in Lapland, would de as 
much publicly te al1 spectators, Mod Pusilla, mod5 aus, ,nod5 procera ut 
uetcu*, mod5 vacca, avis, coluber, &e. low young, new old, high, low, hke a 
cow, like a bird, a shake, and what net1 she could represent te others what 
ferres they most desired te sec, show thêm fi-iends absent, reveal secrets, 
taxmgt onnium ad»niratlone, &e. And yet for al1 this subtility of theirs, au 
Lypsius well observes, ilysiolog. Stoicor. lib. l, cap. 17, neither these magi- 
cians ner devils themœelves eau take away gold or letters ou of mine or 
Crassus" chest, et Olientdls suis lariri, for they are base, poor, contemptiblo 
fellows most parti as fBodine notes, they can de nothing i Judicum decreta 
aut poenas, in 'egum con¢qlia vd arcana, dhil in errt nummaria aut tltesau- 
vos, they cannot give money to their clients, airer judges' decree or councils 
of kings, these minuti Genii cannot doit, ahiores Genil /toc sibi adservârunt, 
the higher powem reserve these things fo themselves, low and then perad- 
venture there may be some more amous magicians like Simon Magus, :Apol- 
lonius Tyaneus, lasetes, Jamblicus, § Odo de Stellis, that for a rime can build 
castles in the air, represent armies, &c., as they are %nid to bave donc, 
c,mmaud wealth and treasure, feed thousands with all variety of ments upon a 
sudden, protect themselves and their followers from all princes' persecutions, 
by removing ri'oto place to place in an instant, reveal secrets, future events, tell 
vhat is doue in far countries, make them appear that died long since, and do 
raany such miracles, fo the world's terror, admiration and opinion of deity fo 
themselves, yet the devil forsakes them at last, they corne to wicked ends, and 
ru.r5 aut nunçuam such imposters are fo be found. The vulgar sort of them 
can work no uch lents. But to my purpose, they eau, last of ail, cure and 
cause most diseases to such as thcy love or hure, and this of amelancholy 
amongst the test. :Paracelsus, T,. 4, de rbis a»ztium. Tract. 1, in 
express words affirms; Multifaacqnantur in lancholm, many are bewitched 
into melancholy, out of his experience. The saine saith Danoeus lib. 3, de 
sortiwriis. Vidi, mluit , qui Melancholicos norbos gravlssmos induxermt : I 
have seen those that have cauœed melancholy in the most grievous manner, 
• dried up women's paps, cured gout, palsy; this and apoplexy, falling sickness» 
which no physic could help, solo tactu, by touch alone. Ruland in his 3 Cent. 
Cura 91, gives an/nstance of one David Helde, a young man, who by eating 
cakes which a witch gave him, mooe delirare coeit , began fo dote on a sudden 
and was instantly mad: F. H. D. in tHildeheim, consulted about a melan- 
choly man, thought his disease was partly magical, aud pai2ly natural, becaus 
he vomited pieces of iron and lead, and spake such languages as he had never 
bec taught; bu such examples are commo in 8cribanius, Hercules do 

§ Infantea matribus suffursntur, aliIs suppositivis in loctxrn verorum eonectis. =Milles. = D. Lutber 
in primum proeceptum, et Leon. Varius lib. 1. de Fascino. b Lavat. Cicog. • Boisardus de Mage. 
T Doemon. lib. . cap. 3. : Vide æhilo_tratum vita ejus, ]oiasardum de Magie. § Nubrigenses leg 
]ib. i. c. 19. Vide Su]dam de Fuser. De Crueut. Cadaver. «Erstus. Adolphus Scribmxius. a Virg. 
-neld. 4. Incantstrleem deseribeca: Hoec se carminibtm promlttit solvere mentes. Qu ve.lit, t slii# 
durss immlnere curas, • Godelmanmm cap. 7. lib. 1. nutricum mammas lr.siecant, seIo tactu podagram 
av°plexiam laralysi et ali°t m°rbos qca medicLu& cu are non 9otersL f actas mde taaiacu spec. 2. 



axonia, and others. The means by which they work are ,sually chart,:, 
images, as that in IIector 13oethius of King Duftb 
sundry metals, and af such and .such constellations, knots, amulets, words, 
philters, &c., which generally make the parties affected, melancho[y; as 
• 5[onavius discourseth st large in an epiatle of his te Acolsius, giving instance 
in a Bohemian baron that was se troubled by a phi]ter taken. ]ot that there 
is any power ai all in those pells» charme, characters, and barbarous words; 
but that the devil doth use such means te delude them. Utfideles indemag«s 
(saith * Libanius) i, oïcio retineat, tutu ir consortium male.fizctorum vocet. 
S(s.c. IV.--Stars a cause. Sigr fi'om Physogwmy, .]£etoToscoTy , 
Ch5"omancy. 
l.va. causes are either 1)rîmury and universel, or secondary and more 
laarticular. 1)rimary causes are the heavens, planers, stars, &c., by their iaflu- 
ence (as our astrologers hold) producing this and such like effccts. I will net 
here stand te discuss obiter, whether stars be causes, or signe; or te apologi 
for judicial astrology. If either Sextus Empiricus 1)icus Mirandula, Sextua 
ab Heminga, t)ererius, Erastus, Chamb«;rs, &c., hure se £tr prevailed with ay 
man, that he will attribu¢e no virtue st ail te the heavens, or te sun, or moon, 
more than he doth te their s]gus st an innkeeper's post, or tradesman's shop, 
or genera]ly condemn all such astrologi«l aphorisms approved by exper]ence: 
I refer him te Bellantius, 1)irovânus ][arascallcrus, Gclenias Sir Christophe 
I-Ieidon, &c. If thou shalt ask me what I think, I must answer, nain et doctis 
h/sce rrar/bus versaeus sure (for I ara conversant with these learued errors), 
they de incline but net compell no necessity st ail:  agun$ an cogun: an4 
o gentlyincline, that a wise man may resist them i sapies doinabitur astrls: 
they fuie us, but God rules them. Ail ,his (methinls)  Joh. de Indagine bath 
comprised in brief, 
"' Wilt thou know how far the stars wok upon us ? I say they de but incline, 
and that se gently, that ifwe will be m[ed by reason, they have no power over 
as; but if we follow our own natare, and be led by sense they de as much 
us as in brute beasts, and we are no better." Se that, I hope, I may justly 
conclude with  Cajetan, Coelum est voddculum dvinoe vrtutis, g'c., that the 
]eaven is God's instrument, by mediation of which he govens and diposeth 
these elementary bodies; or a great b«,ok, whose letters are the stars (as one 
talle it), wherein are written many strage things for such as cas read, " or 
an excellent harp, ruade by 
llay,.will make most admirable music." But te the purpooe. 
 1)aracelsus is of opinion, "that a physician without the  nowledge of stars 
tan neither understand the cause or cure of any disease, either of this or gout, 
net se much as toothache ; except he ee the pectfliar geniture and scheme of 
¢he party affecte&" And for this pro[»ex malady, he will bave the principal 
and primary cause of it proceed frein the heaven, ascribing more te stars thaa 
humours, "and that the constellation alone many timesproduceth melancholy, 
allother causes set part." te gives instance in lu,atic persons, that are 
deprived of their wits by the moon's motion; and in another place refers all 
te the ascendant, and will bave the true and chief cause of it te be seught frein 
the stars. JNeither is it his opinion on[y but of many Galenists and philoso- 
g 0renie phi|tre es! in[er 
231. Seholtzii. * De Craent. Cadaver.  Astr rcgunt lmrnines, et regit astre Deus.  Chirom. 
db. xoerta , me aantum ope'atu tr! dite, in os thil astre urgere, sed atm« pro¢.lives trahece -. 
qui sic tamen Liberi stmt ut ai dueem sequantur rationem, nihil etclant, sin veto naturam, ld agere 
la brutls fere. • Coelum vehieulum divinoe virtutia, ct0us mediante motu, lumine et influentia, Dus 
elementarl corpora ordmat et dlsponit. Th, de 'io. Cjetanus in Fsa. 10.  5iundus lste quasi lyr 
ch exeelleatlatmo uod«m artifice coucinata uem tal n6rtt mirablles elielet harmonise. J. Dee. Apho- 
risme 11.  5iedieus aine eoeli peritia nihfl est, &c. nisl genesim sciverit, ne tantillum poterit, iib. de 
podag, a Constellatlo in cause est ; et influenti eoeli morbum hune movet interdum, omaibtta 



134 Ca. «,f Af dar'olg. [Part. 1. Sec. 

lhers, though they do hot so peremptorily maintain as much. "This varieLy 
of melancholy symptoms proceeds from the stars," saith ° Melancthon: the 
most generous melancholy, as that of Augustus, cornes from the conjunction of 
Saturn and Jupimr in Libre: the bad,  that of Catiline's, from the meeting 
of Saturn and the moon in Scorpio. Jovianus Ponmnus, in hL tenth boek, 
and thieenth chapter  rebus ctlb, coseth to this purpose at large, 
œe atr6 bi vari geranur rbi, &c., "» many dioees proeeed from 
black choler,  i hall be hot or oe]d ; and though i be ld h its own 
nature, yet i is apt to be heated,  water may be made to boiÇ and burn 
bad  tire; or ruade cold  ice : and thenoe proceed suchvarictyof symptoms, 
me mad, some solitary, some taugh, me ge," &c. Tho OEu of all 
which intemFerance he will have chiefly and primarily pmceed from the 
hvens, "« from the position of MoErs, Sature, and Mcrcury." His aphorms 
be these, « ' ercury in any geniture, ifhe shall be round in Vidéo, or Pisc 
hls opposite ign, and that in the horoscope, irrdiated bythose quartil aspts 
of Saturn or Mars, the child shall be mari or melancholy." Agah, "" He 
that shoEll ve Saturn and rs, tho one culminating, the other in the foutoEh 
bouse, when he shall be born, shall be melancholy, of which he shaH be cutd 
in tim. if Mercury behold them." "t If the moon be in coujunction or oppo- 
sition at the birth time with the s, Saturn or [at, or in a qile pect 
ith them (è  coEi co, Leovitius adds), many disees are siified, 
escially the head and brain is like to be miffected h pernicious 
humoum, to be melaucholy, lunatic, or tord," Cardan adds, çuartâ lunâ tos, 
eclipses, earthquakes. Garcœeus and Leovitius will bave the chicf judent 
to be taken from the lord of the niture, or where thcre is an pt between 
the moon and Mercury, and neithcr behold the horoscope, or Satu and Mars 
shall be lord of t.he present conjunction or opsition in Sagittafius or Pisc, 
of the sun or moon, such rsons are commody epileptic, dote, doemoniacal, 
melancholy : but oee more of these aphorisms in the above-named Pontaas. 
rcoeus, cap. 23. d« Jad. gitur. £br. 1. 1. cap. 8. which he hath 
gathered out of "Ptolcmy, Albubater, and some other Arabians, Junctine, 
nzovius, Lindhout, Origen,&c. But these men you wiH reject peradventure, 
 tro]oger and theœefore paial judges; tben hear the tctimony of phy- 
sicians, Galenists themselv. = Carto confeth the influenoe of sta to have 
a great hand to this peculiar die, so doth Jon Pmtensis, Loniceri 
œefat.  popl«x. Ficinus, Fernelius, &c. r P. Cuemder acknowledgeth 
the sm an uaiversal OEe, the particular fmm parents, mtd the u of the 
soE non-naturel rhino. Baptita Pprt. mg. 1. 1, c. 10, 12, 15, will have them 
causes to every particar individium. nsçances and examples, to evinoe the 
truth of the3e aphor, are mmou amongst those astrologian trtise 
Carda  his thirty-seventh genite, gives instance  hlath. Bologaius. 
Carar. . ait. centur. 7. genit. 6. et 7. of Daniel Gare, and othem; 
but see Garcoe, cap. 3. Luc. Gauricus. Tract. 6.  n, &c. 
rime of this mclancholy is» when the siificato of any geniture are l'ecd 
accordg to art,  the hot: moon, hylcch, &c. to the hostile bms or terres 
• Lib. de anim p. de hamob. Es vaet in Melcholi ht 1    et    
 et   T.  Ex aa bile vat generantur morbL periude ut ipse mtum ŒElioe aut frigioe in se 
habuez4ç quum uque acipieno qu aptima aiç metsi pte na gi i. Annon 
aic acitur a ealore ut dt; et a frigor ut  gliem concret 1 et  vafie disfinctionum alfl 
flenç rienç & • Hanc  inmperantiam giendam plurimum confe  et  posit &c. 
  Qnoti aUc genl in  et  veo o posit rosoepum partiliter tet atque 
a  vel   ro percuoe fueri nat ab ia vexabit, • Q    h terum  
te imo io, cure in lucem vene meichoUc eri à qna : bitoe,    lt. 
t He nfirtione nn, aut laç, ant men eapt a 1o centiloqo, et qpaito 
bt omni melanchocm sptoma eiderum influenh, zAr Media. Accet  h 
cat&ç affecfion sidm. Plimum citt et ot flut lt. Vdco b.  cap. 
 d4h spil. 2. de met. 



.Iem. 1. Subs. 4.] Causes of Mdancholg. 135 

of  and  especially, or any fixed star of their nature, or ifl)y his revolution, 
or transitus, ahall offend any of those radical promissors in the genitnre. 
Other signs there are taken f,-om physiognomy, metoposcol)y, chiromancy, 
which because Juh. de Indagine, and Rotman, the landgrave of Hesse 
mathematician, hot long since in his Chiromancy; Baptista lorta, irt hi. 
celestial Physiognomy, bave proved to hold great affinity with astrvlogy, to 
satisfy the curions, I :m the more willing to inscrt. 
The general notions * physiognomers give, be these; "black eolour argues 
natural melancholy; so doth leattness, hirsuteness, broad veins, ranch hair on 
the brows,"aaith * Gratauarolus, cap. 7, and a little henri, ouç of Aristotlc, 
high sanguine, red colour, shows head melancholy; they that stutter and 
Laid, will Le soonest melancholy (as Avicenna supposeth), by ressort of the 
dryness of their brains; but he that will know more of the several signs or 
humour and wits out of physiognomy, let him eonsult with ohl Adamantus and 
X'olemus, that comment, or rather paraphrase upon Aristotle's t'hysiognomy, 
]3aptista Porta's four pleasant book.% iIichael Seot de secretls natttrce, John de 
[ndagine, Iuutaltus, Antony Zar,t. at. inf/enirum, sect. 1, memb. 13, et 
lib. 4. 
Chiromancy bath these aphorlsms h» forctl melancholy. Tsneir. lib. 5, 
cap. 2, who bath comprehended the sure of John de Indagino: T'icassus, 
Corvinus, and otbers in lais Look, thns hath it ; " The Saturnine line going 
ft'om the ra.scetta through the hand, to Saturn's mount, and there intersccted 
Ly certain little lines, argues melancholy ; no if the vital and natural make art 
acute angle, Aphorism 1O0. The saturnine, epatic, and natural lines, making 
a gross triangle in the hand, argno as mueh ;" whieh Goclenius, cap. 5. Chiros. 
repeats verhatim out of him. In general they conclude all, that if S'aturn's 
mount be full oï many small lines and intersections, "b sueh men are most part 
melancholy, miserable, and fitll of disquietness, care and trouble, continually 
vexed with anxious and bitter thoughts, always sormwful, feaa'ïul, suspicious ; 
they delight in hubandry bnil,lings, pools, marshes, springs, woods, wal-lin, &c." 
Thaddoeus Haggesius, in his iIetoposcopi«, hath certain aphorisms derived fi'otr. 
aturn's lines in the forehead, by which he collects a melancholy disposition 
and" Baptista Porta makes obserçations from those other parts of the body, 
as if a spot be over the spleen; "a or in the halls; if it appear black, it sifi- 
fieth much c.are, grieI] contention, and melanch«»lyi" the tesson he refers to 
the humours, and giçes instance in himself, that for seven years' space he had 
snch black spots in his halls, and all that while was in pcrpetual law-suits, 
controversies for his inheritance, ïear, loss of honour, banishment, grief, care, 
&c., and when his miseries ended, the black spots vanished. Cardan, in 
Look de libris pro,pries, tells such a story of his own pern, that a little befvro 
his son's death, he had  black spot, whieh appeared in one of his nails; and 
dilated its4f as he came nearer to his end. But I m over tedious in thcse 
toys, which howsoever, in some men's too severe censures, they may he held 
absurd and ridiculous, I ara the bolder to insert, as hot borrowed f,'om circum- 
foranean rogues and gipsies, but out of the writings of worthy philosophers 
and physicians, yet living some of them, and religious profsors in famous 
universities, who are able to patronize that which they bave said and vindicato 
themselves from all ca-i.llers and ignorant Ierona 

• $«h. de Inflsg. cap. 9. Montalts cap. 22. • Caput parvVa qi haut eeruhm  aplrIt plemqu 
anffu-to factle incident in Melancholiam ruDIcundi. .Eti idem MOltalt OE 21. ë Galeno. aSaturnina 
à lgoetta per mediam inanuln decmTen que ad rim montia aturni,  parvis line intersect ar- 
gutt melau, holico& Aphorism. 78.  Agittur meri continuis nqetudinib neque unqm k 
solicitudine lib¢ri sunç xie ffiigr amarimis lntra cotationib se;nper trt spitiosi, meticu- 
lt Pby»lognom. lib. 10. a Cap. 15 b. . lm :   gts nigrœe t s rix s melcho]i 
gact, ab hore m rde t. 



136 Causes of ,ff danelwy. ['Part. 1. Sec. 2. 
SvlsEc'r. V'.--Old age a cae. 
SCOAR peculiar causes eoEcient, so oelled in respoet of the other wec 
dent, are either congitoe, int«noe, in,  they terre them, inward, innate, 
inhtd; or e outward and adventitious, wch happen to us after we are 
born: congeni or bore with s, are either natural, as old age, or 
¢tram ( "Fernelius calls it)that dtemperature, which we bave ftm out 
paoents' e it beivg an hereditary disoEs The first of these, which 
atural to all, and which no man living n avoid, i« told a whieh beg 
cold and d, d of the me quality  melancholy i niu»t needs eau it, 
by diminution of spirits and substance, and increing of adust humour; 
gherefo s enoEhon ave out of Al%totle, 
ue lirdsse in senectd, that old men famil'ly dote,  ram bm, for 
black choler, which is then superabundant in them : and Rhis, that Arabian 
I»hysician, in his Cont. l. 1, cap. 9, ch it "a a necry and insepable 
accident," to ail old and doeoepit peins. After venty yea ( the lmisg 
ith) "* ail is trouble and sorrow;" and common experience confirms the 
$ruth of it  weak and old peins, piaIly such 
their lires, had 'eat employment, much bin, much command, and many 
servants to oveee, and lve off a6p;  Charles the Fifth did to 
hilip, resi up ail on a sudden ; they are overeome with melancholy 
instant: or if they do continue in sach eou, they dote at last 
r), and are hot able to manage their tat through common hfirties 
incident in their age; full of ache, soow and ge chilien again, zzard% 
they carie many times as they sit, and talk to themselv, they are angry, 
waspish, displeed with every thing, "suspicions of ail, wayward, covetous, 
ard (saith Tully), selbwilled, supetitious, selî-conceited, bragrs and 
admire of themsdv,"   Balthnr Clio bath trulv noted of them. 
• his natural firmity is most eminent in old women, and such  are poor, 
solita, lire in most base esteem and begga, or such as are witches; so- 
much that Wierus, Baptis Por, Ulricus 5Iolitor, Ewic, do refer all that 
witches are said to do, to imagination alone, and this humour of melancholy. 
ad where it is controveed, whether they can bewitch cattle to dth, de 
in the air upon a costaff out of a cmney-top, transform themlv into 
cats, dogs, &c., translate bi from place to pce, meet in companies, and 
dance,  they do, or bave raal copulation with the devH, they ascbe ail to 
this reddant melancholy, which domineers in them, to oenmife potions, 
and natural OEuses, the dev's policy. Non dunt omnin6 (saith Vierus) a 
 mim fiunt ( Lami, lib. 3, cap. 36), 
hant Tlnm; they do no such wonde at MI, only the  bi are 
ced. ""ey think they are tches, and tan do hurt, but do hot." But 
this opinion Bode, Erastus, Danoeus, Scfibani, Sebtiaa ichadis, Cam- 
ndla de s verum, l. 4, cap. 9, * Dandinus the Jes&t, l@. 2, de 
Animâ, explode; » Cicoa confutes at large. That witches are melancholy, 
they deny hot, but hot out of corrupt phantasy aloe, so to delude themselv 
d others, or  produce such effccts. 
Sr. .Paents a cae @ Prorata. 
TA other ward bred cause of 3Ieneholy  o tempeture, in whoIe or 
part, whieh we reeeive fwm out parents, whieh Feraelius OE Proe turam, 
• i. I. at. cap. 11. tgenit im properata mal inopina 
m. ethi met. 1. de nsoL Fos. • Cap. de humorib lb. de Anima.  Nearium 
ecide decrepit et inparabile. * FSa. xt. 10.  Meteran. ig. ht. hb. 1.  St mo 
nx et irdi et dicil n, M quoemus, etiam ava TI. de tentnte. Lib. 2. de Anllco. 
$ tv moros ]acbmt, pbilauti, d¢lirL supetio$ suicioM, &c. Llb. 3. de Lami p. 7. 
et [8, m Solan, opiu lupi ep r. i, &c., s infantum, &c. = Coupta t ils ab 
ore Ielancholico phia, g)au.  Funt  lere qudo non loedt. 
- imanation v refee conati sun t, atr bfli inem prorn br cert. 



,l"em. 1. Subi. 6.] Causez of 31"enclw[g, 137 

or unnatural, it being an hcreditary disease; for as he justifies « Quakp.'trentmrt 
maxi.è patrls senrt obtlgerit, tales evadunt smilares spermaticwqu pares, 
wcunçue effare morbo Pater quum generat tenetur, cure sereine transfert 
Jrolem; such as the temperature of the çather is, sueh is the son's, and look 
what disease the father had when he begot .him, his son will bave after him 
"•and is as well inheritor of his infirmities, as of his lands.  And where the 
complexion and constitution ofthe father is eoïrupt, there(°salth Roger Bacon) 
the complexion and constitution of the son must needs be eorrupt, and so tho 
corruption is derived ri'oto the father to the son." 2qow this doth hot so much 
appear in the composition of the body, aeeording to that of Hippocrates, "«in 
habit, proportion, sears, and other lineaments; but in manners and conditions 
of the mind, ff, t patrura in natos abeunt cure sereine mores. 
Seleucus had an anchor on his thigh, so had his posterity, as Troc-us records, 
I. 15. Lepidus in Plhay 1. 7, e. 17, was purblind, so was his son. That famous 
familyof2Enobarbi were known ofold, and so surnamed from their red beards 
the Austrian lip, and those Indian fiat noses are propagated, the Bavarian 
chin, and goggle eyes amongst the Jews, as * Buxtorfius observes; their voice, 
pace, gesture, looks, are likewise derived with all the rest of their conditions 
and infirmities; such a mother, such a daughter; the very "affections Lem- 
nius contends "to follow their seed, and the malice and bad conditions of 
children are many rimes wholly to be imputed to their parents;" I need no 
herefore make any doubt of Mdanchdy, but that if is an hereditary disease. 
r Paracelsus in express words alïirms it, llb. de morb. amentlum, to. 4, tf. 1 
so doth "Crato in an Epistle of his to l[onavins. o doth Bruno 8eidelius irt 
his book de nrbo eurab. Montaltus proves, cap. 11, out ofttippocmtes mtd 
llutarch, that such hereditary dispositions are fi'equent, et banc (inquit)fterg 
reor ob pcerticlpatam melanchglcarrt utemperantlant (speaking of a patient) 
think he became o by participation of ]lelancholy. Daniel Sennertus, lib. l, 
part 2, cap. 9, will have his melancholy constitution derived not only from tho 
father to the son, but to the whole family sometimes; Quandoque totisfamilii. 
hereditativam, "Forcstus, in his medicinal observations, illustrates this point, 
with an example of a merchant, his patient, that had this infirmity by inherit- 
anee; so doth t',ode4cus à Fenseca, tom. 1, consul. 69, by an instance of 
young man that was so affected ex znxtlre melanclwlica, had a melan choly mothcr, 
et victu mdancholico, and bad diet together. Lodovicus ]Iercatus, a Spanish 
lhysician, in that excellent Tract which he bath lately written of hercditary 
diseases, tom. 2, oper. lib. 5, reckons up leprosy, as those Galbots in Gacony, 
]aereditary lepers, pox, stone, gout, epilepsy, &c. Amongst the test, this and 
madness after a set rime cornes to many which ho calls a miraculotm thing in 
nature, and sticks for ever to them as an incurable habit. And that which is 
more fo be wondered st, if skips in some families the father, and goes fo the son, 
"or takes every other, and sometimes every third in a lineal descent, and doth 
no always produce the saine, but some like, and a symbolizing disease." Theso 
eeondary causes hence derived, are commonly o powerfal, that (a a Wolphius 
holds) see/)e mutant decreta siderum, they do often alter the primary eause. 
and deerees of the heavens. For these fessons, belike, the Chureh and eom- 
monwealth, human aJxd Divine laws»have eoaspired to avoid hereditary dieazes» 

q Ut arthr|t|cl, ep|lep. &c. • Ut £11J non am possess|cnurn quam morborum laoeredes s|nto • Episl. 
de secretis artis et naturoe c. 7. nain in hoc quod pattes corrupti suVt generant fllios corrupoe cornplexi,mi.% 
et compositiovis, et lii eorum e/idem de caush se corrumpunt et sic derlvatur corrnptio ù patribus ad fllios. 
• Non tare (Ivquit Hippocrates) gibbos et cicatrices oris et corporis habitum affnoscis ex ris, sed veruna 
|ncem, gesus, mores, morbos, &c. a Synagog. Jud. • AffectUS parentum tri fcetus transeunt et 
ucrorum malicia parentlbus imputand, lib. 4. cap. 3. de occt, nat. rnirac, • Ex pltuitoeis pitu|tosi, ex 
iliosis blliosl, ex lienoeis et mel8vcholicis melavcltolicL • Epist. 174. in 8co|tz. nascitur nobiscum ilkt 
aliturque et uà cure parentibus habemus ma]um hunc aem. Jo. Pelesius lib. 2. de cura huma:orum 
sfltctmtm, • Lib. 10. observat. 15. » aginus Geog. * Soepe non eundem» sel shnLleŒE produ¢ 
ctum» et lloeo l>rete tr.lit in neTotem. 4 DiaL 9rœez. genituïis Leovit 



• 13.9 CmseJ ,f3l'elancl, o.y. [Part. 1. Sec. 

f,rbidding uch marriages as are any whit allied ; and as lIcrcatus adviseth 
ail ttmilies to take such., sifieri posslt quce max'imè distant mtura., an,i to 
make choice ofthose that are most differing in complexion from them ; if they 
love their own, and respect the common good. An,l sure, I think, it bath been 
ordered by God's espccial providence, that i, ail ages there should be (as 
usuaily there i) once in "600 yrars, a transmigration of nations, to amend and 
i,urity their blood, as we alterseed upon our ]and, and that there honld be as 
iç were an inundation of those northern Goths anal Vandals, and many uch 
like people which came out of that continent of Scandia and Sarmatia) as some 
sui»pose ) and over-ran, as a deluge, most par of Europe and Afric, fo airer for 
out good, ourcomplexions, which were much defaced with hereditary infirmi- 
ries, vhich by out lust and intemperance we had contracte& A sound 
gcneration of si rong and able mes were sent amongst us, as those nort.hern mes 
usually are, innocqous, free from riot, and free ri'oto diseases; to qnalify and 
make us as those poor naked Indians are genmally st this day; and those 
about Brazil (as a late t writer observes), in the 1sic of [aragnau, free from 
ail hereditary diseases, or other contagion, whereas without help of physic 
they lire commonly 120 years or more, as in the Orcades and many other 
places. Such are the common effects of temperance and intemperance, but I 
will descend to particnlar, and show by what means» and by who,n especially 
this iufirmity is derived unto us. 
Ieilii ex senibus nati, far5 sunt firml mperamentl, old men's children are 
seldom of a good tcmperament, as 8coltzius supposeth, consult. 177, an,l 
therefi»re mo3t apt to this disea; and as  Levinus Lemnius farther adds, o1,1 
mes begeç most part wayward, peevish, sad, melancholy sons, and saldom 
merry. He that begets a chihl on a full stomach, will either bave a sick chihl, 
or a crazed son (as h Cardan thinks), contradict, med. lib. 1, contradict. 18, or 
if the parents be sick, or have any great pain ofthe hea,1, or megrim, headach, 
(tlieronimus Volfius ' doth instan in a child of 8ebasçian Castalio's); if a 
drm,ken man get a clfild, it will never likely have a good brain, as Gellius 
argues, lib. 12, cap. 1. Ebrii gigtunt Ebrios» ose druukard begets another, 
saith * Plutarch, sy»tp, lib. 1, quest. 5, whose sentence t Lemnius approvea, 1. 1, 
c. ¢. Alsarius Crutius Gen. de qui sit med. ce,g. 3, fol. 182. l[acrobiu:b 
lib. 1. Avicenna, lib. 3. Feu. 21. Tract 1, cap. 8, and Aristotle himself, 
sect. 2, prov. 4, tbolish, druuken, or hair-brain wo:nen, most part bring tbrth 
children like unto themselves, morosos et languidos, and so likewise he that lies 
with a menstruous woman, lttemperantia vewris, çuam in na«tis prvesertim 
insectatar " Lomnius, qui u.r.ores ineutt, nulî menstrui decursûs r,tti,,ne lt,tbitâ, 
ne observato itte lunlo, avrcecipua causa est, wxia. perniti9sa, concubitum hune 
exitiale»t ide.b, e2 pe.ti.]èrum vocat. Rodorieus a Castro Lusitanus, dete«tautur 
ad .utum otaries nedici, tutu et quartâ lus& coneepti, ioEcelices plerumque et 
.a»tentes, ddiri, stolidi, »wrbosi, i»tpuri, invalidi, tetra lue sordidi, mbtimè 
vitales, omtibus bonis corporls odque,tnimi deo'tituti : ad laborem nati, si seniores, 
.ituit Estathius, ut Hercules, et alii. * Judei maxi»tè insectantur fied,m 
hunc, et intmunda»t apud Christiatos Coneubitum, ut illium abltorreut, et apud 
swos prohibent ; et quod Christiani toties leprosi, antentes, tot morbili, impetigines, 
alphi, psorce, cutis et faciei dcdorationes, tan nulti wrbi epidnici, aeerbi, 
et venewsi sint, in hune im»turoEum concubitum reiciunt, et cruddes in ïw'a 

• Bodln. :le rep. cap. de pcrlodls relp.  Claudiu Abavllle Capuehlon In lais voyage to MaraKnan, 1614» 
cap. 45. Nemo fere grotu sano omues et robusto corpore, vi I],111 Itl'tl'tOS I0, [lJl sine medicma, Idem 
llector Boethius de insuli, Orchad. et Da nianus  Goes le .camlis. • Lib. . c. 3. de occult, nat. uuf. 
OEetricos pK.rumque fllios senen progenerant et tristes, rariun exhilaratos, h Coitus super repletionem 
pe.imus, et fihi qui tttm gignuntur, aut morbosi surir, aut stolitti.  Dlal. proeflx. Leovit,».  L. de 
ed. liberis.  De occult, nat. mit. emulente et stolid.e mulier liberos plerttmque producunt sibl 
similes, m Llb. 2. c. 8. de occult, nt. mi. too¢l Master Schoolmater do sot Knglinh this. * De sa t- 
mal hb. 3. cap. .  Btxxdorhiu ¢. 1. Syutt[. Jud. Ezek. 18. 



%fera. 1. Subs. 6.] Causes of Melanc£ol. 139 

per/wesnt. Damna$ olim dlvba £ex  mor mutat hÇusmodi 
Lev. 18. 0, e$ indè natl, siTd d5roez aut muti, pater eHb«t»idatus , 
n coa$ie$  immudâ roulée. Gregorius Magnus, peted Augustino 
nunqui,l apud » Britannos hjasmodi concilun $orar,:e, sè prohb $ 
is tutu mc'g foemias i co suis nenstruis» &c. I spare to English 
ths whch I bave id. Another cause me give, inordinate diet, as if a mau 
eat garlic, onions, fas overmuch, study o hard, be over-sormwfld, dull, 
heavy, dcjected in mind, perplexed in his thoughts, feaçul, &c., " ther 
chldn (ith «Cardan subtil, lib. 18) will be ranch subjoet to madness and 
melancho]y ; for if the spirits of the bra]n be fusled, or misaffected by such 
means, at such a time, thc]r children will be fusled in the brain : they will be 
dull, heavy, timomu¢ diontented M1 their livs." Some are of ophfion, 
maintain that paradox or pblem, that wise men beget commonly fools; Suidas 
giv instance iu Arisrchus the Grammarian. duos .elutfilos A'tnrchu», 
et At,tclwm, ambos stultos; and vhich Erasmus urgeth in his Moria, 
fools bege wioe men. Card. subt. l. 12, gives this cause, Quonian spirittm 
sapntum oh striure rdvuntur, et in cem ëntur à corde: because 
their natural spirits are resolved by study, and turned into animal ; drawn 
fr«»m the hear, and those othÇr pas  the bmin. Lemnius subscris to that 
of Cardan, and assigns this reason, Quod persolvant d&un languidd, et obsci- 
tantèG unoetus à parentum generosit«tte des'cit : they l,ay their debt ( 
aul omis it)  their wives remissly, by which means their cldren are weak- 
lings, and many tim idiots d tbds. 
me other cauoes are given, which properly perçais, and do proceed from 
the mother: if he be over-dull, heavy, an, peesh, disconnted, and 
melanch,ly, sot only at the rime of conception, but even all çhe while sho 
oerrics the child in ber womb (sait.h Fernelius. path. 1.1, 11) her son will be so 
likewise aflcted, and svorse, as "Lemnius ad,ls, 1. 4, c. 7, if she grieve over 
much, be disquieted, or by any casualty be affrighted and ten'ified by some 
fearful object heaM or en, she endangers ber child, and spoils th¢ mperatum 
of i; for the strange imanation of a woman worEa efltually upon ber infan 
that as aptista PoSa 1)roves, Pl, ysiog, coetis 1. 5. c. 2, she lves a mark 
npon it, which is most especially seen in such as prodigiously long for such and 
such meats, the child will love tho meatg ith Femelius, and be addicted to 
like humom: "tif a great-bellied woman see a hare, her child will often havc 
a hare-lip," as we call i. 6'arcœe de Judid genitnrarun, cap. 33, hath a 
memomble example of ose Thom ickdl, born in the city of Brandeburg, 
1551, "that went rling and staggering ail the days of his lire, as if he 
vould all to the gmund, because his mother being eat with child w a 
drunken man reeling in the stree." Such another I find in MartinWenrichius 
coin.  tu motrum, c. 17, I saw (saith he) at Witnberg, in Germany, 
a citizen that looked like a carca; I asked him the cauoe, he replied, * " tIis 
mother, when she re him in her womb, saw a carcs by chance, and w so 
oe affrighted with it, tha  foetus  assimatus, from a ghastly impm 
ion the chihl w like it." 
So my seveml wa are we plated and punished fr our fathmZs defauls 
much that as Feelius truly ith, ""It  the greatest pax of out felicity 

«Druslm obs. llb. 3. ctp. 20. t lleda. Eccl. hist. lib. 1. c. 27. respon. 10. q l'am sp|ritus cerebrl 
| tutu maie alcia/ttur, raies l)rocre&nt, et quales ftterint affectu, raies filiorurn : ex tristibus triste, cx 
JtcundlaJucundi nacuntur, &c. tFol. 129. mer. ocrateg children were fools. Sabel. * De occuL 
at. mir. Pca mot'bus mulierum, tBaptlsta Porta loco przed. Ex leporum intuitu plerique |nfantca 
edmt bifido superiore iabello, e Qu&ç! moÆ in terrain collapatwusper onmem vitam Inccdebat, cure mater 
gr&vdtt ebrium hominem ic incedentem viderat. * Civem racle cadaverost qui dixit, ,e. • Optimttm 
Ilene nascl, maxima para fzellcitatts nostr.e bene nasci; quamobrem lreclarc humano generi eo,sultma 
viIeretur, si œeoli parente$ bene habiti et tta, libcris operam datent. 



1 10 Cuses of.3[e,L'nchor, y. [ParL ]. ee. . 

te ho wdl born, and if wcre happy for human kind, if only such parents as are 
aound of body and mind should be auffered t.o marry." An husbandman will 
sow none but the best and ehoicest seed upon his land, he will net rear a bull 
or a bome, exeept ha be right shapen in all pars, or permit him te eover 
mare, exeept he be well assured oï his breed ; we make ehoiee of the best 
rares for our sheep, rear the neatcst kine, and keep the best dogs, Quanto 
dili#entius in procreandis li1erfs observandum. .And how careful thea shoul,l 
we be in begetting of out ehildren  In former rimes seine eountries bave beeu 
se ebary in this behalf, se strn, that if a child were erooked or deformed lu 
body or miu, they ruade him away.; se did the Indiens of old by the relatiou 
of Curfius, and many other well-governed eommonwealtha, aeeording o 
discipline of those rimes. I-eretofore in 8eotland, saith "Hec. ]3oethiua, "if 
any were visited with the falling siekness, madness, gout, leprosy, or any smh 
dangerous disease, which was likely te be propagated frein the ither te 
son, be wa instantly gtlded ; a woman kept i¥om ail eompany of men; and if 
by chance haviug seine sueh diseaze, she were found te be with child, sho 
xvith her brood were buried alive :" and this was done for the eommon good, 
les the whole nation should be injtred or corrupted. A severe doom you will 
say, and net o be used amongst Christians, yet more o be looked into 
is. For new by out too much fieility in this kind, in giving way for all te 
marry that will, too much llbery and indulgence in tolerating all s«rs, there 
is a vazt confusion of hereditary diseazes, no çamily seeure, no man a]most fl'eo 
frein seine grievous infirmity or oher, when no choiee is had, bul still 
eldes must marry, as se many 8allions of the race; or if rieh, be they fooIs or 
dizzards, lame or maimed, unable, intemperate, dissolute, exhaust through rio, 
as he said, "jure hoereditario saperejubentur; they must be wise and able by 
inheritance: it cornes fo ps that our generation is corrupt, we bave many 
weak persons, both in body and mlnd, moEny fera] diseases raging amongst 
crazed fitnfilies, ])arenles 2)erem2»tores; our fathers bad» and we are like to ho 

3I ElI9. II. 

Styscr. I.Bad De a cause. ubstance. QualRy of ],reats. 
AccoavI to my proposed method, having opened hitheo these seoenda 
causes, which are inbd with us, I mus now proceed to tbe outward and 
adventitious, which happen uuto us after we are born. And those are eitber 
edent, remote, or inward, anteoedent, aml the nrest : continent OE 
all tbem. Thèse outwaM, remote, preoeden causes are subdivided again into 
necsary and hot nesry. eoessy (because we cannot avoid them, but 
they will a]ter us,  they ara ud, or abuoed) are those six non-nard-a] th, 
so much spoken of amongst physican wch are prcipal OEuses of this 
disemse. For almost in eve constion, wher they shall corne o speak 
ofthe caus, the fat is found, and th mt part objected to the tient; 
cavh circ« re s wn natura: he bath st offended  one of tho 
3lontanus, co. 22, consulted aut a melancholy Jew, gives that nten 
ao did Frisemelioe h the me pce; and in his 2t4 counl, censuring 
elancboly ldier, signs that reoa of his maly, " bh offended  all 
• lnfant infini proeclpltla necati. Bobems lib. 3. c. 3. Apud Lacon ollm. Lius eplst. 
elg, Dionysio Villerlo, ai quoa aliqua memorum parte intil notaven necarl jubent. 
De veterum Soetorum moribua. Morbo comitlali, dementi mani lepr &c. aut aimil lab% 
rolem anamittit, lon inter eo ingenti fae indan% invento ne gena foedt congione 
loedere ex l na ctrave mulier huJmo procu a rom conaoo abln uod 
arm ahqua concep mveniebatur, imul cum foe ondmn eto, defodicbatr v • Ëoio 
8atlç-  Fecit omnia dellcta qt fleri pot c r x non nm'» et  t coe 
oz b os ort sunt obatructione 



Iom. 2. S.bs. 1.] Causes of Menclwly. 141 

those six non-natural thing., ,«hich were the outward causes, from wl:ich 
came those inward obstructions; and so in the rest. 
These six non-natural things are diet, retention and evacuation, which are 
more material than the other because they make new matter, or else are con- 
versant in keeping or expelling of it. The othcr four are air, exercise, sleeœeing, 
xvaking, attd leL'turbatioas of the mind, which only airer the marrer. The first 
of these is diet, which cousists in ment and drink, and causeth melancholy, as 
if offends in substance, or accidents, thag is quantity, qualigy, or the like. And 
vzell if may be called a materi:l cause, since that, as ° Fernelius holds, " if 
bath such a power in begetting of diseuses, and yields the matter altd suste- 
nance of them ; for ncither air, nor pert,rbations, nor any of those other 
evident causes take place, or work this effct, excelt the constitution of body, 
and preparation of h,mours, do concur. That a man may say, this diet is the 
mother of diseases, let the father be what he will, and from this alone, melan- 
choly aa.d frequettt other maladies arise." Many phyaicians, I co,fs, have 
writtcn copious volumes of this one subject, of the nature and qua|ities of all 
m«nner of meats$ as namely, Galen, lsaac the Jw, Halyabbas, Avicenna, 
][csue, also four Arabians, Gordonius, Villanovanus, Vecker, Johannes 
]3aerinus, sitologia de Esculentis et Poculenis, ]Iichael Savanarola, Tract. 2, 
c. 8, Anthony Fumanellus, lvo. de regimine senum, Curio in his Comment on 
Sçhola S',derna, Godeft'idus Stekitts arte zed., Mrsilius cognatus, Ficinus, 
anzovius, Fonseca, Lessius, [agninus, re/jir, sadtatis, Frietagi,s, Hugo 
ridevallius, &a, besides many other in a English, attd almost every peculiar 
physician, discourseth af large of ail peculiar ments in his chai,ter of melan- 
choly: yet because these books are not at hand to every man, I will briefly 
touch what ldnd of ments engcnder this humour, through their several species, 
and which are fo be avoided. How they airer and change the marrer, spirits 
first, and after h,mours, by which we are preserved, and the coustitution of 
our body, Fernelius and others will show you. I hasten to the thing itself: 
and first of such diet as offnds in substance. 
eef.] Beef, a strong and heaty ment (cold in the first degree, dry in the 
second, saith Ga/. l. 3, e. 1., de alim. lac.) is condemned by him and ail suc- 
ceeding authors, to breed gross melancholy blood: good for such as are sound, 
and ofa strong constitution, for labouring men ifordered aright, corned, young, 
of an ox (for ail geldcd ments in every zpecies are held best), or if old, "such 
as have been tired out with labour, are preferred. Aubanus and Sabollicus 
commend Portugal bcef fo bc the most savomT, best attd easiest of digestion ; 
we commend ours: but ail is rejected, and unfit for such as lead a resty lift, 
atty ways incliued fo Melancholy, or dry of coml»lexion: Tales (Galen thinks) 
de facile melanctwllda eeg-itudizibus capiuntur. 
2ork.] Pork, of ail ments, is most nutritive in his own nature, *but alto- 
gerber unfit for such as lire af case, are any ways unsound of body or mind : 
too moist, full of humours, and therefor.z wxia ddicatis, saith Savanarola, ez 
earum usu ut dubitetur art febrls quarSam generetur : naught for queasy 
stomachs, insomuch that fi'equent use of it may breed a quatan ague. 
Goat.] Savanarola discommends goat's flesh, and so doth tBruerinus, l. 13, 
e. 19, calling if a fihhy beast, and rammish : and therefore supposeth it will 
breed tank and filthy substance; yet kid, such as are young and tender, 
Isaac accepts, Bruerinus and Galen,/. 1, e. 1, de almentorum.tàcultatibus, 
//art.] Ilart and red deer shath an evil naine: it yields gross nutrhnent: 

• Path. 1.1. e. 2. Maximam in glgnendis morbiœ viro cbtinet, pabulum, maerlamque morbl suggerenœ : 
am nec ab r nec h peoebatlonib vel aliis edentib  morbi nt, nis consa corporis 
pparatio et humom constutio. Ut sem di, ma ga t omnium morbom mater, etiamsi alius 
et geuir. Ab bac morbi sponte sœepè emant, nl  cogente . d Cogan, EUo Vauha 
•ener. * Fet. * Isaac. tNon laudatur, quia melancholicum prœet en $ o 



a strong and great grained meat, next unto a horse. Whieh although 
countries eat. as Trtars, and they of Ohina; yct Galen condenms, koung 
tbals are  commonly eaten în Spain  red deer, and to furtfish their navies 
about Malaga especially, often used ; but such mts k long baking, or 
seething, to qualit thcm, anti yet ail will hot rve. 
edzon, Fal&w Dr.] AH venisou is melancholy, and begets bad blood ; 
a pleant meat: in great esteem with us (fi*r we bave more parks in Euglan, l 
than there are in ail Europe besides) in our solemn fëasts. 'Tis somewhat 
better huard than otherwioe, and well prepared by eookery ; buç generally 
bd, and seldom to  used. 
lI«re.] Hare, a black meat, melancholy, and hard of digestion, if breeds 
tcubus, oten eaten, and OEuseth fëarfhl drms, so doth ail veun, and is con- 
cnme, l by a jury of physicians. Ialdus aud some othe say, tha hare 
u merry meat, and that if will make one fair,  Martial's Epigranx stifies to 
Gellia; but this is lr ci, because of the good sporç if makes, mem T 
oempay and g.md discoue that is commonly ai the eatg of it, and nog 
otherwisc to be undemtood. 
Con.J Conies are of the nature of hares. Iagninus compaoes them to 
bee pig, and goat, Reg. san. part. 3, c. 17 
ara approved to be good. 
Geaexaily, ail uch meats  are hard of digestion bcee,1 melancholy. 
&re, lib. 7, cap. , œeckons up heads and ft, bowels, braius, eatrails, 
xrro, at, blood, skins, and those inwoed parts,  hrt, hmgs, liver, spleen, 
&a They aro rejected by lsc, loE. 2, port. 3. Magninus, part. 3. cap. 17, 
ruerin, lib. 12, Savanarola, . 32, ract. 2. 
J1k.] Milk, and all that com of milk, 5 butter and chee, cuMs, &c., 
iacrease melancholy (whcy only excepted, which is most wholesome) : 
excep asses" milk. The rest, to such  a sound, is nutritive and good, 
espially fbr young children, but beuse soon tued to COTUption, 
good for those that haro unclcan stomachs, a subject to hdache, or haro 
greea wo«nds, stone, &c. Of all choses, I take that kind whch we OEil 
Bnbury cheese to be the best, ex vaust psim, the older, stronger, and 
haMer, the worst, as Langius discoseth in his Epistle to Mclancthon, cited 
by Iizal,lus, Isc, p. 5, Gal. 3,   b¢ sd, &c. 
owl.] Amongst fowl, "eacocks and pîgeons, ail fnny fowl are forbidden, 
as ducks, geeoe, svans, hrons, cranes, cours, didappem, waterhens, with 
those tea]s, curs, sheldrakes, aad peckld fowls, that corne hither in winter out 
of Sndi, Muscovy, Greenland, Frilaml, which half the 3ar are coved 
all over with saow, and fozen up. Thongh the be/ir in iathers, pl 
in toEte, and bave a good outside, ]ike hypocrit white h plum and , 
their flh is haxl, black, unwholesome, dangc, melancholy mt 
 putr,f«ciu» smac£um, saith Isc, part. 5, de vol., their young ones ara 
more tolerable, but young p}geons he quite disapproves. 
G'].] Rh and Magninus discommend ail fish, and say, they breed 
v£çcosits, smy nutriment, httle and humourous nourishment. vauarol 
a«lds, cold, moist: and pblegmatic, Iac; and thexfbre uawholesom« for ail 
eold and melaucho]y comlflexions : others make a differenoe, rejecting only 
mongst frh-vater fish, eel, tench, lamprey, crawfish (which Btght aplnve » 
cap. 6), and such  are brcd in muddy and stan,liug watm, and bave a t 
of mud,  Francisc Bousuetus œoetica]ly defiaes, L. 
am pisc omne ql! ta lacque uen [ *'Ail fish, that standing pnol and lak freq 
Smper pl succi deterior habent." Do ever  iel.I bad jutee and nout-is ,me»t." 



Lampreys, Yaulus lovius, ¢. 34, de pscibus fluv{«l, hghly n,agni6es, and 
a]th, one Sl]eak aga]nst them, but iept e$ scpo«, some oerupulous 
pelons; but »eels, ¢. 33, "he abhoeth in al places, at ail times, Ml phy- 
sicans dctes thcm, especlly abou he solstice. Gomesh% l 1. a 
de sa, doth immoderately extol oea-fish, wh]ch others as much vilify, and 
above the test, dHed, ,used, indurate fish, as ling, fumados, red-herrings, 
sprats, stock-fish, haberdiae, poor:}ohu, ail shell-fish. « Tire. Brght excepts 
lbter um[ crab. [esarius commends lmou, hich Bruerina coatradicts» 
lib. 22, c. 17. Magninus rej«.cts eongcr, st,urgeon, turbot, mackeml, skate. 
Carp is a fih of which I know hot what to determine. Franciscus Bon- 
suetus accouuts ita muddy fish. Hippolitus Salvianus, in his Book dePciu», 
aturd  proepa,ratlone» which was lwinte«l at Rome iu foli,, 1554, with most 
eleffaut pictures, estcems oerl» no better than a slimy wate meat. Paulua 
Jovius on the other side, disallowing tench, approves of it; so d,th Dupravius 
lu his Bo,ks of Fish-ponds. Fr]etagius  extols it for an excellcnt wholesomo 
meat, and purs if am.ugst the fishez of the best rauk ; and so do most of out 
country gentlemen, that store their ponds almost with no other fish. But this 
eoltrovcrsy la easily decided, iu my judgment, by Bruerinus, l. 22, c. 13. 
'l'he difference riseth ri'oto the site and nature of pools, "sometimes mud(13 
metimes swect; they ara in taste as the place  ri'oto whenoe they be taken. 
in like manuer almost we may conclude of other fl-esh fizh. But e more ia 
l¢oudoletius, Bellonius, Oribasi, lib. 7, cap. 22, lc, L 1 especially ippo- 
litls Salvianus, ho is instar omnium solus, &c. owsoever they may bo 
holesome and approved, much use of them  not good; P. Fomstus, iu h 
mcdicinal observations, « relates, that Carthusian friars, whose livilg is mosg 
l,art fish, are more snbject to melancholy thau auy other order, and that ho 
tbund by experieace, being uometimes their physiciau ordinary at Delft, i 
l,lland. He exemplifics it with an stauce of one Buscodnese, a Cm-thusiau 
of a ddy colour, and well ling, thag by solitary vg, and fi-eating, 
became so misaffecd. 
'bs.] Amongst herbs to be eaten I find gourds, cucumbers, coleworts, 
melons, disallowed, but especlly cabbage. It causeth troublesome dreams, 
and sends up black vapours to the braira Galon, &c. act. l. 3, c. 6, of 1 
herbs condemns cabbage; and Ic, lib. 2, c. 1, Ani» gravitatem ]hcit, i 
brings heaviness to the soul. 8ome are of opiuion that ail raw herbs and 
salads brced mehmcholy blood, except bugloss and lettuce. Crato, consil. 21, 
lib. 2, speaks against ail herbs and worts, except borage, bngloss, fennel» 
parsley, dill, haire, succory, h[agninus, «egim. saa, part. 3, cap. 31. 
Om r siml)lit« , vid i; ail herbs are simply evfl to feed ou 
( he thinks). o did that oeoffing cook   lautus hold : 
h'on ego eoenam eondio nf alil eoqui olen  «Like other eooka I do hot upper d 
Qui nihi eondita praa in palinm prolerun  ]lmt put wlmle meadowa illlO a plater 
 ith herbs 8nd gr go feed thym latter." 
Out ]ta]ians and Spanis do make a who]e dinner of herbs and sa]ads 
(which out said Plautus lls coenas tewr Hrace, cn«s sb sanguine), 
by which OEeans,  he fllows 
=  I]ic hom[n tare brevem v[tam ¢olunt [ «e[r Hves. that ea snch hb$, must nee be 
Qu herb hujusmi in alvum suum congei'm [ And "ris 8 fearful llflng for iv report, 
'ormidol»,um dictu, on u mod That mon h»uld feed on such  kiod of mea 
Qu herb pecudes non ed[» hom edng.   hich ver jm wod fuse [o euL" 

pOrnnllocoetomnlteporemedlcl detestanturangulllasproesertlm c|ria solstlt|nm. Damaym 
is tutu as. q Cap. 6. In his Tract of Melancholy. r Opimè nutrit omnium judic itcr prmoe 
ooe pisces stu pstanti, • Kot t dubium quin, pro vorum itu  natur ma e,,toru 
so :ntur diflrti, alibi avior bi luttior, t Obrvt. 16. hb. 10. u l»scudol 
. . cen.  aut ibioE 



1 ! C«uses of Mdnchoy. [Prt. 1. Sec. 2. 

ïhey are wlndy, and net fit therefore te be eaten of ail me raw, though 
qualified with oil, but in broths, or otherwize. Sec more of these in every 
• husb.ndman and herbalist. 
loots.] Roots, Ftsi quorundam gentlum ope. snt, saith Bruerinus, the 
wealth of seine countries, aad sole food, are windy aud bad, or troub]esonm 
te the head: a onions, grlie, seallions, ttrnips, earrots, roEdL«hes, parsnips : 
Crato, lib. . cent. 11, disallows ail roots, though °seine approve of par8nips 
and potatoes.  Maguiuus i of CYato's opinion, "° They trouble the mind, 
sending gross fumes te the brain, make men mad, espeeially garlie, onions, 
if a man liberally ïeed on them a year together." Guianerius, tract. 15, cap. 2, 
¢omplains of ail manner of roots, and se doth Bruerinus, even parnips 
themselves, which are the best, Lib. 9. cap. 14. 
Fruits.] Pastlnaearn usus succos gignit mprobos. Crato, censé. 9,1, 
lib. 1, utterly ïorbids ail manner of fruits, as pears, apples, phtms, cherries, 
srawberries, nuts, medlar, serves, &e. S«ng»d»te» iu.ficiunt, sith Villano- 
vanus, they infect the blood, and putrefy it, lIagninus holds, and must nol 
therefore be taken viâ cibl, aut çluantitat« ma9»a , net te make a meal of, or in 
any great quantity, d Cardnn makes that a cause of their eontinual sickness 
af Fessa in Aïrie, "beeause they lire se mueh on fruits, eating them thrico 
a day." Laurentius approves of many frui«s, in his Tract of ]Iclancholy, which 
others disallov, and amongst the test apl,les , which seine likeœeise commend, 
weetings, pairmains, pippias, as good against melancholy; but te him that in 
any way inclined te, or touched with this malady, °Nicholas Piso in 
letics, forbids ail fruits, as windy, or te be sparingly eaten at leasç, and nog raw. Amongst other fruits, Bruerinus, out of G.len, excepts grapes and figs, 
but I find them likewise rejeeted. 
P'«se.] Ail puise are naught, bsans, peas, vetches, &e., they fill the bin 
(saith Isae) with gross fumes, breed black thick blood, and OEuse trouble- 
seine dreams. /knd therefore, that which Pyçhagoras said te his scholars of 
old, may be for ever applied te melncholy men, Af«bis abstiete, et no peas, 
ner beans; yet te such as will needs eat hem, I would give this counsêl, te 
]repare them aecording te those rules that Arnoldus Villanovauus, and Frie- 
tgius prescribe, for eating, and dressing, fruit, herbs, roots, puise, &e. 
bo/ces.] Spices cause hot and head melncholy, an.| are for that euse for- 
bidden by out physicians te such men s are inclined te this malady, as 
pepper, ginger, cinnzmon, eloves, mate, dates, &a, honey and sugar, s 8orne 
except honey; te those that are cold, i may be tolerable, but  Dulcia se n 
bilera vertunt (sweets turn into bile), thoy are obstructive. Crato thereIoro 
ïorbids ail spice, in a consultation of lais, for a melancholy sehoolmaster, Onmia 
aromati¢«, et çiCçlgid sangginem adgrit: se doth Fernelius, cons//. 45. 
Guianerius, trcct. 15, cap. 2./ereurialis cons. 159. Te these I may add ail 
sharp and sour things, luscious, and over-sweet, or fat, as oil, vinegar, verjuice, 
rnustard, sait; as sweet things are obstruteive, se these are corrosive. Gomesius, 
in hiz books, de sale, l. 1, c. 21, highly c-mmends sait; o doth Codroncbus in 
his tract, de sale Abs9,tthii, Lemn. L 3, c. 9. de occult. zat. mit. yet common 
experienee finds salt, and slç-msats, t.o be great procurers of this diseaze. 
And for that cause belike those Egyptian priests abstained frein salt, even se 
]nuch, as in thch" bread, uS sine 19erturbatione anim esse$» saitla mine author» 
that their oul might be free lk'om lrurbtion, 

• Quare rectius valetudlnl suoe quisque consulet, qui laps prlorum lareutum memor, 
omiserit vel parce deguntrit. Kerleius cap. 4. de veto usa med. • In Mizaldo de Hotte P. Cresceut. 
. • .. _ .uew 0qm nxagnm. quo s qms ex ris per annum continuè Comedat, in isaniam 
ere. ¢a..n. mpobi succa $tmto cap. 12.  De reram varietst, la Fess& plerumque morbosi quud 
frneh -ome«anlrter In 41 *Cap. de M  ¢Lib 11 
$pudçcoltlum con$iL 16. " " " " 



em. 2. Suba l.J Cause of Mdandwly. 145 

Pr¢ad.] Bread that |s ruade of baser grain, s peas, leans, oats, -e, or 
'over-hard baked, crusty, and black,  offert spoken agains,  eausing 
melancholy juioe and wind. Job. Mayor, in the firs book of hh Hisry of 
Bcotland, conteuds much for the whoomens of oan bread : i w objecd 
fo him then living sg Paris in Franoe, thag h countrymen fed on oats, and 
!, grin, as  disco; bu ho doth ingenuouy confe, Seotlaud, 
and  third par of England, did mosg par u that kind of brmd, that ig waa 
 wholesome as auy grain, and yielded  good noishmeng. And yeg Vecker 
o,t of Galen calls i hoe-meat, and .titrer for jumen than men go feed o 
But read Galen himselç lib. 1. Da b boni  mali s, more rgely dis- 
coursing of coin and brea& 
Wi.] All black wines, over-hot, compound, strong thick drin, as 
cadine, h[almy, Alicang, Rumney, BrownboErd, h[etheg[en, and the like, 
of which they have thirty veml kinds in ZIuovy, a such ruade drks a 
hurçful in this cse, fo such  are hot, or of a nguine choledc complexion, 
young, or inclined to head-melancholy. For many times the drinng of wine 
alone caeth it. Arculanus, c. 16. i 9. RhoEs, pu in wine for a eat 
cau, espoeially if it be immoderately used. Ganerius, tract. 15. c. 2. lls 
a sto oftwo Dutchmen, to whom he gave enteainment in his hoe," that in 
one month's spaoe were both melancholy by drinking ofwine, one did nough 
but sing, the other sigh. Galen, l. de caus mb. c. 3. hlatthiolus on Di 
scorides, and above al[ other And Bachius, l. 3. 18, 19, 20, hure reckoued 
upon those conveenccs thaç corne by wine: yet notwithstandg all thi¢ 
fo such as are cold, or sluggish melancholy, a cup of wine  goed physic, and 
so doth Ieoeurial anç, consil. 25, in tha ce, if the temperature be co]d, 
 most melancholy men it. is, wine h much oemmended, ifit  modemtely used. 
Cer, Pry.] Cider and per are both cold and ndy drinks, and 
that uoe to be neglected, and  are all those hot spiced strong drinks. 
.] Br if if be over-new or over-stale, over-strong, or hot sodden, 
smell of the sk, shao, or sour,  most wholesome, frets, and galls, &c. 
emcus Ayrerus, in a  consultation of h,tbr one tt laed of hypochon- 
d rcal melancholy diommends boer. So doth  Cmto  that exoellent unl 
of his, Zib. 2. csg. 21.  too windy, buse of the hop. But he means 
bee that thick blk Bohemian beer d  some other s of °rmy 
« nil [i Illa [ *«othlng ¢ome la ao thic 
Dura bibitur, nil clari  dura mintar, unde [ othing go ont ao tli 
onstat, u6d mt c  ore t." It must needs foilow tlen 
As that voL1 pet ffed, OElling it Styg monstm conforTal[i, a mon- 
strous drink, like the river Styx. But let them y  they t, to such 
are cusmed unto it, «'t a most wholesome (so «olydor Vir OEeth 
and a plant dn" if is more subtile and better, for the hop that rarefi 
if, bath an especiul tue against melancholy,  out herboests oe, 
sis approv, L. 2. s. 2. ii, cap. 11. and many cthem. 
Was.] Sanding waters, thick and illoloed ; such  corne forth 
ls, sud mosts, where hemp bath boen stced, or slimy fish lire, a m 
unwholesome, putrefied, and full of mies, 'rs, slimy, muddy, mmlea 
copt, impure, y reon of the n's hcat, and still-stang; they 
foui distemperatures in the body anti rein4 o£ man, are nfit to lce drink 
of, to dre meat with, or to be "ed about men inwardly or outwardly. They 
e good for my domtic ,  h hor water csttl ., or  rime 

 Ne eome erustam, eholer&m qui« gllt am. SeoL SeL  Vin tbtdm. ZEx nl 
atent bibitione, duo Alema  o mense melaucholi fac t. m flil4eim, $picel. fol 27:. 
 Cr generat angnem.  About DanoEic  Spc Hambgh, lpsle. P   enric  briu- 
ce.  Po/ tare lu tutu Jucuad 1.1. rGalc t. L de . tuen4. Cvedoe sm aq 

r. 



|46 Cuses of 3.fetneho.y. [Part. 1. Sec. 

er necesslty, but net otherwise. Seine are of opinl,n, that such ftt standing 
waters make the best beer, and that seething doth defeeate il, as °Cardan 
holds, L/b. 13. subtil. "Il mends the substance, and snvour of il," but il i 
a pardox. Such beer may be stronger, but net se wholesome as the other, 
as Jobertus trldyjustifieth ou ofGalen, Paradox, dee. 1. Parndox .'9. that th 
seething of sueh impure waters doth net purge or purify them, Pliny, lib. 31. 
c. 3. is of the same tenet, and P. Creseentius, agricult, lib. 1. et llb. 4. c. 1 l. et 
c. 45. Pnmphilius I[erilachus, L 4. e/ na. aquarum, such waters nre nnught, 
net te be used, and by the testimony of *Galen, "breed agues, dropsies, 1,1eu- 
risies, splenetie and melancholy p.«sions, hurt the eyes, cause a bad tempe- 
rature, and ill disposition of thc whole body, with bad colour." This Jobertus 
stiffiy maintains, Paradox, lib. l. part. 5. hat il causeth blear eyes, bad colour, 
and many Ioathsome diseases te such as use il: thi. which they sny, stand 
with good reason ; for as geognq»hers relate, the water of Astracan breeds 
worms in such as drink il. ÆAxiu., or as new calle,l Verduri, the faires¢ river 
in hlacedonia, makes all eat.tle black that tte of il. Aleacman new Peleca 
another stream in Thessaly, turns cattle most part white, si potul du<as. 
L. Aubanu. Rohema. refers that struma or pokêofthe Bavarians and 8tyxîms 
te the nature of their waters, as  Munster doth that of the Valesians in th« 
A!ps, and «Bodine supposeth the stuttering of seine families in Aquitania, 
about Labden, te proeeed frein the saine cause, "and that the filth is derived 
frein the water o their bodies." Se that thcy tha¢ use fiithy, standing, ill- 
eoloured, thick, muddy water, must neêds bave muddy, ill-coloured, impure, 
and infirm bodie. And because the body works upon the mind, they shall 
have grosser uuderstandin, duii, foggy, melancholy slirits, and be really 
mbject te ail manner of infirmitie.. 
Te these noxious simples, we may re,luce a.n infiMte numbcr of cornpound, 
artificial, ruade dishes, of which our cooks afford us a great variety, as tailors 
de tashion. in out apparel. Such are puddings stuffed with blood, or other- 
wise composed ; baked meats, soused indurate meats, fried and broiled butterM 
meats; eondite, powdered, and over-dried, *ail cakes, simnêls, buns, cracknel. 
ruade with butter, sI, ice, &c., frittera, pancakes, Nies, sausages, and those 
several sauces, sharp, or over-sweet, of which scientia popi«oE, as Seneca calls 
il, hath served those aApician tricks, and perfumed dishes, which Adrian tho 
sixth Pope se much admired in the accomltS of his predecessor £eo dedmu; 
md which prodigiou. rio¢ and prodigality have invented in this age. These de 
generally engend«,r gross humours, fill the stomach with crudities, and all those 
inward parts with obstructions. Iontanus, consil. 22, gives instance, in . 
melancholy Jew, that by eatmg such tart sauces, ruade dishes, and sali meatg 
with which he wa. overmuch delighted, became melancholy, and waz evil 
affected. Such examples are familiar and common. 

Strszcr. II.--uantl/y of 1)iel a Cause. 
TR is net m ranch harm prooeeding from the subsnoe itself of ment, 
and quality of il, in fll-dreing and preparing,  there is frein the qunntity 
disorder of lime and place, unseonble use of i, "intemperance, overmuc 
or overligtle takiug of iV. A true saying iV is, l'lur crŒEpu fuàm #ius, 
OEhis gluttony kills more tn the sword, this omMvant. et lioEa gul 
• Innoxlum reddit et ene oleutem. « Contendit hoec itla coctloe non emenda, u LIb. de 
aquœe, hydropem auget, fcbres putrid spleuem, tme nucet Oculi malum habitum corporis et colorera. 
a blag. Nitem inducit si pecora birint.  Aqu ex nivibus eoace strumos faciunt, sCosmog. 
cap, 36. Metbod. htst. cap. 5. atbutiunt Labdont in Aqultania oh aqu» arque bi mbi ab 
¢orpo drantur.  Elulia ex sanguine et suffoto parts. Hildeaheim. • Cupedia veto, placen 
be]l eommentaqne alla euriosa plstom et quom, gttui rvlentlum conciliant morhos tutu coo 
tutu anime in,habiles. Philo Judus lib. de vlctlmls. P. Jov. vita eJus. 
bir,ls fed with fenn,-I and star.  a Pope's concubine used in Aviron, Stephan. ¢ Animoe nego 
 faceit» et e tempto Dii md sb Ia¢it. Pefi 10.  



]Iem. 2. ubs. 2.] 1), « Cus«. 147 

tbis all devourlng and malrderlng gut. And tlmt of tIliny is truer, "Simple 
diet £s the best; heaFing up oï severl ments is peieious, and sauoes worse; 
nmny dish bfing many diseas." Avicen cries out, " That nothing is 
woe than to feed on many dishes, or to prt the time of ments longer than 
ordinry; from theuce poeed out infirmities, and 'ris the fountaiu of ail 
diaoes, which ari out of the pugnancy of oss humours." Thence, saitlt 
Feelius, corne erudit, ies, wind, oppilations, eacochymi, plethor, eehexia, 
bmdiopepsi, «Hbe ubitoe , a ina« secus, sudden death, 
• e., nd wha no. 
As  lamp is choked wih z multitude of oil, or a lift, le tire with overmuch 
wood quine exinished, so  the nural hea wih immoderate eating, 
gled in the body. Pitio»a sentina «st ab«bn iat**rabile: one ith, 
n intiahle pauneh is  perniciou sink, ad he fotmia ofll dis, both 
of body and mind. tMereurlis will bave i a peculiar cause of this privae 
clisse; 8oleaander, eonsil. 5. sect. 8, illusgat his of Iercurialis, with 
example of one so melaneholy, ab intemtiv cmessatlonoE, uneonablo 
lasing. *Credo confis as much, in h ofen eited Counsel, 1, lib. . 
putting superfluous eatiug for a main eaux. B(I whaç need T seek farther 
for proo£«? [Ie Hippocrates himself, Lib. 2, Aphor. 10, " Impure bodies 
the more they are nourished, the more they are hu, for the noishment la 
putrefied with vicious humours." 
And yet for ail this barre, which apparenfly follovs suffeiting and drunken- 
ness, see how we luxuriŒte and rage in this kind; rd wha Johannes Stuckiua 
bath vritn laly of this subject, in his eat volume De A ntiquorum Conv& 
vlls, and of our pscnt age; Quà» portentosæ coenœe, prodigious suppem, 
 Qui dura invin ad coenam èræn ad sepulchrum, wha Fagos, Epicures, 
Apetios, IIeliogables, our times afford? Lucullus' ghost walka still, and every 
man desir o sup in Apollo ; sop's eostly dish is ordinarily served up. 
"][ag illajunt, quœe lluris emuntur. The deamst cates are best, and 'tis 
anordinarything to bestow tventy or thirty pontais upon a dish, somethound 
crowna upoa a dinner : Mully-Hamet., king of Fez and hlorocco, snt thme 
pounds on the sŒu of a capon : it is nothing in out rimes, we scorn ail that la 
cheap. " Ve loathe the very «light (some of us,  Senec notes) because iç 
com fi'ee, and we are oended with the snn'a heat, and the cool blasts, 
becau we buy them hot." This r we bmathe is so common, we care hot 
for if; nothing pleeth bu ha is dent. And if we be witty in auything, 
if is ad gulam: If we study at ail, it is erudito lue, to ple the palate, and 
to satist the gui. "& cook of old w a be knave (as 'Livy complains), 
but now a eat man in request; cookery is become an art,  noble science: 
coo re gentlemen:" en Ds: They wr "their brains in their 
llies, nd the,r guts in their heads,"  *Agripp taxed me prasites of 
rime, shing on their own destruction, as if a man should n upon the point 
of a sword, u¢ç, dura vumpantur comedun, "They eat till they burst :" 
day, all ght, let the physician say what he will, imminent danger, m,d ferai 
diseea at no,v ready to seize upon them, that will et till they vomir, Edun 
u von$, vomun ut en$ saith Senecj which Dion retes of Vitefiius, o 

«LII. II. c. 5. tlomlnl e|blls nfillsslmu$ slrnp/ex, aeatlo ¢ibnm pefer et ¢ondlmenta peiclos 
nuIt,s morbos multa fercula ferunt, s 3t. Dcc. 2. c. ihil deterius qtmm si tempus justo longins 
comcdendo protrahatur, et varia ciboire gera conjungantur : inde morborum scturlo, quoe ex reptg- 
nanti humorm m'itur.  Path. 1. 1. c. l&. * Juv. t. 5. t ila repletio cirum facit mclancho- 
licum.  Comtio attpeua bl, et potds quntit ntmi  imputa corpo quanto mta ntri 
tanto maI$ lædis: putrefacit enim alimcntum vitiosus humor, mVid. Goclen. de portentosis coeni&c. 
Puteanl Coin. v Amb. lib. de Jeju. cap. 14. "They who Invite us to our supper, on]y conduct us to out 
tomb.  *Jven. «The hght-pced dish afford the eatt atiflcatiou."  Gulccardin, 
• N$. qoest. 4. ca. ult. ftidio t lumen 'atuitum, dol quod sole, quod spiritum emere non possimu 
quod hic aër non empt ex facili, c. adeo nihil placeU nisi quod carum t. Ingeniosl  Gulam, 
• Olim vile manc]pium, hune 



148 

transtu«;borum nutrlrjudlcatus: Y[is meat did pass through and away, or till 
they burst again. "Strage anirantium ventre»t oa, and rake over ail the 
world, m se many slaves, belly-gods, and land-serpents, Et tot b 
im angt, the who world canner tisfy thcir appetite. "Se land, rivera, 
lakes, &c., may net give contenç te their raging gu." Te make up the me, 
wt immodera drg in every placei 5 potum pota traiter anus, 
how they flock te the tavern: as if they werefrug moee nati, bomt te 
no other end but te eat and drink, like Offelli Bibulus, that amous Roman 
parasite, Qui dura vint, aut bibi aut minxit ;  se many casks te hold wine, 
yea wo than a oasL that mars ne, d itffis net maed by if, yct these 
are brave men, Silenus Ebrius wm no braver.  q fnt v, 
nt: 'ris new the fhion of our tim, an boueur: un¢ v5  ta  
çoEiit ( Chsost. serra. 30, in v. Ephes. comments) Ut mi 
ignavi co Imbtur, l i.nebria; 'gis new corne te that ps that he is no 
gentlemau, a very milk-sop, a clown of no bringing up, that will net drink ; fig 
ibr no company; ho is your only gallant that ldaYa it off finit, no dispamge- 
ent new te sgr  the stoeets, roel, rave, &c., but much te his çame and 
reno; m in like  Epidicus told Thesprio h fellow-servant, in the Poet. 
dil ffin impSum, one urged, the other tplic A t jam aliire 
er illi la  hon, 'gis new no fault, there be se many brave examples 
te ar one ont; 'gis a credit te bave a strong brain, and cmTy hia liquor well 
the sole contention who tan drink most, and fox his fellow the soont. 'Tis 
the »ummum bum of out tmdesmen, their fecity, lire, and seul, Tanta 
cedine Ç«tant, ith Pliny, lib. 14. cap. 12. ut magna pars non aliud vit 
Troemium intdligat, their chief comfort, te bo mety together in au aleho 
er tavem,  our modern uoeot de in their mede-inns, and Tm-ks in their 
coffee-homes whioh much rmble our hver; they will labour hard aB day, 
long te be dnk at night, d snd toi anni bor,  St. Ambro adds, 
in a tippling feg; couvert day ¢o nighg,  Seueca tax seine in his gim, 
ervertu oc t et li when we re» they commonly go te bed» lo 
ot an¢ipodes» 
lllia sera rubeaa acadit lumina vper." 
Se did etronius in Tacitu¢ Heliogabal in Lampridiu 
 «. Nettes vlgilabat ad lum  -- « He drank the night away 
an em roture aterbat." Ttfi rng dawa» thea anored out all ¢he day2 
SnditheSybari neversawtho sun ri or set se much m onoe in twenty 
yrs. Veroes, ast whom Tully se much inveighs, in winter he never 
ra ct v tra ctum, never almos out of bed, »sti weneg ana 
drkiug; se did ho spend h rime, d se de myriads in our dvs. OEhey 
bave gymna boEum» chools and rendozvous; theoe oentaurs and lapithoe 
toss po and bowh  se many balls; invent new tricks,  usages, anehovie 
tooeo, cavie, pickled otem, heings, fumo, &c.: innumemblo lt 
meats te incre their appetito, and study how te hu themoelv by taking 
antidot "to OEr their drink tho better; «and when nought e serves, 
they wifi go forth, or be ¢onveyed out, te empty their gorge, that they y 
retttrn te dHk afr" They make laws, i«s &ges, copra bibaMifc, 
and "brag of if when they bave donc, crowning that man that is soont ne, 
m thoir drunken predssom vo done,h/ego voI Ps. Cuv 
coronâ Plum eum tuu. d when they are dead, fil bave 
a eau of wino with aron's old woman te  ongravon on the tome. Se 
v e. • auelpia  dapoe uoa poro ad nmpta timant. eea eooL a4 elvldlum. 
• $oevientla tra aatro non pount fluvll et maria. ne $ylVlm de mir. enrlal, • Plauta 
"l[or. lib. 1. Sat. 8.  Diei bretm oenvil uoetis longitudo stupris eontebatur, • Et quo 
eapianç iiments excotant, • For poat ut  onvlvium reportent, reple rit exhaurlan 
et exhal ut bibt. bt'. • geaa va velut  osatioa¢m &c. « ]aut s Lib. 



they triumph in villainy, and jnstify their wickedness; wlth «belis» tht 
rench LucRn» dnkenue is better for the body thRn physc» bsu thero 
more old drunkards than old phyci. Many such ffothy srments 
they hve»  invtng nd encouragg othe te de s they de, sd love them 
drly for it (no glue le te that oï good fcllows]Jp). Se dd Alcibides in 
Groece; Nero, Donosus, Heliogbalus in ome, or egabal rather, a he 
w styled of old (as * ]atius proves out of some old oeins). So do mny 
great men still, as  Heresbachitm observea Whcn a prco drin tiH  
eyes stare, like Bitias in the Poet, 

lt (] Ille imptger battU 

i « a thlrs[y mou|; 
He took challenge and embraced the l9wl : 
With plcas ,re mwill'd the gotd, nor ceased to 
Till he the bottera of the bl'immer sa.w." 

aud cornes off cle«rly, souud trumpets, file and drums, the spectators will 
applaud him, « the m b[shop himself (if he belie them net) with his chaplain, 
wil stand by and de  much," 0 dignum Tie £atum, 'twas donc like a 
prince. " Out Dutchmen invi ail come with a pail and a dish," Velu$ 
indibut ngras obbas exhauru,  in mgnstros poculis, ips 
zotr epotant, « making barrels of their belliea" Incredibi dtzt,  
= one of their o countrymen complains: « Qntum llç imtisslma 
ge capot, &e. "How they love a man that will be drunk, crown him and 
honour him for if,"haro him that wl net pledge him» sb m, kill him; a 
most intolerablc offence, and net te be foliven. ,, r He is a mortal enetny 
that will net driak with him,"  Iunster relates of the Saxons. Se in Pland 
ho is the best scrvitor, and the honestest fellow, saith Alexander Gaguinu 
"«that drinketh most healths te the hoaour ofhis mter, ho shall be rewarded 
 a good servant, and hold tho bravt fdlow that cmwi his liquor best," 
whcn a brewer's herse will bear much more th any sturdy drinkr, yet for 
his noble exploits in this kind, he shall be accounted a most valnt mn, fr 
" Tare iat epM «tis vit s« petit ac 6t bel,  much valeur is  be 
round in le,ring as in fightiag, and me of out city captains, and carpet 
knigh wilI make this good, and prove if. Thus they many rimes wiully 
pervert the good temperatur of their bodies, ste thdr wits, ztmngle natm'e, 
and degencrate into beasts. 
Seine again are in the other extoeme, and draw th mischief on their hea,ls 
by too ceremonious and strict diet, being over-precise, cockney-le, and curions 
in their observation of mts, rimes, as that «]Iedidna stata prcribe just se 
many ounces at dinner, which sus enjoins, se much at supper, net a littl 
more, ner a little loes, of such meat, and at such home, a diet-dk in the 
morning, cock-broth, China-broth, at dinner» plum-bth, a chicken, a mbbit, 
rib of a rack of mutin, wing of a capon, the merry-thought ofa hen, &c. ; te 
soundcr bodies this is too nice and most absnrd. Others offend  ovetmuch 
fting: pining aday saith "Guiancrius, and waking aghts, as my Moors 
and Turks in the our times de. "Anchori monks, and the test ofthat 
superstitious rk ( the saine Guianerins witnesset that he bath offert 
te have l,pened in his time) through immoderate fting, bave be¢n fi- 
quently mari." Of such mea behk Hippocrates aa, 1 Aphor. 5, when as 

• Gratlam conclllan poando.  otls ad C.ssres. • Lib. de edueandis prtncipum llbes. 
I Virg. . 1. m Idem strenui [aria t piscopi Scellan, m ingentem pateram exhaurit princeps. 
• Bobemus in Saonia. Adeo imntcrate et Immeste ab ipsis bibitur, ut in eompotatibus suis non 
cy,this lm et catt/hari/ t ]nfundege ssint, sed impletum mulcffale apponanket cutellg inject 
horntur quemlibet  libltm potare, • Dtctu incredibil quantum hujusce llquoHs immodta gens 
capia pi potantem amiciœeimum haben et oconanç tnimi¢iimum ê contra qui non x'ul et edo 
et ftibus epiant.  Qui potare recusa k hostls habet, et e nonnnquam r eapiatoe. ¢ Qui 
meli blbit pro lnte domini meHor habettw minuter, • Grœee. Poeta apud toboeum, ser. 18. J Q 
de o ejunn et ocge igitat, facile caOunt in e]acholim; oet qui tur odum excedunt, c. 5. 
act. 15. c. 2. nga f'nls tvlerntia, ut iis pe açcit q tunto c gçrvore D ç cu»g  
Jejlum» quod miaci eciantur» i»e vi a. 



150 Causes o.f MdoEncho?y. [Part. 1.8ce. . 

]e saith, " They more offend in o cparing dieU, and are worse damnifie,l» 
than they that feed liberally, and e rcdy to aurfit. 
o le   general, which admits hot me exception ; fo this, therefore, 
whieh hath been hitherto said (for I shall oflaerwioe put most men out of 
commons), and tho/e inoenvenieneezwhich proeeed ri-oto the substance of meat 
 intemperate or unseanable use of them, eustom aomcwhat detrts and 
qualifies, aeeordi»g to that of Hippoerates 2, AI,hofism. 50, " 
e have been long aeeustomed to, though they be evil in their own natte 
yet they are lezs oflçnsive." 0thevi it migh wdl be objeeted that it were 
a mere " tyranny to live after those strict rulcs of physie; $r ctom r doth 
alt»r nature itselt, and fo such  are used to them it makes bad mcats whole- 
aome, and unseamble times to cause: no disorder. Cider and perry are 
windy drhks, so are all fruits windy in themselves, cold most part, yet 
some shires of "England, Normandy in France, GuilmsCOa in SI»Mn , 'tis their 
common drink, and they are no whit offended wîth if. In Spain, Xtaly, and 
Africa, they lire most on roots, raw herbs, OEmel's "k, and if agrecs well 
with them : which to a stranger wfil OEuse much grievance. In 
cfiti vescuntttr, as Humphrey Llwyd eonfesth, a Cambro-Briton himselt; 
his elent epistle to Abraham Ortelius, they lire most on vhi meatsî 
tIoHand on fih, roots,  butter; and so af thia dv in Grâce,  * Bellonius 
observes, they had much rather feed on fish than flesh. With us, J[axi»m ars 
vt in carte conscrit, we feed on flesh most part, saith 
all nothern oeuntries do; and if wouhl be eeryofibnsiee fo us to lire after their 
diet, or they to lire after ours. We drink beer, they wine 
butter; we in the north are « eat eatcrs; they mozt Sl»arg in those botter 
oeuntries; and yet they mad we following our o eustoms are well pled. 
An EthioI,ian of old eing an European eat brad, wondered, qmodo 
c.s vceut viverimus, how we could eat such kind of ments:  much 
differed his counttTmen from out in diet, that  mine fauthor infe, 
illo»n zqctum al)ud ws œe»nuri vellet; if any man shoul I so feed with us, 
would be ail one to nourish, as Cicuta, Aconitum, or Hellebore itseoE Af this 
day in Chin the common people lire in a manner altogether on roots ami 
herbs, and fo the wealthiest, h«»r, s, mule, dogs, cat-fiesh,   delightme 
. the test, so ¢hlat. Riccitm the jesuit relat, vho lived mat,y years amongst 
them. The Tartars  raw meat, anti most cotnmonly t home-tic, h, drhk mdk 
and blood, as the Nomades of old. £t lac concretttm cure sangubpotat 
ŒEhey scoff af our Europeans for ting bread, vhich they ca tups of wecds, 
and horse meat, uot fit r men ; and yet Scaliger accounts them a sound and 
• vitty nation, living a hundred yem; even in the eivilest eount of them 
th%v do thus, as Benedict the jesuit observed in h ttvels, fmm the 
fors Court by land to ekin, which Riccius contends to be the sanm 
with Cambula i Cataia. In Scandia their bread is usually dried fish, and so 
evise  the hetland isles; a, thch" other tXre»  h Iceland, ith 
t In tenul Metn oe delinqunnKex qno fit ni mo affielanr detrimt% morqne 
lenio vctu.  Quoe Iongo rempote consueta sauBettamni detcrior minus in saetis molegre lent. 
• Qui mieè vlt, miserè vivit, r Consuctudo altera natur • tlerefordshir Gloueesterahir Wor¢er- 
ghire, a Leo Af. i. 1. tolo eamelornm ite contenti, nil proetea deliciatm 
l,utyrolutum bibunt (naeo referens) Bbique butyrum lnt omnia fereula et llarla IBm obtinet. 
Bteph. fa Herod. * Delecnt voeci piibus mages qUam eai, • b. 1. hier. Ang. t P. Joi 
dept. Btonum. They sit, ¢at attd drinR aH day at inn in icelan blcovy, and the north 
para.  $uid . Her. nihilo cure  melius quam  qui Cic»tam, Aeonilum, 
in lib. !. c. 3. hortensi herbarum et oium, al,ud inm qm apud uoa longe ft'equentlor ts, eom- 
plur quippe de vmo re null atià re vel tenuitati vel religion eausk 
AseiluN &c. œequë fere vuntur ac pab omni blat. Rilus, lib. b. cap. 12. « Tartari roulis, equia 



• Dithnmrus 131eskenius, butter, cheese, and fish ; their drlnk water, thcir 
lodging on the ground. Iii Ameriea in many places the bread is roets, their 
eat ilmitos, pinas, potatoes, &c., and sueh fruits. OEhe be of them too that 
çamiliafly drink  lt seR-water ail their liv, et  rw mt,-% aud 
with deght. With some, fish, serpets, spidet ; and in divc plae they 
 eat man's flesh, raw and roted, even the Einperor  Montczuma himself. 
some eoasts, agin, one tree yiclds them coeoa-nuts, meat and driuk, tire. 
fuel, apparel ; with his leave% oii, vlnegar, cover f,r hous, &c., and yet thes 
men going naked, feeding coarse, lire mmonly a htmdred years, are sehlom 
or never sick ; ail which diet dur 1,hysicians ibrbid. In Westphal they 
feed most part on tt ments and wourts, knuckle deep, and eall it  
lis : lu the loweount.fies with roots, in Italy ti'og d snaih are used. 
Turks, ith usbequius, delight moet in fried meats. In Mtlovy, gadie 
and onions are ordiaa T ment and uee, which would be penfieious to such as 
are unaceusomed to them, delightsome to othe ; and ail is  eau flaey 
bave beeu bronght up unto it. l[usbaudmen, and such  labour, eau t fat 
baeon, sait gross ment, hard cheese, &e. (0 dura #sorm ilbt), crse 
bread at ail timo, go to bed and laur upon a full smach, which fo 
idle persons would be prent death, and is against the rul ofphysic, so that 
custom is all in ail. dur t«avelle fiud this by eommon expe6euce when they 
ce»me in tr eouutries, and use their ct, they are zuddcly ofiended, » as dur 
ollaude and Englishmen when they touch upon the eo ofAfriea, those 
]milan capes and islands, are oemmoly molested with ezlentures, fluxes, and 
much distempered by reason of their fruits. *ereffrina, a suave, soleng 
• es pe,'tur6«ts .in.,i# «¢rre, strange ments, though plent, 
cau notable nltcrationsand dismpers. On the other side, use or eustom 
ndtigate or makes ail good agaiu. Mithridates by otten u, which Pliny 
wonde at., w able to dfiuk poisou ; and  maid,  Curti records, sent to 
Alexander ti'om K. Porus, w brought up with poison from her iufancy. The 
ïm'ks, snith ellouius, lib. 3, e. 15, eat opium tmiliarly, a drachm at once, 
which we dare hot te in grains. » Garcius ab HoxoEo writes of one whom 
ho saw at Goa in the East Indies, that took ten drachms of opium  t.hree 
days ; aud yet c«lto &qaeur, spake understandgly, so much oeu custom 
do. « Theophmstus speaks ofashcpherd that could eat heHebore in substance. 
nd thelbre Cardan concludes out ofGalen, Couudiaem tcunœ]èren- 
d«m, ni vddè ma£m. Cusm is howsoever to be kept, exoept it be ex- 
tremely bad : he adseth ail men to keep their t,ld customs, aud that by the 
authority of * Hippocrates hmoel£ Dandum allquid tempo, œetati, 
cotbd, and thefore to "ntiaue a thcy began be it dict, bath, 
cise, &c., or whatsoever else. 
 nother exception  delight, or appetite, fo such and such mcats ; though 
they be hard of digestion, melancholy ; yet  FuchMus excepts oep. 6. lib. 
Institut. sect. 2. "" The stoch doth ry gest., and wilngly ente2ain 
such mcats ve love most and are pleing to , abhors on the other side such 
 we distte." Which ppocras confirms, Aphorm. 2, 38. Some can- 
hot eudure cheese out of a secret tipathy, or to see a rtcd duck» which 
to others  a «dclightsome meat. 
The lt exoeption  ncccsAty, poverty, wanh hger which drivcs meu 

s Tslandloe deserlptlone, vletns eorum but3-ro, Jacte, caseo ¢Mt4t  plsees loeo partis hsbent, pos, sq 
ut serum, lc vunt sine medicin multi d anos 200. * Laet. occident, lnd. dept, lib. ll. p. 10. 
qm manam biber sueli ahane nox.  Davl 2. voyage, a Patrons. « Benzo et 
Fer. Corti lib. nov orb lnscrip, a Llnseoten, e. 56. palmoe st toti orb arboribus longe 
proesntior, a l,ips, epist. - Tenerls muere multum, a Repentiuoe mutation nozam piunt. 
llippocrat. Aphorism. 21. Epht- 6. ct. 3. • Bnu lib. l- p. . ¢ Simpl. med. e. 4 i. 1. 
,t ,,,,«  R -1 nrax m¢d *Aphoam. i. ludubiisnauetdiem $cqudtadolcenet 
laëëë'ëçê -" [çuiÇum çoluptate ummtur clbl venU'ieulus avidlu complectitnr exefimue 
P  • • ,. 



many times te de that which otherwise they are loth, canner endure, and 
thaukfully te accept of it : as beverage in ships, and in sieges of great cities, 
te feed on dogs, cats, rats, and men themselves. Three outlaws in "Hector 
Boethius, being driven te their shifts, did eat raw flesh, and flesh of such fowl 
as they could catch, in one of the Hcbrides for seine few months. These 
things de mitigate or diannul that which bath been said of melancholy 
nmats, and make it more tolerable; but te such as are wealthy, live plenteously, 
at case, may take their choice, and refrain if they will, these viands are te 
be forborne, if they be inclined te, or suspect melancholy, as they tender their 
healths : Other*viso if they be intemperate, or disordered in their diet, at their 
peril be it. (i moe amat, Are e cave. 
He who adv|ses |s your frlend, 
lrare'el/ ad o your health attend. 
SuBsEcr. IV.-- Retentira and Evacuation a cause, and £ow. 
OF retention and evacuation, there be divers kinds, which are either con- 
comitant, assisting, or sole causes many time of melancholy, x Galen re- 
duceth defcct and abundance te this head ; others «rA_ll that is separated» or 
Çostes.] lu the first rau] of these, I may well rec]or up costivenes, 
and keep]ng iu of our ord]nary excremeuts, which as it often cuseth other 
diseaes, so thisof melaucholy iu particulr. "CeIsus, lib. I. coEp. 3. sith, 
"It produceth ifloEmmation of the head, du]ness, cloudness, Imadahe, &c." 
lrosper Ca|uus, .  OEtrî 6G, will ave it d]stemper hot the organ only, 
« ° but the miud itself by troubling of it :" and sometmes it is a sole cuso 
of mduess, as you may rend iu te first book of bkeukius's ]lediciul Obser- 
ation A young merchant goig to Nordel]n fa]r iu Germany, ir teu days' 
pace uever went to stool  at his returu he was 'ievouly melaucholy, thmk- 
/ng tt he ws robbed, aud would not be persuded but that all h]s money 
was gone; hs friends thought ho had seine phi]trum given hm, but Cnelius, 
a physician, be]ng sent for, found his dcostiveness alerte te be the cause, and 
thereupon gve him a clyster, bywhich he wsspeedily recovered. Trincavel- 
lius, consult. 35 lib. I. saith a much of a melancholy lawyer, te whom he 
administered physic, and l=todericus 
patient of his, that for eight days was bound, and therefore melancholy 
affected. Other retentions and evacuations there are, net simply necessary, 
but at some times ; as Feraclius accounts them. Path. lib. 1. cap. 15. as 
suppression of hoemorrhoids, or monthly issue in women, bleeding af nose» 
immoderate or no use at all of Venus : or any other ordinary issues. 
° Detention of hoemorrhoids, or monthly issues, Villanovanus Breviar. lib. 1. 
cap. 18. Arculanus, cap. 16. in 9. Rhasis, Vittorius Faventinus, pract, mg. 
Tzact. 2. cap. 15. Bruel, &c. put for ordb,ary causes. Fuchsius, 1. 2. sect. 5. 
30. goes farther, and saith, "That many men uuseasonably cured of 
hoemorrhoids have been corrupted with melancholy, seeking te avoid Scylla 
they fall into Charybdis. Galen, l. d Ium. com». 3. ad text. 26. illustratesthis 
by an exemple of Lucius Martius, whora he cured of madness, contracted by this 
me_ans : And sSkenkJus hath two other instances of two melancholy and mad 
• vomcn, se caused frein the suppression of their months. The saine may be 
aid of blceding at the nose, if it bç su,]dnly stopped, and bave been formerly' 
used, as h Villanovanus urgth : And Fuchsius, lib. 2. sect. 5. cap. 33. 
• L|b. Y. Hist. Scot. •0. srfis, • Qn.'e excernnntur sut subsstunh • Ex ventre suppresso 
|nflammatincs capit|s dolorea ¢allgines crescmtt, • Excrementa retenta rnentis ,gitationem parere 
soient, • Cap. de Mel. • Tare deliru.% ut 
' Per ocre d|es alvum si¢cum habet, et nihil reddit, • bive per nares, sire hoemorrhoide.  Multt 
l«tempestlvè ab hoem»rrhoidibus curati» melancholit ¢orrulti sunt. ln¢idit in S¢yllam, &c. # Lib. 1o 
de Mania. • Breviar. 1 7. c. 18.  Non fine magnv iacvmod cju oui s-nguis a nribtm lromanst 
il angulnis vacuatio hnl)etlh-i otest. 



]Hem. 2. Subs. 4.] _iïetentort and E'vuation» Caus. 153 

8tiffiy maintains, "Tha withou grea danger, such an issue may no 
8tayed." 
Venery omitted produceth like effects. ]Iathiolus, eT/st, g. 1. penult. 
«  avoucheth of his knowledge, that some through bhfulns abstained fmm 
venery, and thereupon became ve heavy and dull; and some othem tha 
were very timorous, melancholy, and beyond ail mesure d." Oribi, . 
volet, l. 6. e. 37. spea of some, " That if they do not se carnal copula- 
tion, are continually troubled with heavine and headache; and some in tho 
saine c by termission of it." Not uoe of it hurts many, 'cuhmus, c. 6. 
in 9. lsis,  Ma.çnin, para 3. vap. 5. thiak, beoE it "sends up 
poino vapours to the brMu and heart. And so doth Galon himse hold, 
" That if this natural seed be over-long kepç (in some parties)it tms to 
poisom" Hieronymm IercuriMis, in his chapter of Melancholy, cites it 
an esclal came of this malady,  Priapismus, Satyriasis, &c., Haliabb, 5. 
Tlt. e. 36. reckons up this and many other disee. Vfllanovanm Breviar. 
l. 1. c. 18. ith, « He knew "many mo and widows grievously troubled 
with mdancholy, mari that for this sole cause." r Lodocus 5Iercatus, 1. 2. 
mul&mm act. cap. 4. and Rodericus k Ctro, de b tulr. l. 2. c. 
treat rgely of this subjcct, and will bave if produce a peculiar kind of melan- 
choly in stale maids, nus, and widows, Ob supprm um  venere»t 
omh'sam, tbni, «&tæ, anxioE, voeundæ, s,qicios, &ngntes, colii i 
opé, n tmma vitoe et rerum »lram perat@, &c., they are melanchly 
m the highest degree, and ail for want of husbands. linus Montalt, cap. 
37. de n«hol. confirms as much out of Galen ; so doth Wier, 6'itrist, 
h effa  a't. n. lib. 3. a 14, relates mmty such exemples of men and 
women, that he had oeen so melancholy. Foelix Plater in the fit book of 
Observations, "« relis a story of an ancient gentleman in Altia, that mar- 
ried a young wife, and was hot able to pay his deb in that kind for a long 
time together, by reason of his several iufirmities: but he, cau of this 
inhibitioa of Venus, fell into a hon'ible fury, and desimd eve T one that came 
to see ber, by words» looks, and gestms, to have to do with her," &c. "Ber- 
nardus Paterne, a physician, saith, " IIe knew a good honest godly priest, 
that becauoe he would neither willingly matiT, nor make use of the ews, 
fell into grievous melancholy fits." ildesheim, s2»el. 2. bath such another 
example of au Italian mehmcholy priest, in a conatdtation had Anno 1580. 
Jon Pratensis gives instance  a married man, that from his we's death 
. abstg» "" after mariage, became exceedingly melancholy," Roderis h 
Fonoeca in a young man  miffccd, Tom. "2. colt. 85. To these you 
may adti, if you plcase, that conceited tale of a Jew, so visited  hke sor, 
d ao cured out of Poggius Florentinus. 
Intempem Ven  ail but  bad in the other extmm Galeu. l. 6. 
m'b popu&r. t. 5. xt. 26, recko up melancholy amongs those diseaoes 
which are "exasrated by venery:" so doth Avicenn 2» 3. a ll. Obi- 
siéra, . ct. 'icinus, lib. 2. de sanitat« tndâ. Mamili Coatus» Ion- 
talt, va. 27. Guianerius, Trot. 3. cap. 2. hIagnin, «a. 5, .part. 
* gN the ron, bee "" if frigidas and drie up the body, conse$ 
 Novl quotdam proe pudore à ¢oi atet toido pirogue faos; nnull ¢tiam me/au. 
eholieo proeter modum mto timidosque, t Nonnulli nisi ¢o id pitis gravitate inftantur. 
Dicit  novice quvam -te et ira f»cto ex Intemiioue Veneri. m Vapor venenato mittit 
pea ad cor et eerebm. Sea pl diu rctentum, transit  venenum. * Gv pmducit 
tri et anl oeitndin. * E tpeate tupra modum rcteto mona¢ho  vidun meneho¢o 
pe fled vl. • Melcholia ta à vis minis In utero, q Nobilis senex Alt juvenmn 
uxorem dl at IHe colico dolor et m ultis morbls cot non t prtstare oum mit vix init,» 
atrtmonio oeot. IUa  hoendum furorem iudi ob Venerem cohibim ut omuium m visen- 
tium num voc v gtu epeterek et qu o ¢onntirenç moios Anlios 
xpetiit ore. r Viii erdotem optium et pi, qui quod nollet uti Ven' in 
eymptoma lncldit, eOb atinentism h conbitu incidit tri melcl]oliam. * Qu h coi excr- 
at. u Supetum toit u çua ot. z xst corp it t» &c.» cawt 
hoç ccÇ vut o mott. 



and Evacuat{n, C, uses.« [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

the splrits, and would therefore bave all such a.s are cold an,1 dl T to take hee,l 
of and to av»id it as a mortal enemy." Jacchinus it 9. 2?ha, cap. 15, 
6b the me cause, and instanceth in a patient of his, that married a 
yonng wifc in a hot summer, "rand  dried bimself with chamber-work, that 
he beoeme in short space h'om melancholy, mad :" he cure,I him by moten- 
ing remedies. The like example I fiud in Loelius K Fonte Eugubinus, co. 
129. of a gentlcman of Venice, that upon the saine occasion waa rst OEel- 
choly, aKrwarAs mad. lead in him the story at large. 
Auy other evacuation stopped will cae it, as well m« these above nam, 
be it bile, "ulcer, issue, &c. Hercules de Saxonih, lib. 1. c. 16. and Gor- 
douius, verify this out oi their experience. They w one wounded in the 
head, who as long  the sore v open, Lucida huit ttis int, was 
vcll but when it w stopped, ]ciit w[aac/wlia, hs mclancholy fit ized 
on him again. 
Arhficial evacuations are much ke in effect, as hot house baths, blood- 
lettiug, purug, unanably and immoderately used. "Baths dry toe much, 
if used in exoe, be they natural or artificial, and offcnd extreme hot or cold ; 
one dries, the other rfrigerates over much. Iontanus, course. 137, saith, 
they over-ht the liver. Job. Suthius, ,S'ti9mat. artS. l. 4. c. 9. contends, 
" that if ont stays longer than ordinary at the bath, go in too oft, or at 
unsonable timc he putrefies the humom in his body." To this purpose 
vrit.es Mainus, l. 3. c. 5. Guiauerius, Tract. 15. c. 21, utterly disaHows all 
hot baths in melancholy adust. "« I saw (saith he) a man that hboured of 
the gout, who to be ik'eed of h mMady came to rhe bath, and was instantly 
cured of his dis but got anothcr worse, and that w madness." But this 
judgmcnt varis as the humour dotb, in hot or cold: baths may be good for 
one melancholy man, bad fvr anthcr; that which wi cure it  this i»arty, 
ay oeuse it in a second. 
Plbotomy.] hlcbotomy, many times ncglected, may do much harm fo 
t.he body, vhcn there is a manifst rcdundance of bad humours, aml melan- 
choly blood; and when the humou heat and boil, if this be hot used in rime, 
the paries affected, so inflamcd, are in 'eat danger fo Le mad ; but if it bc 
unadvly, importunely, immMeratcly used, it doth  much harm by rcfri- 
gerating the body, dulliug the spirits, and consuming them: as Jvh. *Curio in 
his 10th Chaptc» wcll rcprehends, such kiud of letting blood doth mooe blrt 
than gd: "tThe humours rage much morc thau they did befo, and la so 
thr from avoidlng mclancholy, that it inceth it, and wkeneth the ght." 
Prosper Calenus observes as much of ail phlebotomy, except they keep a very 
good diet after it; yea, and as  Leonaus Jacchiuus speaks out of his owu 
experieuce, " The bld is much blacker to many men after their letting of 
blood than it was at tirst." Fr this cause bclike Salust. Salvhiamts, l. 2. 
c. 1. wiH admit or hear of no bloed-letting at all in this dee, except it be 
manift it proceed t?om bloed: he w (it appâts) by his own words h tt 
p, toaster of an hospital of mad men, "  and round by long experience, 
that this kind of evacuation, either in head, arm, or any othcr pat% did more 
harm tn goed." To t opinion of hi « Fdix Ylater  quite oppo, 
• Ira exslccstus ut è melanchollco statlm ruent insanus, ab humectantibus at • Ex uterio et 
cere exsicto, s Gord. c. 10. lib. Il Di»commeuds ¢old batlm  noxious, t Siccum rdunt 
orp. « Si quis longius moretur in iis, aut nlmis fi'uenter, aut importun utatur, hunorca 
utrefacit. a l. go anno superior% quendam ttosum vidi adtum, qui ut lirm'etur de tl 
 baInea acclt, et e guttu lirat maniac f4ctu. t. ¢On S¢hola SaIe-nitan «CMoEtio et 
cblitio r venœe in¢iionem, maKs pe incitur et augetur, more impetu humor per corp dur- 
runt. ¢ Lib. de flatulenta Mclchoa. £rucns sangis miio cocus extent.  In 9 Rha. atram 
bilera PG e sum eblitat. .Mto niior pectatur ngms post di quosda, quhm fuit ab 
Initio. a Non laudo eos qui in dlpIcntia doceut ndam e ven front quia spirit debilitatur 
Ind et o longà experienti observavi In propo Xenodoch]o, qubd dipieut ex phletomi£ mis 
lduutnr, et magis dipiç et mancho]ici sa fiunt inde pejor. * De ments a]iat. p. 3. et»i 
Dmltus bac il,r..l», s¢'ia» inneroe bac ratioae enatos ngA obrvaflone cu8novi » qui vieil» - 
 ven tundda,  



Ierm 2. Subs. 5.] 27ad Air, a Cause. 155 

"though some wink af, disallow and quite eotxtradicç all phlebotomy i mela- 
eholy, yet by long experiece I bave foud imtumerable so saved, afterthey hatl 
been twenty, nay, sixty time let blood, and fo lire hapl»ily after if. It was 
an ordinary thig of old, in Galen's time, to take at once lom 8:ch men six 
pounds of blood, which nov we date scarce take in ouuces: sed vlderi 
«ezli«i;" great books are written ot thiz subject. 
Pur--6ng upward and downward, in abundance of bad humors omitted, may 
be for tire worst; so likewize as in the precedcut, if overmuch, too frequent 
or violent, if i weakeneth their sttngth, saith Fuchius, l. 2. sect. 2. c. 1 ;. or 
if they be strong or able to endure physic, yet if briugs them to an ill habit, 
they make their hodies no better thaa apothecaries' shol» , this aud »uch like 
intirmities muet nceds follow. 

SUSECT. V. 27ad Air, a Cause of ,]£eznc£o[y. 

Airt i., . cause of great moment, in producing this, or any other d[sease, 
being that if is still taken into our bodi by respiration, and our more immr 
parts. «  If if be impure and foggy, if dejects the spirits, and causeth dis- 
cases bv infection of the heart," as Paulus hath it, lib. 1. c. 49. fi_vicenn 
lib. 1. ed. de. san. tueulâ. ]Icrcurialis, ]k[ontaltus, &c..  Fernelius saith, " 
thiek air thickeueth the blood and humours." ° Lemnius reckons up two main 
things mot profitable, and most pernicious fo our bodies; air and diet: and 
this peculiar disease, nothing sooner causeth (» Jobertus holds) "than the air 
wherein we bathe and lire." * Such as is the air, such be our sl»irit.; and 
as our spirits, such are our humours. It offends commonly if it be too « hot and 
dry, thick, fuligiaous, cloudy, blustering, or a tempestuous air. ]3odine in his 
fiïth Book, De repub, cap. 1, 5. of his Iethod of History, proves that hot 
countries are most troubled with melancholy, and that there are therefore in 
pain, Afi'ica, andAsia $Iinor, grêat numbe- of rond men, insomuch tha they 
are compelled in ail cities of note, to bttihl peculiar hospitals for tbem. Leo 
• A,%r, lib. 3. de Fessa urbe, Ortelius and Zuinger, confirm as much : they are 
orditxarily so cholerie in tiroir speeches, that scarce two words pas8 vithou; 
r:tiling or chiding in commotx talk, and often quata'elling in the streets. 
• Gordonius will have every man take not.ice ofit: "Note this (saith he) that 
in hot countries it is fr more familJar than in cold." Although this we haro 
now said be hot eontinually so, for as t Acosta truly saith, uuder the Equator 
itself, is a m.»st temperate habitation, wholesome air, a paradise of pleasure: 
the leaves ever grêen, cooling showers. But if holds ia such as are intem- 
perately hot, as  Johannes à ][eggen round in Cyprins, othem in Malta, 
Apulia, and the +Holy Land, whero st some seasons of the year la nothing 
but dust, their rivera dried up, the air scorehing ho, and earth inflamed; 
insomueh that many pilgrims going barefoot for devotiotx sake, from Joppa to 
Jerusalem upon the hot sands, oïten run mad, or else quitc overwhelmed with 
r, aad, profundis arenis, n-s in many pa'ts of Af,'ica, Arabia Deserta, Bactriana 
tow Charassan, when the west wind blows ++ lnvoluti arenis trmseuntes 
tut.  Hercules de Saxonia, a professor in Venice, gives thiz cause why 
many Venetiart women are melancholy, Qufid diù sub'sole degant, they tarry too 
long in the sun. hlottanus, consil. 21. amont other causes assigns this; 
Why that Jew his patient was nad, Qufid tan multum exposuit se calori 
 Vires debilitat, ffi lmptwu aër spiritus dejicit, infecto corde girnit morb, n Sang'uinem 
]ensat, et humores, P. I. e. ]3. o Lib. 3. cap. 3. • Lib. de qum'tana. Ex aëre mbiente 
eon[rahi[ur Iumor rne]ancbolicns« * Qualis aër, talis spiritus : et cujusmodi spiritus, humores. 
q A-.'liatts $lon[a|[us, cap. 11. caiidtm et siccua, frigidtm et siccus, paludinosu cra.stm, • Mula hic in 
Xcmdochiis fana[icorum millia qu.e stric[issimè ca[ena[a servan[ur, • Lib. ed. part. 2. cap. 19. Intvllige, 
qllod in calidis reglonibus, frequenter accidit mania, in frigidis au[cm tardC t Lib. 2. • Hodopericon, 
cap. 7. " Apuii oes[ivo calorc rnaximè ferve, ira ut ante finem Maii pene extmta it. 1: ' They 
pcrish In c]outls ofsand." Mazinus Pers. • Pniheoseu Praot. med. 1. 1. p. 16. Veneta 



156 Causes of Mdanehdy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

fi'igo-i: he exposed himself so much to heat and cold, and for that reason 
Venice, there is little stirring in those brick paved streets in summer about 
noon, they are most part thon asleep : as they are likewise in the great Iogol's 
countrie, and all over the East Iadies. At Aden in Arabia, as • Lodovicus 
Vertomanmm relates in lais travels, they keep their markets in the night, 
avoid extremity of heat; and in Ormus, like cattle in a pasture, people of ail 
sorts lie up to the chin in water all day long. At Braga in lortugal; Burgos 
in Cast[le; Iessia in Sicily, ail over Spain and Italy, their streets are mos 
part narrow, to avoid the sunbeams. The Turks wear great turba adfugan- 
;Ios solis .adios, to refract the sunbeams; and much inconvenience that hot 
air of Bantam in Java yields to our men, that sojourn there for traffic; whero 
it is so hot, "" that they that are siek of the pox, lie commonly bleaching in 
the sun to d» T up their sores." Such a complaint I read of those isles of Capo 
Verde, fuurteen degrees from the Equator, they do uzl$ auvlire:  One calls 
them the unhealthiest clime ofthe world, for fluxes, foyers, frenzies, calentures, 
which commonly seize on seaF&ring mon that touch st them, and ail by ressort 
of a hot distemperature of the a;r. The hardiest mon are offended with this 
best, and stifft clowns cmnot resist it, as Constantine affirms, Agndt. 
l. 2. c. 45. They that are naturally born in such air, may hOt "endure it, as 
Niger records ofaome part of Mesopotamia, now called D}arbecha: Quibusda 
i,t locls soevienti oestui adeo subjecta et, ut pleraque animali fervore so[is e 
ceeli extirguantur, 'ris so hot thcre lu some places, that mon of the country ami 
cattle are killed with it; and Adricomius of Arabia Feli, by tesson oî 
myrrh, frankincense, and hot spices there growing, the air is so obnoxiona fo 
thcir brains, tLat the very inhabitauts at some rimes cannot avoid if, much 
less wcaklings and strangers. : Amatus Lusitanus, cent. 1. curnt. 45, reporta 
of a young maid, that was one ¥incent a currier's daughter, some thirteen 
years of age, that would wa.h ber ]»air in the best of the day (in July) and 
so let it dry in the sun, " fo make it yellow, butby that means tarryig too 
long in the best, she inflamed ber head, and ruade herself mad." 
Cold air in the other extreme is almost as bad as hot, and so doth ]Iontaltus 
esteem of it, c. 11. if it be d T withaL In those northern countries, the peoplo 
arc therefore generally dull, henry, and many witches, which (as I have beforo 
quoted) Saxo Grammaticus, OIaus, ]aptista lorta ascribe fo melancholy. 
these cold climes are more subject to natural melancholy (no this artificial) 
vhich is cold and dry: for which cause ° Mercurius Britaunicus bellke purs 
melancholy mon fo inhabit j ust under the Pole. The worst of the three is a 
« thick, cloudy, misty, lggy air, or such as corne from fens, moorish grounds, 
lakes, muckhills, draughts, sinks, where any carcasses or carrion lies, or from 
whetme any stinking fulsome smell cornes: Galon, Avicenna, Mercurialis, ne 
and old physiciana, hold that such air is mwholesome» and engenders melan- 
clmly, plagtms, and what not ° lexandretta an haven-town in the Mediter- 
rancart Ses, Saint John do Ulloa, an hayon in/ova-][ispania, are much con- 
demned for a bad a'lr, so are Durazzo in Albania, Lithuania, Ditmarsh, Pomp- 
tinoe Paludes in Italy, the territories about Pisa, Fondra, &c., Romney Marsh 
v¢ith us; the Y[itndredsin Essex, the fens in Lincolnshirc. Cardaa, de eru 
va'ietate, l. 17. c. 96. finds fault with the sight of thoso rich, and mos 
populous cities in the Low Countries, as Bruges, Ghent, Amsterdam, Leyden, 
Utrecht, &c., the air la bad; and so af Stockholm in Sweden; lïeium 
Italy» Salibtu-y with us, [ull and Lyan : they may be commodious for navi-- 
• IVavlg. llb. 2. cap. 4. commercla noce hor secundî, ob n|mios qui eviuut interdlu mains, exercent. 
• Morbo Gallico laborantes, expontmt ad solem ut morbos exsiccent * Sir Richard Hawkins in 
Observations, scct. 13. • nippocratea, 3. Aphorismorum idem ait.  Idem Iagtnns in Persia. 
2 Descript. Ter. aanct, t Quum ad solis radios in leone lonl;am moram traheret, ut capiilos flavoa 
redderet in maniam incidit. * lundtts airer et idem, seu Terra Australis incognita, d Crains et 
Surbidu adr» triatem eRicit animam, • Commonl¥ cal»ed candaroon in Aia M/cor. 



[em. 2. Subs. 5.] Bar] Air» a Cuse. 

tion, this new kind of fortification, and many other go,-1 necessary uses; bug 
are they se holemel Ohl Reine bath desoended frein tho hills te tho 
*alley, 'ris the site of most of out nev cities, and hold bt te buil.I in plains, 
te ke tho oppounity of rive. Leander Alus plead hard for the air 
and te of Venioe, though the black Moorhh lands appear st eve low 
wamr: the a, fi, and smoke ( ho thks) qualify the a; and 
s, tppose, that a thick foggy air helps tho memory,  in them of Pisa in Italy; 
and o Cambden, out of Pltto, com:nends the site of Cambridge, beoeme if 
is se nr the fens. But let the site of such places be m iç may, how can they 
 excused that bave a delicious seaç a pies=rit air, and a that natte oaa 
afford, and yet through their own nastiness, an sluttishne, immd and 
sordid manuer of lit, surfer their air te putrefy, and themoelves te ho 
chokod up Many cities in Turkey de ma audb'e in this nd : Constanti- 
nopie ilç where oemmonly ion lies in the streŒt. Seine find tho 
fault  Spain, even in Madrid, tho king's sont, a most exoellent air, a pleut 
; but the iahabitants are slovens, and tho stts uucleanly kept. 
A troublesome tempestuous a is  bad  impure, rough and foui we- 
ther, impetuous winds, doudy dark days, as it is commonly with u 
vJam, « Polydor calls it a filthy sky, oe in qaoftc geantur n; 
 Tully's brothcr Quiut wmte to him in ome, being then Quoestor 
dim " a thick and doudy air (ith Lemni)men are tetric, d, 
and vish: And if the western winds blow, and tt there be a calm, or a 
fait aunshine day, there la a kind of alacrity in men minds; it choem up 
men and hepta: but if it be a turbtflent, rough, doudy, stormy weather, meu 
are d, lump and much dejected, angry, wasph, dall, and melauchol'." 
ï was  Vh-giçs expement of old, 
«Vem ubl tempête, et coeli moblI humor [ «Bat when the face ofheaven changed  
$1utavere vice, et Jupiter humid Austl, [ To teulpU, l'aih, from on fair: 
ertuntur peci aaimog'u ci ectore mo Our minds re tere nd in oto" bre 
And who  not wt.her-w[se against snch and such conjnnctions of planers, 
moved in foui wther, dull and hvy in such tempestuous sons? 
vontt Aqrius annum: the rime require and the autumn brds it; 
wr  IoEe  if, ugIy, fo qhd, the air works on al[ me% more or 
ls, but ¢sciaIly on such  are mehncholy, or inclined to it,  mni 
holds,  "They are most moved wlth it, and tho which are already d, rave 
downright, either i or agai a mpt. Besicles, the devfl many times 
hk  oppounity of such stores, and when the humoum by the a 
sti he goes h with them, exagitates out spiri, and vexeth out souls 
the s wav so are the spirits aud humours in o bi tocd th tem- 
stuo winds and srms." To such  ar mehacholy thefom, Montanus, 
rond. 24, wifi have tempestuo and rough air to be aided, and co. 27, 
1 night a, and would hot have them to wa abroad, buç h a rleant day. 
mni, l. 3. c. 3. dimmends the uth and tem winds, commends the 
no iontu g. 31, "*wfl not any windows to be opened h the 
nigh" G'o. 229.  col. 230, he commends esciMly the uth wind, 
d noctal air: So doth "Plurc The night and darkne makes men 
, the e do a subterran vats, dark ho in caves and rocks, de- 
 plaoes u mehncholy in  it, especiaHy such  bave nag been 
tAfl geoaphlc. femoa valent PisanL quod erlore fiantur aëre. • b. I. bi. lib. 2. cap. 
. a den ac lino tetrici homin ext et aublrt et p. • atante subiauo et Zephyr, 
axima  mentib bomtnum al exti meurtrie erectto ubi telm l apleade nttcit, 
Maxima dejectio moerorque aiqudo aa Hgmo t.  Gtç t Hor. a Me qb 
ab re cito offendunt, et mul i d Belg te mpta vi ter qnieti. Spint 
quoque a et mali genH altqudo  mptibus nget, et menti bumanoe  nr 
mque vex extt, et ut fluct mani, hum  ven it. ] er necm 
et t mOtt b. de ide et Osyd 



I 58 6'«u o.fMdndo. [P:r. 1. Sec. _'2. 

I1e,1 fo if, or othervise accustomed. Rend more of air in IIippocrates, 
.Etl.uz, l. 3. à e 171. ad 175. Oriba«ius, à c 1. ad 21. vicem 
o, doe. 2, 'en. 1. v. 123. fo the 12, 

SUBSEçr. I.--lmmocleraîe Exercse a C«use, and £ow. ,.olitariness, Id'leness. 
OTlSO so good but i may be abused: nothing better than exercise 
opportune]y used) for the pmoervation of the body : nothing so bad  if bo 
nnonble, violent, or overmuch. Fernelius ou of Galen, P«th. lib. l. c. 16: 
saith, " Tha much exercise and wearine consumes he spirits and 
stance, refi'igerates the body: and such humours which ature wold bave 
otherwise concocted and expeIled, i sti np and mak them rage: which 
being so enraged, diveeIy affect nd trouble the body and mind."So doth it, 
if it be uusesonably uoed, upon u full stomach, or when the body is fl of 
erudities, which Fuchsius so mch inveighs against, llb. 2. inst, secS. 2. c. 4. 
ging that for a cause why school-boys in Germany ara so oten soabbed, 
beuse they use exeœeisoe prently after meats. # Byerus puts in u caveat 
agins such exercise, beoeuse "i P corrupts the mt in the stomach, and 
carries the sume juice raw, and as yet undigested, into the veins (saith Lem- 
nius), which there putrefi and confounds the animal spirits." Cra, 
21. L 2. qFroests against a]l snch exercse aher mt,  being the eatest 
enemy go concoetion tht may be, and OEuse of cornption of humour, which 
produce ghis, d many other diseases. ot. without good on then doth 
alust. Salvianus, l. 2. a 1. ad Leona Jacchim, in 9, li'. Mercuri- 
alis, Arcubanus, aml many other, set dowa "immodemte exercée as  
çrcible se of melancholy. 
Opposite fo exercise is idlene (the badge of genre') or want of exercise, 
the hune of bodv and mind, the nurse of naughtiness, stepmother of disciplhe, 
the chief antho of all mchief, one of the seven ddly sins, and a le 
of this and m:my other maladies, the de»l's mshion, " Gualter cal ig, h 
1,illow and chier reposl. "For the mind cnn never rg, buç still medit 
,n one thing or other, excepg it be occupied about some honest business, of 
own accord if rusheth into melncholy. « As too much and vioIeng exerc 
offeads on the one side, so doth an idle lire on the other (suith Crato), it filis 
the body full -f phlegm, gross humours, and all manner of obstrucgions, 
rheums, oetarrb" &c. hi eon. I. l. trot. 9, accounts of if as tho 
greatesg cause of melancholy. " I bave ohen seen (ith he) ghat idlen 
begets this humour more than anything eise." Ionçalt, «. l, secon him 
out of his experience, "They that ara idle ara far more subject to melancholy 
than such  are conversant or employed about any office or bushe." Plu- 
tarch reckons up idleness for u sole cause of the sic of the soul : «There 
a they (ith ho) troubled in mind, that have no other OEnse bug t." 
omer, Ilil. 1, bfings in Achill ting of his own heart in s idleu, 
beoense he might hot fighç. Iercnriali cotd. 86, for  melancholy young 
man urgeth "ig is u chief OExme; why w he mela«cholyl bee ioee. 
• Mnlta def,tiatio. lr umque ubstatlam exhan et eous refgera. umores 
qui aliter à natura concoqui, et doma poin et de,hum blandè ecludi, irrita et qni in forem 
qui postea mota mcl'i tco vapore co vaè lacunt, animunqu e In Veni mecum : Lib 
• ic Inscripto. Plnsit. a vit. CIns cap. . cibos crudos in ve rapit, qui pntreent « spit 
animal inficinnt, q Crn«li h humoris copia per ven aggredtur, unde morbi mtipli, r Immo- 
dicu exercitium. * Hom. 31. in [. ç'or. ri. Nain qua men hommis quicere non posit, sed continub 
rirca vari c«»tation oeu isi honesto aiiquo ntio oupetur, ad melchoiiam onte delabir. 
tCrato nl. 21. t't immodica eos exercitatio nocet voobus, i ita des et oo: oti 
anim pituito$um reddi sm oction et crebr fluxion et morbos conci  Et vidi 
quod a de rebna qu ms geuerat melancholiam, t ofiosit, ffi lenitur otium ab iiœ & 
loue à nob obsoEvat s hui« maio mis ooxios qui plane oosi snn quam oe$ q aliquo 
ver»ant exuendo. » De anqnil. animoe. Sunt quos ipsum otium in animi conjicit œegdinem. 
s Nihii t quod uè melcho tt  t  oti et attia à o et i 
b 



]Iem. 2. Subs. 6.J Idleness, a Caus. 159 

lrothing bcgets if sooner, increaseth and continueth if ofener than idlene=-." 
A disea tamiliar to all idle persons, an inseparable companion to such a lire 
at case, Pingi oto desidiosè agentes, a life out of action, and bave no cMling 
or ordinary employment to busy themselves about, thathave small occasions ; 
and though they have such is their laziness, dulness, they will hot composo 
themsolves fo do aught ; they cannot abide work, though'it be necesry ; 
as to dress themselves, write aletter or tho like ; yet as he that is benumbcd 
vith cold sits still shaking, that might relievehimoelf with a little exercise or 
stirring do they complain, but will hot use the facile and ready means to do 
themselves good ; and so are still tormented wlth melancholy. Epccially if 
they bave becn ibrmerly broughç up to business, or tokeep much company, and 
upon a sudden como to lead a sedentary liïe ; it crucifies thei" souls, and 
seizeth on them in an instant ; for whilst they are any ways employcd, in 
action, discourse, about any business, sport or recreation, or in company to 
their liking ; they are very well : but if alono or i,lle, tormented instantly again ; 
one day's ao|itariness, one hour's sometimes, doth them more harm, than a 
week'sphysic, labour, aud company can do good. lIelancholy seizeth on 
them forthwith being alone, ami is such a torture, that as wise Senecn well 
saith, $alo mihimalì etnar mollter esse, I had rather be sick than idle. Thia 
i,lleness is either of body or mind. That of body is nothing but a kind of 
benumbing laziness, intermitting exercise, which if" we may believe  Ferneliu, 
"caseth crudities, obstructions, excremental humours, quencheth the naturtl 
heat, dulls tho spirits, and makes them unapt to do any thiug whatsoever." 
 *leglectia urenda fllix lnnaacitur affri." [ «' for, a ne]ec[ed fle]d 
Shall fur the tire :s thora atd thlstie yicld. » 
As fcrn grows in untilled grounds, andallmannerofweed.q, sodogross humours 
in an idlo body, lguavu» corumpunt otia corpus. A horse in a stable that 
never travels, a hawk in a mew that seldom flics, are both subject to diseases; 
which left unto themselves, are most free from any such incnmbrances. An 
idlo dog will be mangy, and how shall an idle person think to escape ? Idle- 
ne.s of the mind is much worse than this of the body ; wit without employ- 
ment is a diseuse, Erugo animi, çubirjo ingenH : the nlst of tho soul, ° a 
plague, a hell itself, .llaxintu»,. an[mi nocumentum, Galen calls it. "cas 
in a standing pool, worms and filthy creepem increase (et vltium capiunt qi 
moveantur aqtce, the water itself putrefies, and air likewise, if it be hot con- 
tlnuallystirrcd by the wind), so do evil amlcorrupt thoughts in an idle person," 
the soul is contaminated. In a commonwealth, where is no public enemy, 
there is likely civil wars, and tbey rage upon themselves : this body of ours, 
vhen it is idle: and knowsnot how to bestow itself, macerates and vexetla itself 
with cures, griefs, false fears, discontenCs, and suspicions ; it tortures and 
preys upon his own bowels, and is never af rest. Thus much I darc boldly 
a«y, "Ho or she that is idle be they of what condition they will, never so 
rich, so well allied, fortunate, happy, let them have all things in abundanco 
and felicity that heart can wish and desire, all contentment, so long a. he or 
she or they are idle, they shall never be pleased, nevcr well in body and mind, 
but weary still, sickly still, vexed still, loathing still, veeping, sighing, griev- 
ing, suspecting, offended with the vorld, vith every ohject, wishing themselves 
goe or dead, or else carried away with some foolish phantasy or other. And 
this is the true cause that so manygreat men, ladies, and gentlewomen, labour 
of thia dizeaze in country and city i for idlemsa is au appeudix to nobility ; 



163 Causes of Mdancholy. [Part.. 1. See 2. 

they couut it a disgrace to work, and spend ail their days in sports, recreatiots, 
and pastimes, and will therefore take no pains ; be of no vocation ; they feed 
liberally, rare well, want exereise, aetiorç employment (for to work, I say, they 
rnay hot abide), and company fo their desires, and thenee their hodies beeome 
full ofgross humonrs, wind, erndities ; their minds disquieted, dull, heavy, 
&c. ente, jealousy, fear of some diases, sulleu fit weeping fits seize too tfami- 
liarly on them. For what will hot feax and phantsy work in an idle body? 
what distempers will they hot cause  when the ehildren of  Israel murmured 
against Pharaoh in Egyl,t , he eommanded his oflïcers to double their task, and 
let them get strw themselves, and yet make their full nuuber of brieks; for 
the sole cause why they mutiny, and are evil at case, is, "they are idle. * 
XVhen you shall hear and sec so many diseontented persons in ail placeswhero 
you corne, so many several grievanees, unneeessary eomplaiuts, tar, suspi- 
eions,  the best mcans to redress it is to set them awork, so to busy their 
aninds : for the tnth is, they are idle. Well they may build eastles in tho 
air for a time, aud soothe up themselves with phantastical and pleasan t humom, 
but in the end they will prove as bitter as gall, they shall be still I say diseon- 
tent, SUSl,icious,  fearful, jealous, sad, fretting and vexing of themselve j so 
long as they be idle, it is impossible to please them, Otio qui nescit uti, plus 
habet ze9otil quam qui otlum in regoto, as that Agvllius could observe : 
:He that knows hot how to spend his rime, bath more business, ente, griel, 
anmaish of mind, than he that is most busy in the midst of ail hl.s business, 
Otiosus anlmus nescit quid volet : An idle person (as he follows it) knows hot 
vhen he is well, what he would bave, or whither he woald go, Quum illue 
ventum est lllnc lubet, he is tired out with everything, disldeased with all, 
weary of his lire : 2Vec bew dotal, nec nilitice neither at home nor abroad, 
errat, et lrrceter vltam vlvitur, he wander and live. besides himself. In a word, 
Wbat tho misehievous effeets of laziness and idleness are, I do hot find any 
vhere more aeeurately expressed, than in these verses of Philolaehes in the 
.+ Comleal loetÆ wh]eh for their eleganey I will in part insert. 
• * ovarttm oedlum ese arbitror similem ego hominem» 
uando hic nattte est : Ei rei argurnenta dicam. 
des quando sunt ad arnssim expolitoe, 
Quislue laudat f«bram, atque exemplum, expetit, 
t ubi illd migrat nequam homo indiligenslue, &e.. 
OEernpest venit, confringit tegttla imbricesque, 
lntrlfaeit ner operam fabri, &c. 
I)ieam ut hornine simile ee oedium arbitremlnl, 
Fabrl parente fundamenturn substruuut liberorttm» 
Expoliunt, docent litera, nec parcunt eumptuJ, 
Ego autem ab fabroram potestate fru fui, 
-.Postqnam autem migravi in ingeniurn mettra, 
Yerdidi operam fabrorurn illieb, oppidb» 
Venir ignavia, en mihi tempestan fuit, 
dventuque suo grandinem et imbrem attnlll 
lIla milti virtutem deturbavit, &c." 
" h young man  like a fair new bouse, the earpenter lcaves if well buil, in 
good" repair of solid stuff ; but a bad tenant lets it rain in, and fr want of 
repamtion, fa-ll fo decay, &c. Our parents, tutors, fi'iends, spare no cost to 
bring us up in out youth, in all manner of virtuous education; but when we 
are lef to ourselves, idleness as a tempest drives all virtuous motions out of 
our minds, et zihili sumus, on a sudden, by sloth and such bad ways, we corne 
to nouot.. 
Cousin german to idleness, and a concomitant cause, which goes hand in 
hand with it, is tnimia solitudo, too much solitariuess, by the testimony of ail 
physicians, cause and symptom both ; but as if is here put for a cause it is 
• lq'ow this leg, now riant mm, now their henri, henri, &e. * Exod. v. " (For they cachot well 
tell what aileth them, or what they would bave themaelve) my heurt, my he, ad, my husbaud, my son. 
 Prov. xviii. Pigrum dejicit timor. Heautontimoramenon. JIAb. 19. e. 10.  Plautu ProL 
"l>ho, Mvntaltu. laex'crial 



MeoE 2. SuSs. 6.] IArs,  Cuse. 161 

either coact, enforced, or else voluntarly. Enforced so]itarins is commoy 
seen in students, monks, fa, anchoritos, that by their order and coulée of 
litè must abaudon ail company, sociy of other men, and betake themlves 
te  privte oeil : Otlo supstioso secl,  Ble nd uspinian well terre 
it, such as are the Carthusins of our rime, that eat no flcsh (by their order), 
keep peetual lence, never go abroad. Such  ve h prison, or seine dese 
place, and canner haro company,  many of our count gentlemen de h 
solitary boxes, they must either be aloae without companions, or ve beyond 
their mns, and enteuin aH cornera  se many hosts, or else oenverse with 
the servants and hinds, such  are equal, inferior te them, and of a con- 
trary position : or el  seine de,  void solitiness, spend the rime 
with lewd feows in rayera]s, and in alehouoes, and thence addict thelves 
te me unlawful dispos, or dissolute coues. Divers again arc cast upon 
th rock of solirine for want of mns, or out of  strong apprehension of 
seine infirmity, dce, or through bashfuess, den, splicity, they 
canner apply thelves  other company. ullum solun ioEel gratius 
solitudiw, i nuus sit qui zeriam et ; this enforoed soliriness 
takes ploe, and pmduceth his effect soenest  such as bave spent theæ rime 
j ovially, peradventure in aH honest recretions, in good company,  seine great 
tnmily or populoam city, and ara upon a sudden confined te  dese oeunt 
cottage far off, rtrined of their libey, and barred frein their ordina 
associates ; sors is ve irome te such, most tco, and  suddea 
cause of great convenience. 
Voltary solitariness  tht which is milir with melancholy, and gently 
brgs on like u syra, a shoeing-ho, or seine sphinx te thh irrevocable gulf, 
X a prim use, Piso cl if; most pleasant if  at first, te such  ara 
melancholy given, te fie in bed whole days, and keep their chambe, te walk 
alone in ome solitary grove, betwt wood and war, by a bk side, te 
meditte upon seine delightsome and plt subject, which shall agect them 
most; amabil iania, et tis graisslmus ror :  most incompble 
delight it h se te mencholize, and build ctles in the r, te go smig te 
themlve% acting an infinite variety ofp, which they suppe and strongly 
imane they oepasent, or that they e acted or donc: lan quim ab 
init, saith mnius, te conceive and meditate of such pleant things, seine- 
rimes, "ffi prient, pt, or te corne," as P»h speaks. Se defightsome the 
toys are at first, they uld spend whol days and nights without sleep, even 
whole years alone  such conmplations, and fanttical meditations, wch 
a] like unto drea, d they will hardly be drawn frein them, or wlingly 
inpt, se pleut their vin conoeits are, that they hinder the ord 
t and necry buse, they caunot address themselves te them, or Mmos 
te any study or employment, thes çanttical and bewitchg thoughts se 
eovely, se feelingly,  urgently, se continually t upon, creep in, aate, 
poess, overcome, dtract, and deoE them, they canner, I soEv, go about the 
more nece busine, stave off or extricate themlves, but are ever musing, 
mclancholizing, and cared along,  he (they y) tt h led round about  
heath with n Puck in the night, they run earnestly on in this byrinth of 
xio and sofidto melancholy meditatioas, and OEnnot we or wilfingly 
refraia, or eily leave ooE wding and unwding themselves,  se many 
clo, and still pleing their humoum, un at hst the scene is tumed upon 
 sudden, by ome bad object, and they being new habituad te such vMn 
meditations and solitary pla, can endure no company, can ruminate of 
othing but hamh and dtsf aubject Fe, sorrow, suspicion, st& 

! A qul'ou malum, velut k primeras c occa1onoe actun t 
lrteritrum, et turarum medt&tio. 

 $neunds, reram 13resentlum, 



1  Causes of Mdan7l!/. [Par. 1. Bec. 

pudo,r, dieontent, cres, and weariness of lire surprise them in a moment, and 
they can think of uothing ee, oentinually suspecting, no sner are the eyes 
open, but this infernal plague of melaucholy seith on them, and terrifies their 
so representing me dismal object  their minds, which now by no meaus, 
no labour, no pemuio they OEu avoid, lret i tl ar«noe (tho arrow 
of dth st]ll remains  the side), they may hot be rid of it, 
may hot deny but thatthereissome profitable metation,conml,lation,and 
of solir  be embmced, which the fathe so highly coin mended, o Hierom, 
Chrtom, Cypan, Austin,  wbole frais, which Petrarch, Ermtm, Stell 
and othem, so much magnify in their books; a parad,e, a hven on earth, 
be used aright, good for the body, and tter for the oeul : s many of those old 
monks used it, to divine contemplations, Simuhm a courier  Adrian's rime, 
Dioclesiau the emperor, retired themselves, &c., in that ns Yia .ol scil 
vivere, Varia l£v alone, which the Romans were wont fo s«ty, when they com- 
mended a country lffe. Or to the betterig of their knowledge,  Democritus, 
CleanthoE% and those excellent plophers have ever done, to sequter them- 
selves from the tumultuo« world, or as in Pl£ny'svifi Lam'entmm, Tully's 
culan, Jovius' study, that they might better v«#care studiis eg Dco, oerve God, and 
follow their stues Methk theoefore, out too zealous innovators we not 
so wefi advised  that general subversion oi abbeysand religious bouses, pro- 
mhcuoly  flg down all; they might have ken away those gro 
crept in amongst them, rectified such iuconvenienoes, and hot so far fo haro 
raved and raged agast those fair bufldilgs, and everltg monuments of out 
fooefthe' devotion, corated fo pious uses ; some monteries and colle- 
gia cells might have bcen wefi spared, and their revenues otherwise employed, 
hem and there one, in go tow or citi at let, for men and women of all 
sorts and conditions to lire in, fo sequter themselv from the  and 
tumts of the world, tht were not dedrous, or fit to ma; or otherw 
williag to be troubl with common aairs, and know hOt well where fo stow 
themselve to lire apart , for more conveniencç good eduoetion, better com- 
pany sake, to Iblluw their stadi« (I y), to the peçction of arts and scienoes, 
commou gcod, and  mme tly dcvoted mon of old hd done, froely and 
try fo serve God. For these men are neither solitary, nor idie,  the poet 
ruade answer to the husbandman in sop, that objd idlene fo him ; ho 
w never so Mie   his company ; or that Scipio Afrinus in PTully, 
qm nin s, 9uàm cure sob ; nunçuam minus oioss, çuàm u 
sel oHosus; never le aolita, thaa whea he was alone, never more busy, 
than hcn he med to be mt idle. It  repord by P]ato in his dialoo 
 A ne, in tbat prodigious commendtion of Soerat, how a deep meditioa 
coming to Soc' nd by chance, he 
gibundus, from morn]ng  noon, and whea  then he had no ye fished 
his meditation, Ferstabat coÇila, he so continued till the eveaing, the aoldie 
(for he then followed the camp) observed him ith admiration, and on set 
puooe watched ail night, but he pevered immovble ad exortum olisç 
till the sun roœe in the morning. d then luting the sun, weut his y 
what humour constant Socrates did thtoE. 
affected, but th would be pernicious to another man ; what intricate busin 
might so real]y po him, I nuot ily guess; but this  otiosum otiu», 
it  far otherwe vith theoe men, acoerng to ne, Omnia 
solido persuader; this solitude undoeth u% pugn.t cure ttΠsociali ; 't a 
dructive sotarin The men o dev Mon%  the ying  Homo 

z Facllk deaceusu Avern! : Sed revoeare gradnm, snperasque evsdere ad auras, Hic ;abor, hoe opus 
Virg. «Hieronimus ep. 72. dixit oppida et urbes videri sib| tetros carceres, solitudinem Faxadi$m 
sol ,m scorpionibtts lnfectum ea.co amict htu ttbns. qva et herbis vicit&u l£omai proeuht 



1Y/cm. 2. Subs. 7.] Sleepçng and l'adng, Causes. 

163 

solus aut Deus, aut Doemon : a man a]one, is either a saint or a devil, rne«s 
ejus aut languescit, aut tumesclt; and * //'oe soli in this sense, woe be to him 
that is so alone. These wretches do frequently degenerate from men, and of 
sociable creatures become beasts, monstex% il,humane, ugly to behold, Misan- 
thropl ; they do even loathe themselves, and hate the company of men, as so 
many Timons, /Vebuchadnezzars, by too much indulging to these pleasing 
humours, and through their own deault. So that whieh [erctu'ialis, consiL 1 l. 
sometimes expostulated with lais melancholy patient, may be justly apl,lied to 
every solitary and idle person in particular. «ratura d« e videtur conqueri 
loosse, &c. " :Nature may justly complain of thee, that whereas she gave theo 
a good wholesome temperature, a souud body, and God bath given thee so 
divine and excellent a soul, so many good parts, and profitable glfts, thou hs 
hot only eontemned and rejeeted, but hast corrupted them, polluted them, over. 
thrown their temperature, and perverted those gifts with riot, idleness, solita- 
riness, and many other ways, thou art a traitor to God and nature, an enemy 
to thyself and to the world." Ierditlo tua eoe te; thou hast lost thyself wilfully, 
cast away thyself, "thou thyself art the efficient cause of thine own mi-ery, 
by hot reaiting such vain cogitations, but giving way unto them." 

Svssc. ¥II.--Slep{ng and Waking, Causes. 
rHA I bave formerly said of exercise, I may now repeat ofsleep. 1Vothlng 
better than morate sleep, nothing wo than it, if it be in extremes, or 
ssonably uoed. If is a reoeived opinion, that a melancholy man mnuot sleep 
overmuch i 5'n a mod.um t» as an only antidote, and nothing 
offen them mooe, or causeth tb malady sooner, than waking, yet in some 
cas sleep may do more harm than good,  that phlegmatic, swinish, cold, 
and slugh melancholy hich hlelaucthon sa I that thks of watem, 
sighing most part, &c. "It dulls the spirit if oveuch, and senœes i filh the 
head fiH of o humoum ; caeth dtfllations, rheums, eat store of excre- 
mens in t braiu, and all the other pa  "Fuchsi spks et them, that 
sleep like so mauy dotice. Or ff if be uoed in the day4ime, upon a tull 
stomach,the body l-compooed to rest, or after hard mcats, it incth feaffd 
dreams, incubus, night walking, cing out, and much unquietne; such sleep 
repares the body, as 'une observes, "fo many perilous diseases." ut,  I 
bave aid, wang overmuch, is both a symptom, and au ordinary cauoe. " 
causeth dryness of the bmin, enzy, dotage, and makes the body dsç lean, 
hard, and ugly to behold," as Lemnius bath if. " Tho temrature of tho 
braia la ¢orrupted by if, the humours adust, the eyes ruade to uink iuto the 
head, ¢holer incresed, and the whole body inflamed :" and,  may be added 
ou of Galen 3. de sanita toEd, Avicenna 3. 1. ""It overthrows the 
natural beaU, it causeth crudities, h«rts eoncoction," and what hot ? Not wit, h- 
out good ea thercfore Crato el. 21,/. 2; Hildesheim, s2el. 2, de Ddir. 
et Mania, Jchus, Arculanus on Rh, Guianeri and Merem'Lafis, reckoa 
p this overmuch waking  a principal cause. 
* Eccl. 4. N'atura de te detur conque  quod cure ab  temperatislmum cocus adeptus 
, tare prc]am  Deo ac utile donum, non contempsis modo, vem com'upiati, scdti, prodiOit 
vpthnam tepernturam otio, «rapul et aliis vitre errorib e. « Path. iib. cap. tT. Fernei. 
{nfrida, omnn nsus, mcnlisu v{rn toToro debilila • Lih. 2. e«t. 2. cap. 4. Mam exeremen- 
forum viro rebro et aliis rtib conservak ,Jo. Ratzi lib. de rebua 6 non naturibus. Froepat 
¢o t somnus  mul riculo oeitudin  lnstit, ad vitam optimam p. 26. cerebm 
siccitaem adfe phnln et delirium, c» artdum laelt, sqalidm, stgosum, h,mor 
amentum e coumpiKmiem indueit : exniccat co bilera accendiKplfundos rdit 
lom auget, aNatm-£em orem ipa  ¢oncsioae t facit. ttentjuven 



164 'auses Qf.]Ioerw]l. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

IEMI3. III. 
StSECr. L--Passlons and P«turbat  tl .Çind, £ow t]oey 
Mnclly. 
As that mnop in rlutareh ruade answer fo Alexander (demanding 
whieh spe best), Eve one of his tllow did speak better tban the other : 
 I may y ot theoe OEufs ;  m that shall reqre whieh  the 
eve one is more ievo than other, and th of pion the eatt of aiL 
A moet frequent and ordiny OEuse of mencholy, "f pturbatnu 
(Piccolomine coes if) thh thunder and ghtng of perturbation, wch 
uth such olent and spdy alteratio in this oar micros and my 
rimes mtbves the good ta and temperate of if. For  the body works 
upon the mind byhis bad humoum, troubling the spirite seudggro fum in 
the bx' d 2 coue distbg the uÇ aad  the acti ofit» 
H viti  quoque rœevat 
th fear, sow, &c.,which are ordin mpto of this de« : se on the 
other side, the mind most ectually wor upon the body, producing by his 
pions and rturbations miraco alteration melancholy, dir, cel 
di, and metes death itse. somuch t if h most true which 
Plato ith in his Charmideg omnia oerp   anim o«; aH tho 
mdfiefs of tho dy pmd iom the souI : and Democrit in Plutamh 
nrget Damtum tri aai,mm à «,ff the dyshouId in t half bring 
aa action against the so, surely the so would be ct and convicd, that by 
ber uFine neglinoe had OEused such inconvenien¢ vg authoty over 
the dy, and using it for an instrument,  a smith does his hammet" (ith 
¢Cyprian), imputg a tho vices and maladies to the md. Even so do 
PhHostratus, mn cnquinatur corps, i cou aui» ; the body h hot 
con-up»e but by the sooE Lodovictm Vives will bave such mrbent comm 
tio proceed flore iorance and iaetion." 1 philophe impu tho 
miri of the body to the ul, thaç shod bave goveted it better, by m- 
maad of n, and bath hot doue i. The Stoioe are altogether of ophioa 
( Lipsi and gPioeolominet record),that a wo m should be ¢, with- 
out aH manuer of pions and perturbatio xvhatsoever, as 8eneoE ports of 
Cato, the Greeof Socrat, and Io. Aubamm of a natioa h Africa, so free from 
pion, or thoe so stupid,that ff they be wounded with a sword, they B only 
look back. tLachnti2it, wexclude"fr from a ge man:" othex 
except alL me the grst po ut let them dispute how they wiB, 
clown in Thi, give preoepts to tho oent; e find that of  mni uo 
by common exfienoe ; "o moral man is free from the perturbations: 
or if he be so, sm'e he is either a god, or a block. » Thcy e bo and bmd 
xvith us, we bave them from out pen by hheritance. A parentib 
muza £uno aem, ith =Pelezi, citur unà bm, -urqoe, 't pr 
paated fzm Adam, Cain w melancholy,  Atia bath if, and who 
Good ciplhe, eduoEtion, phfioaophy, vinity ([ nnot deny), may mitiga 
and rtrn the pions h mme few men at me time but most pax they 
domineer, and o so oIent, that  a torrent ('e vdat agge rupW) 
do va  belote, and ovcro ws  baaks, srn aros, srt s, (lay wte tho 

3,'lta Alezan. • Grad. 1. e. ! 
the spirit ." 
Izzit.  Li. e ttaU tttenG. ¢ liog. e virtute Çi$li; Quoe nlit or ut fa ml. 
• Vita Apollon b. 1. * Lib. de anim. ab inconsideranti et noraulia omn animi mot. « De 
l'hysiol. Stot s G 1. e. :i2. u :pist. t0 t ian.  Lib. I. cap. 6. si qui$ e refit 
e«, tantum plunt. 
nortalittm qui affectibu$ o ducatur : q on movetur, aut 



l'd'em. 3. Subi. 1.] Perturations of the Jrind. 165 

£elds, prostrates the ero?.), they overwhelm tesson, judgment, and pervert the 
temperature of the body; l«ertur P uis auriga, nec audit currus habenas, low 
such a man (saith«Austin) "that is su led, in a wise man's eye, is no better 
than he that stands upon hia head." It is doubted by some, Grafforesne morb£ 
 perturbatizrnibus, a ab humoribus, whether humours or pet"¢urba.tions cause 
the more grievous maladies. ]3ut we find that of out Saviour, lIat, xxvi. 
41, mont true, "The spirit is willing, the flesh is weak," we eannot resist; 
and this of'Philo Judoeus, "Perturbations ofen oflcnd the body, and are muse 
frequcnt causes of melaucholy, turning it out of the hinges of his health." 
Vives compares thcm tu "°Winds upoa the aeu, some only more as thoso 
great gales, but othcrs turbulent quite overturn the ahip." Those xvhich are 
light, easy, and mors seldom, tu out thinking, du us little harm, and ar 
thcrefore contemned of us : yet if they be reiterated, "tas the rain (saith 
Austin) doth  atone, su du these perturbations penetrate the mind :" «and 
(as une observes) " produce a habit of melancholy af the last» wldch having 
gotten the ma.tery in out souls, may xvell be ealled dise,es." 
tfoxv these passions produce this effet4, Agrippa bath handled af large, 
Occult. 1)]dlos. L 11. c. 63. Grdan, l. 14, subtil. Lemnius, l. 1, c. l, deoccult. 
car. mlr. etlib. 1. cap. 16. Suarez, $£et. disput. 18. sect. 1, art. £5. T. Brigh, 
cap. 12. of his h[clancholy Treatise. Wright the OEesttit in hia book of the 
t'assions of the ]lmd, &c. Thus in brieï, tu out imagination cometh by the 
outward senae or memory, some object tu be known (residing in the foremost 
part of the brain), which he miscinceiving or amplii]ying presently communi- 
cures tu the heart, tl»s sea of ail affections. The pure spirits forthwith flock 
from the brain tu the heart, by certain secret channels, and aignify what good 
or bad object was i»resented ;which immediutely bends itself tu prosecute, or 
avoid if; and withal, draweth with it other humotrs tu help if : su in pleasure, 
concur great store oî purer spirits; in sadness, mach melancholy blood; in ire, 
choler. If the imagination be very apprehensive, intent, and violent, it senda 
great store of spirits tu, or from the heart, attd makes a deepcr impression, and 
greater tuumlt, as the huuxours in the body be likewise prepared, and the tem- 
1)erature itzelf ill or xvell disposed, the passions are longer and stronger ; su 
that the first step and fountain of ail out grievances in thia kind, is'kesa 
imaginatio, which mîsinforming the heart» causeth ail hese distemperatures 
alteration» and confusion of spirits and humours. ]3y means of which, su dis- 
turbed, concoction la hindered, and the principal parts are much debilituted; 
a'Dr, lTavarrawell declared, being consulted byMontanus about a melancholy 
Jew. The apirits au confounded, tbe nourishment must needs be abated, bad 
humours hmreased, crudities and hick spirits engcndered with melancholy 
blood. Theother partscannot perform their functions, having the spirits drawn 
from them by vehemen passion, but fail in sense and motion ; su we look apon 
a thiug, and see it hot ; hear, and observe hot; which otherwise would much 
affec us, had we been ti'ee. I may herefore conclude withArnoldus, ]1axi- 
ma vis est Iohanlasioe, et huic uni ferè, on augcm corporis intemperiei, ornais 
melanc]wlixe causa es ascribenda : "Great is the force of imagination, and 
mueh more ought çhs cause of melancholy tu be ascribe¢l tu thiz alone, than tu 

oculis saplm, oui pion dominantur. Lib. de Decal. psion maxime co ofiendunt 
et anlm» et frequtissimœe ¢a melancholl dimovent b Ingenio  saniate ptina. L . 
anlm « Froena et stlmt antm velat In mari quoedam auroe lev quœedam plid quidam turbu- 
lcn : sic In colore q,oedam aflection excitant tante» quoedgm Itameveut or de statu Jll deL 
t t't gutta lapIdem, sic panlathn lloe pesnt aimum. = Usu ralenti« rec orbi snlml vot. 
z lmgina[Io movet cocus, ad c" Jus motnm excitan bumoreN et lrl[ua l quiboa alatur. 
• Fccl. ziii. 26. "Tire heart tet the coutenance to good  evil, and distractl of zo mlnd canseth 
ditemperatnre of fhe body." • Splrit et saflg-:ls  la anatioe ctiautur, humenim 
mutatiactmones animl Immutant, Piso. Montani, consll. 22. lice vero quomodo unt me]ancoliamç 
; et quod csncocon¢m peanç et membra prclpa dçbent.  ri. 1. 1. cap. 



166 Cause of Mdanclwly. [Part. 1. Sec. . 

the distemperature of the body." Of which imagination, because it bath so 
great a stroke in producing this malady, and is so powerful of itself, it will hot 
ve improper to my discvurse, go make a brief digression, and speak of the force 
of it, and how it causeth this alteration. Which manner of digression howso- 
ever some dislike, as frivolous and impertinent, yet I ara of* ]3eroaldus's opi- 
nlon, " Such digressions do mightily delight and refresh a weary reader, they 
ure like auce fo a bad stomach, and I do therefore most willingly use them." 

SorSCT. II.--Of tlte foroe of Imaglnatlon. 
W«T imanation is, [ have sufficiently declared in my division of the 
anatomy of the soul. I will only now point at the wonderfifl eficts and power 
of if ; which,  if is ement in all, so mt especially it rageth in melancholy 
peinons, in keeping the species of objects so long, mistaking, amplifying them 
by oentinual and'strong meditation, until at lenh if produceth in some 
pai real effects, eaeth this and many other maladies. And although this 
usy of oum be a subo»dinate faculty to rean, and should be ruled by 
yet in many men, through inward or outward distempemtures, defect of orges) 
vhich ara unapt, or otherwe contaminated, if  likewise unapt, or hindered, 
and h Th we oee verified in sleem, which by reason of humom d 
conoeue of vapours troubling the fantasy, imagine many rimes absurd and 
prodigious thing and in such  are troubled 'ith cubus, or witch-ridden 
( wo eall it), if they lie on their backs, tlmy suppose an old woman rides» and 
its so hard upon them, tt they are most stifled for want of brth ; when 
there is nothing offends, but a concourse ofbad humours, vhich trouble the 
y. This is likewi evident in such as walk in the night  their sleep, d 
do strange lbats: th vapoum more the fantmsy, the antasy the appeti, 
vhich moving the animal sprits cauoeth the body  walk up and down 
they were awake. Fracast. l. 3. de intet, refe ail eoetasi fo this force of 
imagition such  lie wbole days together in a tranoe :  tbat priest wbom 
"Celsus speaks oÇ tbat oeuld sepaxate himself from h senses when he lt, 
and He e a de man, void of life and nse. Cardan bm of himself, that 
he could do as much, and that when h list. Iany rimes such men hen they 
corne to themoelv, 11 strange tbin of heaven and hell, what visions they 
bave en; as that St. Owen, in hlatthew Paris, that went into St. Patrick's 
purgatory, and the monk of Evham in the me author. Those oemmon 
appations in ede and Gregory, int Bridget's revelations, Wier. l. 3. 
mi, a 11. Coeur annin,  his Dialogues, &c. reduceth 
formerly raid), with all those tales of witche progresses, dancing, riding, 
transformations, opemtions, & to the force of timagination, and the devfi'a 
illusions. The like effects almost are fo be seen in such m aro awake : how 
many chime, antics, golden mountains and tles  the air do they bd 
unto themselvl I appeal  painte, medmnici, mathematich Some 
mcr[be ail vi to a fse and comqt imanation, anger, revenge, lust, am- 
bition, oeveusn, which prefe falsehood before that wch  right and 
good, deluding the soul wit.h false shows and suppositions. Beardm 
enottus will haro heresy and suntition  proceed i',,m th fountain; m ho 
dy imagiaeth,  he beheveth ; and m he coaceiveth of 

• Soient Imusmodi egrelonee favorabiIiter oblectare, et lectoroE lsum Jucdè refovere, tomachumqu 
naeantem, quolam qui condimento reflcer et ego libcnter excuo. ,Ab iminatione ori,,n 
affecfio quibu anima eomponitur, aut turbata deturbaur, Jo. Siabur. Matolog. lib. 4. 
exercit. *  quotivolebat, mortuo $imlia jaoebat aen  h eeneibu et qu pgeretur dor 
on st. «Idem Nannus orat. de lminat, s Verbis et unctionib,m ae cosecrant o 
peimoe mulier qui iis ad op euum utitur, et ear phantiam 
derat cotera veto m sine nsu 
-,eh umbra subt prupSis oeotb e rtitt. I. . ¢. II. ¥i.  Do me. 



167 

and if shall be, controE .qenes, he wil| bave if so. tut most especlally in passion 
and affections, it shows arrange and evident effects: what will hot a feafful 
man conceive in the dm'k What strange forms of bughear devils, witch, 
goblins Lavter imputes the etest cause of apectms, ad the like ap- 
rltions, t feaLwhich bove ail other passions begets the strongest imaginatio 
(saith * Wieru), nd so likewise, love, sorrow, j,y, &c. Some die suddenly, 
she tht aw ber sn corne from the battle af Cannoe, &c. Jacob the patrhrch, 
by toroe of imagination, ruade specklcd lmbs, laying sckled rods hcfore his 
sheep. Persina that thiopian queen in Hdiodorus, hy aeeing the picturo of 
erseus and Aadromeda, iasted of a blackamoor, as brought  bed of a f 
mhit¢ child. In imitation of whom hee, a bard-f«voured fellow ia Groe, 
because h¢ and his wife ere both deformed, fo get a d brd of cdre» 
&9a, ntm nfi»  tl cocat, &c., hung the irt pictures he 
eould buy for money lu his chambcr, "That h ife by frequeat sight of them» 
might conoeive and bar such childrem" And if we may believe Baie, oae of 
ope icholas the Third's coacubines by seeing of  a br wm brought to bed 
of a monster. "If a woman (saith * Lemnius), 
think of another man prent or absent, the child will be like m." Grea 
beBied womea, when they long, yield  pmdious examples 
moles, warçs, scam, harelips, monsters, esially caused in their childrea by 
ç»r of a dptved tknty in them: Ipsam spoeiem q, ani giat, 
rtui i« : She impt4ats that stmp upoa ber child which she  coaoeives 
unto helf. Aad therefore Lodovicus Vive lib. 2. 
alial caution  great-bellied women, "=Tiret they do hot adroit such absrd 
oenceits and cogitations, but by ail means avoid thos¢ horrible ohjects» hrd 
or seen, or filthy speccl." Some ill laugh, weep, sigh, «aa, blh, 
tmble, sweat, at such thin  aoe suggested uato them by their imagination. 
Avicenaa speaks of oue that could t himself into a paIsy when ho list ; aad 
«ome caa imitate the tunes of birds and bets that they caa hardly be d- 
ceraed : Dagebert' aud Salut Franci a and wouads, like those 
Christ's (if at the let any such were), A¢ippa supposeth to bave happeaed 
by foroe of imagaation : tt some are tuted to wolv ri'oto mca to women, 
and womea aga to mea (which is constaatly believed) to the me imagina- 
tioa; or fro m men to es, do, or any other shape rWienm crib ail those 
fi«mous trsformations fo itaaginatioa; that 
the pictm'e of a dog, still in the water, « tt mdaacholy mea and sick mea 
coaceive  many fanttical visions, apritions to themselve and hure such 
absurd apparitions,  that they ara kmgs, lords, ks, bears, a, owls; tha 
they are hvy, light, transparent, great and little, aenle aad dead 
ahafi  showed more at rge, ia out  aectioas of sptoms), can be imputed 
to nought l, but  a corrupt, çalse, and violeat imation. It works 
n«»  sick and melancholy men only, but evea 
auch  are und: it makea them suddenly sick, and "alte their mper- 
ature ht au instant. Aad aometimes a atrong couceit or apprehension, 
' Valeai prov¢s, ill take away dis: in both kiads it wili produoe rl 
effecta, bien, if they aee but aaother man tremble, ddy or aick of 
fe , the appreheion and fe  ao atmng  t kd, that they 

sSalet tlmor, proe omnibus affectlbus, fortes Imaglnstlanes glere, pct, amor, &¢. l. . e 8.  Ex visa 
uro, talem peperit, t Lib. 1. cap. 4. de occult, nat. mir. si inter amplexus et suavia cogiter de uno, sut 
alio absente, eJua efltl'|ea solct in foetu e!ncere, m Quid non foetul cdhuc marri unito, subità spil'itum]z 
vibratioe per erv, quihts matrlx «erebvo «oJuct est, tuprimit impregnate imagitio! ut si ima. 
glnetur malum anatum, Illi nos secum profet foet: SI leurs, Infans e;m-»upro labello 
bifldo, et dic¢ : Vchemena cogRatio movet rermn apecio. Wier. llb. 3. cap. .  Ne dru uterum 
stent, mittant ad cogitatiO, scd et visu, autuçe foeda et horra OEoEent. o Occult. 
iios. lib. l. cap. 64.  Llb. 3. de Lmnii p. 0. q A'ipp Iib. l. p. 64. * Sect. 3. memb. I. 
e. 3. • Mallens maleflc, fol 77. cocus mutad test in fiive œeitudiu, ex foui pzh 
oa« »Ff. V£. 1.5. çoat. 6. noang e morbi utm çocuuut» qdoquv ct« 



xvill bave the sme d|see. Or if by some soothsaTcr , wlseman, fortune-relier, 
or pbysic]an, they be told they shall bave such a di.ase, t]ey will so oeriou.ly 
apl;rebend it, tbat they will instant}y labour of it. A thing f.miliar in Chine 
(saith Riccius tbe Jcsuit), "« If it be told tbem they shall be sick on sucb 
day, when tbat day come tbey w]ll surely be s]c, and will be so terribly 
afilicted, tha sometimes tbey d]e upon it." I)r. Cott3 in h]s discovery of ig- 
norant practitioners of physic, cap. 8. hath two strange stores fo this purpose, 
vhat fancy is able to do. The one of « parn's wife in orthamptonshre, 
.4n. 1607, tbat coming to a pbysician, and told by hinthat she was troubled 
'ith the sciat]c, as he eonjectured (« diseuse he was free from), the saine 
ight after ber return, upon his words, fvll into  grierous fit oï a ciatica: 
and such another example he bath of another good wit, that was so troubled 
• vith the cramp, after the saine mare,er she came by it, because ber physician 
did but name it. Sometimes death itself is caused by force of fantasy. 
have heard of one that coming by chance in compay of him thaç was though 
to be sick of the plague (which was hot 5o) fll down suddenly dead. 
other was sick of the plague with conceit. 0ne seeing his îellow let blood 
falls down in a swoon. Another (saith ° Cardan out of Aristotle), fell down 
dead (which is familiar to women at any ghastly sght), seeing but a man 
]anged. A Jew in France (saith "Lodovicus Vives), came by chance over 
dangerous passage or plank, tba lay over 3 brook in tbe dark, witbout barre, 
he next day perceiving wbat danger be was in, fell dowa dead. Many will 
ot believe such storieç to be true, but ]aagh commonly, and ]er:de wbca 
they bear of them; but let these mon consider oeith themsclves, as :Peter 
:yarus illustrates it, If they were et fo walk upon a plank o high, they 
would be gddy, upon which they dure securely walk upon the ground. Man/ 
(saith Agrppa), ""strong-hearte01 men otherwise, tremble at such sights, 
dazzle, and are sck, if they look but dowa from a high place, and wha 
aoves them but conceit?" As ome are so molested by çanty; so somv 
again, by fancy alone, and a good concet, are as easily recoveredo Ve seo 
commonly the tooth-ache, gout, falling-sickness» biting of a mad dog, 
many such maladies, cured by spells, words, cbaracters, and charms, and many 
green wounds by that now so much used Unguent.um Arnmrium, maguetically 
eured, which Crollius and Goclenius in a book of late hath defended, IAbaviu- 
in a just tract as stiffiy contradicts, and most men eontrovert. Ail the world 
knows there is no virtue in such charms or cures, but a strong conceit and 
oinion alone, as "Pomponatus holds, "wh]ch forceth a motion of the 
humours, spirits, and blood, which takes away the cause of the malady tom 
the parts affected." Tbe like we may say of our mcal effecs, SUl,erstitious 
cures, and such as are donc by momtebanks and wizards. "As by wicked 
iucredulity many men are hurt (so saith Wierus o charms, spells, &c.), we 
ind in our experience, by the saine means many are relieved." An empirie 
oentimes, and a silly chirurgeon, doth more strange cures than a rational 
lhysician. ymannus gves a reason, because the latient purs his confidence 
in him, which Avicenna " prefers belote art, precepts, and all remedies 
oever." 'Tis oinioa alone (saith ¢Cardan), tba makes or mars physician. 
and he doth the best cures, acco»ding to Hippocrates, in whom most trust. 



]Iem. 3. Subs. 3.] 1)h:h:on qf_Perurbato. 169 

diversely doth this f-antasy of ours affect, tura, and vind, so imperously com- 
mand out bodies, which a another "Proteus, or a ehameleon, van takc ail 
shapes; and is of such force (as Ficinns adds), that it ean work upon others, 
as we]l as ourselves?' How can otherwise b.lear eyes in one man cause thc 
like affection in another? Why doth one mans yawning "make auother 
yawn  One man's pissing provoke a second many rimes to do the like  Why 
doth scraping of trenchers offend  third, or hacking of files 
eaïcass bleed when the murderer is brought before it, some weeks fter thc 
murder bath been done ? Why do witehes and old women fascinate and 
bewitcb children : but  Wierus, Paracelsus, Cardan, Mizaldus, Valleriola, 
Coesar Vanninus, Campanella, and many philosophers think, the forcible ima- 
gination ofthe one party moves and alters the spirits ofthe other. ay more, 
they eau cuse and cure uot only diseases, maladies aud severl infirmities, 
by this mcans,  Avicenna de anim. L 4. sect. 4. supposeth in parties remotc, 
but more bodies from their place cause thunder, lightning, tempests, which 
vpinion Alkidus, Paracelsus, and some others, approve ot: So that I may 
ccrtainly conclude this strong conceit or imsgination is aztrum lwminis, and 
the rudder of this our ship. which reason should steer, but overbornc by fantasy 
cannot mariage, and so mffers itlf and this whole vessel of ours to be over- 
ruled, and often overturned. Read more of this in Wierus, L 3. de Lamiis, 
c. 8, 9, 10. Franciscus, Valesius ned. controv. L 5. cont. 6. Marcellus Dona- 
tus, l. 2. c. 1. de hist. zned. mirabil. Levinus Lenmius, de occdt, nat. zir. l. l. 
c. 12. Cardan, l. 18. de rerum var. Corn. Agripp3, de occult, philos, cap. 64, 
65. Camerarius, 1 cent. top. 54:. horarum subcls. :Nymannus, 
Imag. Laurentius, and him that is nstav omnium, Fienus, a fmous physician 
of Antwerp that wrote thxc books de virlbus imagina$ions. I bave thus far 
digressed, because this imagination is the nedium deferens of passions, by 
v¢hose means they work and produee many rimes prodious effects : ana as 
the fantsy is more or lcss intended or remitted, and thei r humours disposed, 
no do Imïtuïbations more, more or less, and tzke deeper impression. 
Sus.c'r. III.---Diras/on of Perturbatlons. 
PSaTURTrOS and passions, whieh trouble the fantasy, though they 
dwell between the confines of sense and reason, yet they rather follow sense 
han reason, beeause they are drowned in eorporeal organs ofsense. They are 
eommonly tredueed into two inelinations, irascible and eoncupiseible. Tho 
Thomists subdivide them into eleven, six in the eoveting, and rive in the in- 
vadinff Aristotle redueeth ail to pleasure and pain, Plato to love and hatred 
g Vives fo good and bad. If good, it is psent, and then we absolutely 
and love; or to corne, and then we desire and hope lbr it. Ifevil, we abso- 
lutely hate if; if present, ie is sorrow; if to corne, fear. These four passions 
 Bernard compares "to the wheds of a chariot, by whieh we are earried in 
his world." Ail other passions are subordinate unto these four, or six, as 
sorne will: love, joy, desire, hatred, ,orrow, fear ; the test, as ager, envy, 
emulation, pride, jealousy, anxiety, mey, shame, diseontent., despair, ambi- 
tion, avarice, &e., are redueible unto the first; and if they be intmodemte, 
they teonsume the spirits, and rnelaneholy is espeeially caused by them. Som 
îew disereet men there are, that ean goveru themselves, and curb in t.heso 
inordinate affections, by religion, philosophy, and such divine preeepts, of 
meekness, patience, and the like; but most part tbr want ofgovernment» out 
of indiseretion, ignorance, they surfer themselves wholly to be led by sense, 

 blarcl|lus Ficln,, I. 13, e 18. de theolooE. Platonlch. Imanatlo est tanqnam Proteu vel Cham.'eleon, 
corpus propriom et alenum nonnt:nqunm afficens, • Cur oscltantes oscitent, Wierus. t T. W. Jesait. 
g 3. de Anima. a ber. 35. lloe q«atuor passmnes snnt tanqoam rotoe in eut'ru, qn|bua vehlmu ho mualo. 
z/darum quippo immoderatmn spzritua marc¢acuat. Fern¢L 1.1. Pa. ¢. 1. 



170 Causes of,£elanchoTy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

and are so çar from repressing rebellious inclinations, that they give all en- 
couragement unto them, leaving the reins, and zsing all provocations to fur- 
ther thcm : bad by nature, worse by art, discipline,  custom, edtwation, and 
a perver will of their own, they foHow on, wheresoever their unbridled affec- 
tions w'll transport them, and do more out of custom, selï-will, than out of 
reason. Contuntaoe v,duntas, as ]elancthon calls it, lumfci : this stub- 
born will of ours pervert judgment, which sees and knows what should and 
ought to be done, and yet will hot doit. awipia 9uloe, slaves to their 
veral lusts and appetite, they I,recipitate and plunge  themselves into a laby- 
rinth ofcares bliuded with lut, blinded with ambition ; "They seek 
at God's hands which thcy may gire unto themselves, if they could but re- 
fi'ain from those entes and perturbations, wherewith they continually maeerato 
their mind" But giving way to these violent passions of fear, grief, shame, 
revenge, hatred, malice, &e., they are torn in pieces, as Atoeon waz with hi$ 
dogs, and * crucify their own souls. 

Suszer. IV.Sorrow a cause 

Sorrow. Ins«nus d,/or.] In this calaalogtae of pssions, whlch so much 
torment the .oul of man, and cause this malady (for I will briefly speak of 
hem ail, and in their order), the first place in this irascible appetite, may 
jtLst]y be challenged by orrow. An inseparable comp,nion, "° ïhe rnother 
and daughter of rnelancholy, ber epitome, symptom, and chief cause :" as 
Hippocrate bath it, they beget one another, aud tread in a ring, for orrow ia 
both cause and symptom of this disease. How it is a symptom shall be shown 
in its place. That it is a cause ail the world acknowledgeth, Dolor nonnullus 
insa»dce causa fait, et a[ioru»t morborum instmabi[iu.m, saitla Plutarcla to 
pollouius; a cause of madness, a cause of rnany other diseases, a sole cause 
of this mischief, »Lemnius calls if. So doth lhasis, eont. L 1. tract. 9. 
Guianerius, /'r«tcg. 15, c. 5. _And if if take roof once, it ends in despair, as 
« Felix Pinter observes, and as in "Cebes' table may well be eoupled with it. 
• Chrysostom in his seventeetlth epistle to Olympia, deseribes it to be a cruel 
torture of the soul, a most inexplicable grief, poisoned worm, eonsumingbody 
and soul, and gnawing the very henri, a perpetud exeeutioner, eontinual night, 
profound darkness, a whirlwind, a tempest, an ague hot appearing, heating 
wotze than any tire, and a battle that bath no end. Xt erncifies wors than 
any tyrant ; no torture, no strappado, no bodily punishmeut is like unto it. 
'Tis the eagle without question whieh the poets fei¢med fo gnaw *Prometheus 
]eart, and "' no heaviness is like unto the heaviness of the henri," Eccles. xxv. 
15, 16. "'Every perturbation isa misery, but grief a cruel forment," a 
domixeering passion : as in old Rome, when the Dietator was ereated, all infe- 
rior magistmeies eeased ; when grief appears, all other passions vanisl "If 
dfiesupthe bones,"saitlaSclomon,eh. 17. Prov., "makesthem hollow-eyed,pale, 
and lean, furrow-faced, to bave dead looks, wrinkled brows, shrivelled eheeks, 

• a| conoendlne depravatur ingeniam ne bene facial ProsperCaIenus, 1. de a be. iurs fclnnt 
homin è nsuetudin quam è ralione. A tene$ uece multum t. Video meliors proboqu d 
eriora equor. Ovid.  No ioeditur ni$i à teipo.  lul  in inquiudinem cipitant ambition 
et cupiditatibus exccatl non inlelliunl  illud  di pele[ quod aibi ips 
curis et perturbalionibus, quibu iduk  maçerant, iperare relient, n Tanto studio miam 
et imenta dolorum qumu vitamque ecua feliciimam, 'tem et miserbilem u& etch. 
proefat, de Remedii &c.  Timor et mtiti si diu perseverent, ua et aooi 
circulum e procreant. Hip. Ap]mris. 23. ]. 6. Idem $ovta]tus cap. i9. Victoue Fatoenfinns prt. 
imag. t Multi ex mo rote et metu hue dcla! sont. Lemn. ]ib. 1. cap. 16. « M curà et tristifià faciut 
accedere elaneholia (cap. 3. de ment alien.) si altas radices aga in veram fixamque degenet 
lancholiam et in deperationem deeinit, • II1¢ luctu ejus ve ror dperatio aimul poni, • Anim 
m cdele toen tutu, dolur inexplicabiliN tine& non olum oa sed corda perfingen petu 
vir animœe conaumen%jt:s nox, et tenebroe profundoe, tempestas et turbo et fcbri no paren om 
Ie vaiiue incendene; Iongior, el puoe finem non abence circumfe dulor, faciemque om 
'ranno cdeliorem proe se fert. tat. Com ythol. I. 4. c. 6. * Ty 3. T. 
ia et zmifica t doler. 



Sfom. 3. Subs. 5.] Fear, a Cause . 171 

dry bodie, and quite pewerts their temperature that are misaffected with it. 
As Eleonora, that exiled mournfil duchess (in out "F,glish Ovid), lament 
to ber noL1e husband Humphrey, duke of Glocester, 
« .awest thou those eyes in whose sweet cheerful look 
])uke llumphry oce such joy and pleasure took 
So,'row bath so despoil'd me of ail g,'ace, 
Thou could'st hot say this ws my Elaor's face. 
Like a foui Gorgon," 
"• if hinders concoction, refrigerates the heurt, takes away stomac]], colour, 
a»d sleep, thickens the blood (" Feruelius l. 1. cap. 18, de morb. causls), con- 
taminates the spirits." (" Piso.) Overthrows the natural heat, perverts the 
good estate of body and mind, and makes tbem weal T of their lires, cry out, 
howl and roar for very anguish of their souls. David confess¢d as much, 
Psalm xxxviii. 8, "I bave roared for the very disqnietness of my heurt." 
And Psahn cxix. 4 part, 4 v. "3y soul melteth away for very heaviness," v. 83, 
" I ara like a bottle in the smoke." Antiochus complained that he could hOt 
sleep, and that his hea fainted for grief, bChrist himself, Vit dolorum, out of 
an apprehension of grief, did sweat blood, Mark xiv. "His soul was henry to the 
death, and no sorrow was like unto his." Crato cons//. 2I, l. 2, gives instance in 
one that was so melancholy by reason of c grief; and Moutanus co»tsil. 30, in a 
noble marron, "« that had no other cause of this mischief." I. S. D. in Hildes- 
heim, fully cured a patient of his that was much troubled with melancholy, and 
for many years, "«but afterwards, by a little occasion ofsorrow, he fell into his 
former fits, and was tormented as befvre." Examples are common, how if 
causeth melancholy, t despcratiou, and sometimes death itself for (Eccles. 
xxxviii. 15), "Of heaviaess cornes death ; worldly sorrow causeth death." 
2 Cor. vii. 10, Psalm xxxi. 10. "My life is wasted with heaviness, and my 
years with mourning." Why was Hecuba said to be turned to a dog? iobe 
into a stone? but that for grief she was senseless and stupid. Severus the 
Emperor  died for grief; and how  many myriads besidcs? Tanta illi est 
Jëritas, tanta est insania le.crûs.  ]Ielancthon gives a reason of it, " the 
gathering of much melancholy blood about the heurt, which collection extin- 
guisheth the good spirits, or at least dulleth them, sorrow s4kes the heart, makes 
it tremble and pine away, with great pain; and the black blood drawn from 
the spleen, and d iffused under the ribs, on the left side, makes those perilous hypo- 
chondriacal convulsions, vhich hapl)en to them that are troubled w ith sorrow 

Sur, sEoe. V.--Fer, a Cause. 
Covm-A to sorrow, is fear, or rather a sister, c, and con- 
tinual comnion, an assistant d a principal agent in procuring of th mi 
chier; a cau and symptom  the other. In a word,  t Vh'gfi of the 
arpies, I may justly y of them both, 
 stlus hand illls monstre, noe $oecr ulla [ '« A sadd monst, or me el pleso felÇ 
Pt et h'a Deum sty seee eltt ." Or vcngean of the go» ne'er ce frvm SD'x or H].  
This f fiend of ç w worshipd heretofoe a a god y the 

• M. Dra.vton in his Her. ep.  Crato consll. 21.1Vo. 2. oestltla nnlversnm |nfrlgdat corpus, calorem 
|natum extinguit, appetitum destrutt. Cvr refrlgerat tr|tltia, spiritus cxsiccat, innatumque calorem 
vbrult, v|glliae inducit, concoctionem labefactat anguinem lncrassa, exaggeratque melancholi, m uccum. 
* Spiritus et sanguls hoc contaminatur. Piso. b Marc. v Is. 11. * Moerore maceror, marcescv et 
conseuesco mteG oesa arque pellis sure mlsera acrltudine. Piaut. • blalum in, eptum et actum a 
trietltia ola. * ll|lde.heim, spicel. 2. de melancholm, moerore snlm! postea accedente, in priora symp- 
tomata inc|dit. Vives 3. de av|ma, c. de moe ore. Sabin. in Ovi6. s l'leroan. I. . moeroremgis 
quam morlm cotsuuptus est. t Bothwcllius atrlbilarius obiit. Brizarrus Genuensls hlst. &c. t ho 
great is the flel.ceness and madnœss of melmcholy, • Moestitia cor quasi percussum constrivgitnr, trem|t 
œeet languescit cure acr| sensu doloris, in Irstitia cor fgens attahit ex bplee Ientum humorem el&u- 
chu||cura, quieffusus sub costis in s|nistro lalere hypochondriacos flatus facit quvd elœee a¢cidit ris qui 
diutuxna cura œeet mttttti4 cvnfilctantux. ][elacthoa. t IAb. 3. A'n. 4. 



172 Causes of Mdandwly. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

doemonlans, and most ofthose other torturing m affections, and se was sorrow 
amongst the rest, under the naine of Angerona I)e, they stood in such awe of 
them, as Austin de CiPitat. De/, I/b. 4. cap. 8. noteth out of Varro, fear 
commonly n adored and painted in their temples with a lion's head 
)Iacrobiu3 records l. 10. Sattrn«llum; "* in the calends of January, Angerona 
"had her holy day, te whom in the temph of Volupi*_, or goddess of pIeasure, 
their aumrs and bishops did yearly sacrifice; that, being propitious te them, 
she might expel all cares, anguish, and vexation of the mind for tlmt year fol- 
lowing." lany lamentable effects this fear causeth in mon, as te be red, pale 
tremble, sweat,  it makes sudden cold and hent te corne over Ml the body 
]alpitatiort of the heart, syncope, &e. It amazeth many mon that are te 
speak, or show themselves in publie assemblies, or belbre seine great per- 
songes, as Tully confessed of himself, that ho trembled still ai the beginning 
of his speech ; and I)emosthenes, that great orator o! Greece, before Philippus. 
If conf)u nds voice and memory, as Lueian wittingly bringsin Jupiter '_Pmgoedus, 
se mueh afraid of his auditory, when ho was te make a speech te the test of 
the gods, thaç ho could net utter a ready word, but was compelhd te use 
Iereury's help in prompting. lany mon are se amazed and aztottished wlth 
îear, they know net where they are, what they say,  what they de, and that 
which is worse, it tortures them many days bcfore with continual afldghts and 
suspicior If hinders most hbnourable attempts, and makes their heartz ache, 
sad and heavy. They that lire in fear are never free, resolute, secure, never 
merry, but in continual pain: that, as Vives truly said, 2Vulla est mîseria 
m.o qànt wtss, no greater misery, no rack, nor torture like unto it, ever 
SUSldciou., anxious, solicitous, they are childishly drooping without reason, 
without judgment, « ° especially if some terrible object be offered," as Plutarch 
bath it. It causeth oftentimes sudden madness, and almost ail manner of 
diseases, as I bave sufficiently illustrated in my t digression of the force of 
imagination, and shall de more at large in my section of * terrors. Fenr 
makes our inagination eoneeive what it list, invites the devil te corne te us, as 
• Agrippa and Cardan avoueh, and tyrannizeth over our lantasy more than 
ail et.ber affeetioes, espeeially in the dark. We sec this verified in most mon, 
as y Lavater saith, Qu rnetuunt,.fingunt; what they fear they conceive, and 
feign unto themselves; they think they see goblins, hags, devils, and many 
rimes become melancholy thereby. Cardan subtil, lib. 18. bath an example of 
such au one, se caused te be melancholy (by sight of a bgbear} all his 
after. Augustus Coesar durst net sit in the dark, n/r/ali/lUO assidente, saith 
• Suetouius, _Nunquam t, enebrls evigilavit. And 'ris strange what women and 
children will conceive unto themselves, if they go over a church-yard in the 
night, lie, or be alone in a dark room, how they sweat and tremble on a sudden. 
lany mcn are troubled with future events, foreknowledge of their fortunes» 
de.tinies, as Severus the emperor, Adrian and Domitian, Qu.od sciret ultimura 
vit diem, saith Suetonius, valde solicitus, much tortured in mind because he 
foreknew his end ; with many such, of which I shall speak more opportunely 
in another place, • Anxiety, mercy, pity, indignation, &c., and such iearfid 
bronches derived frein these two stems of fear and sorrow, I voluntarily omit; 
read More of them in  Carolus Pascalius,  Dandinus, &c. 

 Et metum Ideo deam sacrArunt rit onam montera eoneederet. Varro, Lactanttns, Ang. = Ll]iu 
Giraid. Syntag. 1. de diis miscellaniis.  Calendis Jan. ferioe eunt divœe Angeronoe ctll pontltice 
In eacelio Volup|p eacra faciunt, quod angores et aimi solicitudines propitiata propellat, • Timor 
inducit frgus, c»rdis paipitationen, vocis defecturn arque palloretn. Agrippa llb. I. cap. 63. T|rn|d| semper 
piritus habent gidos. Mont. q Effusas eernens fat.nentes agmine turmas; quls mes nunc inflat eornua 
Yaunus ait I Aiclat. • MetU» non r, olnm memoriam co,sternat, ced et institutum anitni omne et 
lautlabilem eonatum Impedil. Thucydide& • Lib. de forOtudine et virtuto Aiexandri, ubi propê res 
atlfuit terribilis, t Sect. 2. Merab. 3. Subs. 2. • Sect. 2. Memb. 4. Sabe. 3. • ubtiL 18. lib. 
tim,,r attrahit ad se Doemonas. tlmor et error multum in horninibun pos*unt, • Lib. 2. Spectri ca. ,t 
fortes rarb spectra vident, quia minus timent, • Vtta ejua. • Sect. 2. Mernb. 4. Sube. . • D 
vtrt. et vitiis, • Coin. in Arist de Anima. 



]Iem. 3. Subs. 6.] ,Sham« and 1)ssra«, C«uses. 173 
8WSECT. VI.SI and Dgre, Causcs. 
SHakE and disgrâce cause most olent psions and bitter pangs. Ob 
pem et dedecus publiera, oh rem commsum sœepe entur genosi 
ai'm£ (Fc luter l. 3.  al. nt) : Geaero minds are often moved 
with shame, to dcspair for some public disgrace. And he, ith Philo l. 2. 
 prid, dal, «  that subjects himself to fear, ic ambition, shame, is hot 
happy, but altother mrble, tortured with continual bour, tare, and 
misery." If is as forcible a batoerer as any of the test: " Many men ncglect 
the tumts of the world, and oere hot ibr glo, and yet they are afraid of 
infamy, repulse, disgrace, (Tul. oc. l. 1.) thcy OEn oeverely conmn pleasure, 
bear ief indiffercntly, but they are quite "battcred and broken with reproach 
and obloquy :" (sui&m vita et fa,paripas amb) and are  dejd 
many rimes for some public injury, dçace, as a box on the car by their 
infcfior, to be overcome of their adverry, foiled in the field, to be out in a 
peech, oeme foui ft commitd or disclosed, &c. that they date not corne 
abroad 1 their lires after, but melcholize in cornera, and keep in holes. Tho 
most genero spifits are most subject to it; Spitus ahosfi'angit et geos: 
Hieronym. Artotle, becausehe could hot undersmnd the motion of Eufip, 
for grief and shame droed himlf: Clius Rodiginus antuar. c. lib. 29. 
cap. 8. Homer pde coumptus, was swallowed up witi this passion of 
hame "oEuoe he could hot unfold the fisherman's riddle." Sophocles 
killed himoelf, "rfor that a tragedy of his was hissed off the sge :" a. 
.llaz. lib. 9. cap. 12. Lucretia stabbed helf, and so di6 Clcopatra, "hea 
he saw that she was oerved for a triumph, to avoid the amy." Antouius 
the Roman, "tafr he was overcome of his enemy, for three days' pace t 
soli in the fi»re-pa of the hip, abstaiug tom ail company, eve of 
Cleopatra hedf, and aKerwards for very shame buhered himself," lutarch 
vha ejus. "Apollonius Rhodius  wilfully banishe6 himoelt: foking his 
country, and al1 his dear fends, because he was out in reciting his poems," 
linius l. 7. cap. 23. jax ran mad, because his arms were adjudged to 
Ulyss In China 'tZ an ordinaxT thing for uch as are excluded in tho 
çamous trials of theit, or should Mke devez, for shame and grief to lose their 
wits, t$Iat. oeci expedit.  Sinas, l. 3. c. 9. Hostratus the friar took tha 
book vhich euclin had writ against him, uder the naine of Elt. obscur- 
orm vrum, so to hear/, tt for shame and grief hede awayhimlf, 
Jvvi-us in egi. A ve and lmed minuter, and an ordita preacher at 
Alcmar in Holland, was (one day as he walked in the fields for s roereation) 
suddenly takea wih a lax or loooene, and thereupon comlled to retire to 
the next dih ; but being surprised at unawares, by some gentlewomen of his 
rish wandefing that way, was so abhed, that he did never aKer show h 
head in publiG or corne into the pulpit, but pined away with melancholy : 
(Pet. Fort . obseat, lib. 10. obst. 12.) $o shamo amongst other 
psions can play his prize. 
I know there be many base, impudent, brazen-$aced roes, that will ul 
acere cul, d, ho moved vith othing, take no ifamy or disgrace to heart, 

* Qui mentem sbJeclt timorls domlnationl, cuplditatls, dolorls, ambitlonls, pndorls, felix non est, sed omnln 
miser, sasiduis laboribus torquetur et misel'ia, a Multi contemnunt mundi atpitum, reputant pro ihilo 
gloa,,, d riment infg,niam, offeionem, repuam. Voluptatem aeveimè contemnunç 
inollior glolil neglin frangun,ur infamia, • Gravitta cont«tmcliam feri. quam detrentu 
abjecto u[ntis au,roc tnu. Plut. tu Timot. ¢ Quo toris n'a lvere non poet, g Oh Tra. 
goediam explosam, mortem sibi gladio conecivit.  Cure vidit in triumphum se rvn cna ej 
Iominioe vitgndoe mortem aibi con8mvlt. Plu t Bello vict per tr 
absttnens ab omui conrtio, etiam CIeopatr po-t te interfecit, k Cure mal recit Argonauc oh 
udorem exulavit, t Quidam proe v'dia simul et dolore  in$iam incidunt, eo quod g Iitettom 
adu in exmuine excluduut, m Hostrat cuculist adeo viter oh Reucni librum  ecr.bitur, 
Episto oburotmm virorum, dolore elu,ul et pudore aauciatuS, ut «eipsum inteecel-it. =Propret 



17 Causes of Mdancholy. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 
laugh et all; let them be proved perjured, stigmatized, convier rogues, thieves, 
traitors, lose their ears, be whipped, branded, carted, pointed et, hissed, reviled, 
and derided with p Ballio the Bawd in Pleutres, they rejoiee et if, CantoreslrrO- 
bos; "baboe and bombax," what tare they | We havv too many such in out 
rimes, 
«--.Exclamer ]bI«,llcert« perlsse 
--Frontem de rebut." 
et a modest man, one that bath graee, a generous spirit, tender of his repu- 
ration, will be deeply wounded, and so grievously affected with if, that he had 
rather give myriads of crowns, lose his life, than surfer the least det:,tmation of 
honour, or blot in his good naine. And if so be that he cannot avoid if, as a 
nightingale, Quce cantando victa twrltu" (saith 
another bird sing better, he languisheth and pineth away in the anguizh of 
spirit. 
SVBSECT. VII.--Envy, Malice, tIatred, Cat«ses. 
F_wT and malice are two liaks of th chain, and both, as Gnianerlus Tract. 
15. cap. 2. prove.s ont of Galen 3. Aphorism. coin. 22. "'cause this malady by 
themselves, especilly if their bodies be otherwise disposed to melancholy." 
'Tis Valescus de Taranta, and Foelix Platerus' observation, "'Envy so gnaws 
nany men's hearts, that they become altogether melmcholy." And therefore 
belike Solomon, Prov. xiv. 13. oeils it, "thc roe.ting of e.he bones," Cyprian 
vubus occullum ; 
«--- $1culi non Invenere tyranal 
lus tormentmn " 
The Sicilian tyrans never invented the like torment. t crucifies their sonls, 
wit.hers their bodies, makes them hollow-eyed, "pale, lean, and ghastly fo 
behohl, Cyprian ser. 2. de zelo e2 livore. "ras a moth gnaws a germer, t, so," 
saith Chrysosi;om, "doth envy consume a man ; fo be a living anatomy: 
akeleton, tobe a lean and "pale carcass, quickeaed with a "fiend," ]:[all in 
Charact. for so often as an envions wretch sees another man prosper, tobe 
enriched, fo thrive, and be forttmate in the world, to get honours, offices» or 
the like, he repinea and gr!,eves. Mntalaescltqe vtdendo 
IlCC.U homiaum---uçlAiCiamque »uum est. » 
le ortures himself if his equal, friend, neighbour, be preferred, commended, 
do well; if he understand of it, it galls him afresh ; and no greater pain 
corne l;o him han to hear of another man's well-doing ; 'ris a da,,«er a his 
heart every such object, l-Ie looks et him as they that fell down in Luciau's 
rock of honour, with an envious eye, and will damage himselt to do another 
aischief: Arque cadet subito, dura super hoste cadat. As he did in Esop, lose 
one eye willingly, that his fellow might lose both, or hat rich man in * Quin- 
tilian that poisoned the flowers in hia garden, becanse hia neighbour's becs 
should get no more honey from them. tIis xvhole lif¢ is sorrow, and every 
word he speaks a satire: nothing fits him but other men's ruins. For to 
speak in a word, envy is nought else but Trlstitla de bonis alienis, sorrow for 
Ps. Impdice. B. Ira est. Ps. scele.te. B. d|c|s vers. Pe. Verbero. B. qulppenl I Ps. tarcffer. B. factura 
ptime. las. soci fraude. B. sunt mer, ita:c, l's. pmTicida. B. perge tu. l'n. sacrilege. B. fateor, l's. perjure. B. 
vers di¢is. Pe. pernities udoleacentum. IL aeerrimi. Ps. far. IL bttboe, las. fugitive. B. bombax I l. frau| 
populL B. PlanissimC l's. impure leno, coenum B. cantorea proboa. Pseudolus act. 1. ,$cen. 3.  Meli. 
¢erta exclaims, "ail sh,me haa vanihed from human transactions." lersius, Set . • Cent. 7 e Plinio 
• Multos videmus propter invidiam et odium in melancholiam incidiase : et illoe potisimm quornm corpor& 
ad hane apte unt. «Invidia afltigit homines udeo et corrodit, ut bi melancholici peu tus fiant, • Hot. 
• His vultus ndnax, torvala aa--ectus, pallor in racle, in labiis trem,,r, stridor in dentibus,/ltc, rut tin¢. 
corrodit veatimentum, sic invldia eum qui zelatur consumit. 
lgusqtaam reeta scies, livent rubigine dente.s, • Diaboll expresse lmago, tozicum charitatia, venenuta 
amiciti., abyssus mentla, non et eo monstroslus monstrtam, dmaosius damnum, urit, torret, discruciat 
,cie et squalore conlicit. Attatin. Dorais. lrlml Advent. • Ovid. Ile pines awtty st the sight o| 
aaother's sueeeasit in hia slecial torture. * Declmn. 13. liaivit flores malelici sacci in I, eaatua 



Iem. . Subi. 8.] 

- Emulaton, Ilatr, ,f'c. 175 

other men's good, be if present, past, or te corne: et g,tudium de adverss, and ° 
joy at their harms, opposite te mercy, «which grieves at other mcn's mi- 
chances, and miflcts the body in another kind; se Damascen dcfines if, lib. 
2. dr ort/wd.ftd. Thomas 2. 2. qurst. 36. art. 1., Arstotle l. 2. 1,'het. c. 4. et 
10., Plate Philebo., Tully 3. Tusc., Çrej. Nic. l. devirt, animoe, c. 12., Basil. 
Invidia, Pindarus Od. l. ser. 5. a»d we fiad it truc. ïl'is a common disease, 
and ahnost natural te us, as °Tacitus holds, te envy another man's prosperity. 
And 'tis in most men an incurable disease. "ri haro rea,i," saith Marcus 
Aurelius, "Greek, Hebrew, Cha[dee authors; I have consulted with many 
wise men for a remedy tbr envy, I couid find none, but te renounce ail happi- 
ness, and te be a wretch, and miserable for ever." 'Tis the beginning of hcil 
in this life, and a passion net te be excnse& "gEvery other sin hath seine 
pleasure annexed te it, or will adroit of an excuse; envy alone tvants both. 
Other sins last but for awhile; the gut may be satisfied, anger remits, hatred 
bath an end, envy never ceaseth." Cardan lib. 2. de sap. Divine and human 
e.xmples are very familiar; y,u may run and rend them, as that of Saul and 
David, Cain attd Abel, angat illum non proprium peccatum, sed fratri pros- 
perita, saith Thodoret, it was his brother's good |brtune galled him. Rachcl 
envied her sister, being barrcn, Gen. xxx. Joph's brethren, him, Gen. xxxvii- 
David had a touch of thia vice, as he confesseth, Ps. 37. Jercmy and 
akkuk, they repined at others' good, but in the end they corrected themselve. 
l's. 75. "ft net thyself," &c. Domitian spited gricola for his worth, 
'athat a private man should be se much giorified." Cecinna was envied of 
his fellow-citizens, bcauoe he was more richly adorned. But of all others, 
 women are most weak, oh Ful«hritudinem iuvldoe suntfoemi,oe (Muswus)aut 
a»utt, aut odit, niYtil est tertium (Graw2eis). They love or hate, no medium 
amongst them Implacabiles plerumque lsœe mdieres, Agril,pina like, "° 
womaa if she sec ber neighbonr more neat or elegant, ficher in rires, jeweis, 
or apparel is enraged, and like a lioness oets upon her husbaud, rails at her, 
sco(ïs at ber, and canner abide ber;" se the Roman ladies in Tacitus did at 
Sohnina, Cecinna's viïe, v"because she hd a better horse and better furni- 
turc, as if she had hurt them with it; they were much offended. Tin like sort 
out gentlewomen de at thcir usual meeting, one repines or scoffs at another's 
bravery and happiness, bIyrsine, an Attic wench, was murdcred of ber 
lows, "«because she did excel the rest in beauty," Constantine Agricult. l. 11. 
c. 7. Every village will yield such examples. 

BBS.Cr. ¥IIL--/mu/atbn, Hatred, Faction, De.r« of Reveng«, Causes. 

Ouv of this roof of envy "spring tho ferai branches of faction, hatred, livor, 
emulation, which cause the like grievances, and are, serroe anisme, the saws of 
the sotl,  cansternatonis pleni a.rectus, affections full of desperate amazement; 
or as Cyprian describes emulation, it is "'a moth of the seul, a consumption 

*Statu|s ©ere| lasl||us eos ©omparat, qui llqueflunt ait prœesent|am tali, (11 alil gswlent et orantur. 
|tt5e- al,i, qttoe u|ceribu gaudeut, amoeua proetereuut, sistunt in foetidia.  h/5ericordi etiart 
quœe tristitta qnsedam et, soepe miser&nti corpus ma'e afltcit Agrippa I. 1. cap. 63. • Insitmn 
.ortalibus a naturs recentem aliorum fie)icitatem oegriS oculis intueri, hist. 1.2. Tacit. rLegt Chaldeos, 
Groeco He consultt| aapiente pro revaedio |nvtdi, hoc eui.m inverti, renunciarc fel|citati, e pet'petu 
luiser ee. sOmne peccatum aut excusationem secum httbet, aut v,»iuptatem, soi invidia uraque caret» 
relqus vifla fluem habe,t, ira defervecit» ttls atistur odium finem habet, luvidia nunquam quiecit. 
 Urebat me $emultio propret sttt|toa. Il|er. 12. 1. * Hab. 1. t inidit privati nomen supra 
principls attoKi. ' Tacit. Hist. lb. 2. part 6. Periture dolore et invidia, si quem viderinl; 
ornatiorem e |n pub||cum prodiisse. Pltdua dial. amorum. 
ue|ii foemina ieint elegitta 
equo et ostro veheretur, quatqum nulliu$ cure lnjuria, ornstum illun tnqua n lesoe gravsbantur. « Quo,! 
ichritudlne on»ne eoelleret, puelloe 
or rsdix omuium m,lorum, fo ¢ladiam, ide eliau: urgit, emulaio. C3aa r. 2. de LIv. ° Vtfl. 
rm L 3. cap. 9. • Qualis est aimi tinea, 
facere mIserim, et velut quosdam pectori uo admovere carnificea, cogiationibu et sen$ibu$ œeeuis adhibere 
tortoea, qui e |utetiuis cruitibus lacereut. 
supiratttr seraper et gcmitttrs et doletttr dies et noct¢ pectu sine iatermiione lcerattr, 



176 Causes OE Mdancholy. [Part. 1. Bec. 
fo make auother man' happine his miry, o tortuoe, ccify, nd execut 
himself, to eat h own heart. Meat and drk eau du such men no goed, they 
do always grieve, sigh, and groan, day and night withont intermission, their 
breast is torn under :" and a little after, "' Whomsoever hc is whom thou 
dost emulate and envy, he may avoid thee. but thou canst neither avoid him 
nor thyst.lf; wheresoever thou art he is with thee, thine enemy is ever  thy 
brut, thy destction  within thec, thou at a captive, bou,d hand and 
as long as thou art malicious and enotm, and oenst hot he comforted. It w 
the del's ovehrowj" and whensoever thou art thoroughly affected with thh 
io it w be te. Yet no pertbation so fi'equent, no roEion so common. 
A potier emulat a potier; [ A beggar emulates a bear; 
One smith envi other:  g m h broth. 
Every society, corporation, and pvae family  full ofi, i akes hold Imos 
of ]l sor of men, from he prince fo he ploughmau, even amongs goesi 
is  be een, oErce hree in  company bu here i siding, faction, emulatio,, 
Letween wo of hem, some mult«.% ja privae grudge, hear-buing in he 
mids of hem. Searoe wo genflemen dwell ogeher in the country (if hey 
Le hOt near n or linked in mariage), bu there is emaion bewix hem 
heir servants, some quael or some gdge bewixt heir wives or children, 
friends and followers, some conenion abou wealh, genry, precedency, e., 
by mes of which, like the og in =sop, "ha would swell ill he w 
big  an ox, bur heroelf a lt.;" hey will sretch beyond he forunes, 
callin, and srive o long ha hey consume heir substance in law-suiç$ or 
otherwise in hospialit.y, lèasting, fine cloches, fo ge a few bombast titles, for 
ambit«â pu«r I«bm orang, o outbrave one anoher, hey will ti 
heir bodies, mcerat.e heir aouls, and hugh contentions or muunl vi 
ions beggar hemselves. Scaroe wo ea schola in an age, bn wih bier 
inveciv hey fll foul one on he other, and their dherens; Scoist 
Thomis, es, ominds, Plno and Arotle» Gdenists and ar[z 
&c., i holds in all professions. 
Hones remdaion in sudies, in all callin is no o Le disliked, 'is 
um oes,  one ca i, he wheoue of wit, he nu of wi and valour, 
and those noble omns out of his piri did brve exploi Theoe is 
modest ambition,  Thesocles w rocd up wih the glory of 
Aellea' ol»hies moved Alexander, 
« • Amblre semp, stulta eonfidentla  
Ambire nquam d arrogantin L  
'Tis  luggih humour no o emulae or o sue ai ail, o wit.hdraw himIf, 
neglec, refrain ri'oto such place honours, ooEce hrough sloçh, uiggardlin, 
fear, bashfulus, or otherwiœe, fo wch by  bir place, founes, eduoe- 
ion, he is called, p, fi and well ble o undeo; bu when it is immoderat% 
i   plae and a miserable pa. %Vha  dl of money did Henry VIII. 
and Fanc I. ng of Fnce, spend a ha  famo interview'l nd how 
many win courtiers, eking each o outbve other, spent themoelves, heir 
livelihoed and fortuues, and died begga *Adrian he emperor was so 
gled with i, tha he kled all his equa; o did ero. This passion marie 
 Dionyzius he yrant banih Plao aud Philoxenus he poe, because hey did 
excel and ecUpse his glory,  he thought; he omans exe Coriolanus, con- 
tqulsquls t llle uem ulaH c Ind Is te snbteure pot ni  non  ubleunque fugerl 
6versari tu teeum esç ho»tis tutm sper in pectore tuo  peici i»t clus ligat  
zelo dominan captiv: nec solatia tibl ulla subvenlt: c diabolus inter ini station mundi, 
periit prlmu et perdidit, Cypan n. 2. de zelo et livore.  H«iod. Op. et Di. aRana capd 
qudl bovem,  distendebaç &e. • mulatio alit Ingenla : Patercul poster, vol  Groti. 
Epi. lib. I. "Ambition wa)' In a f..o confidcnc% ney a o TO¢e." "0119, 



lem.'. Subs. .] Anger, a C.e. " 77 
tine Camillus, mrtrJer Sciplo; the Greeks by ostraclsm to expcl Axistides, 
/icias, Alcibiaàes, imprison Theseus, make away l)hocion, &c. When 
Richard L and Philip of France were fe[low soldiers together, af the siege of 
con in the tIoly Land, and Richard had approved himself to be the more 
valiant man, insomuch that all men's eyes were upon him, it so galled Philip, 
aPrancum urebat Regia vctor, saith mine ®author, tare œegr ferebot Richardi 
gloriam, ut carpere dlcta, ealumniarifacta; that he eavilled at all his pro- 
ceedings, and fell at length fo open defianee ; he could contain no longer, but 
hasting home, invaded his territories, and professed open war. " Yiatred st.ira 
up contention," Prov. x. 12, and they break out af last into immortal enmity, 
into viruleney, and more than Vatinian hate and rage; d they peroeeute each 
other, their friends, followers, and all their posterity, with bitter tannt.s, hostile 
wars, selarrile invective.a, libels, ealumniea, tire, sword, and the like, and will 
hot be reconciled. Witness that Guelph and Ghibelline faction in Italy; that 
of the Adurni and Fregosi in Genoaj t.hat of Cneius lapirius, and Quintua 
Fabius in Rome; Coesar and Fompey; Orleaus and /3urgundy in France; 
York and Laneaster in England: yea, this passion so rageth "many rimes, 
that it subverts hot men only, and familles, but even populous eities, « Carthage 
and Corinth ena witness as much, nay flourishing kingdoms are brought into a 
wilderness by it. This hatred, malice, factiotx, and desire of revenge, invented 
first ail those raeks and wheels, atrapadoea, brazen bulls, ferai engines, prisons, 
inquisitions, evere laws to macerate and torment one another. Yiow happy 
might we be, and end out time with blessed days and sweet content, if wo 
eould eontain ourselves, and, as we ought to do, put np injuries, learn humility, 
meekness, patience, forger and forgive, as in t God's word we are enjoined, 
compose such final eontroversies amongst ourselves, moderate out passions in 
this kind, "aud think better of others," as «Paul would bave us, " thaa of 
ourselves: be of like affection one towards another, and hot avenge ourselves, 
but bave peaee with ail men." But being that we are so peevish and perverse, 
insolent and proud, so factions and seditious, so malieious and envious; we do 
invieera angariare, maul and vex one another, torture, disquiet, and preeipitat 
oumelves into that gulf of woes and earea, agravate out mizerjr and melan- 
choly, heap ai)on us hell and etemal damnation. 
Strsr.cr. IX.-- A nger, a Cause. 
A¢oa% a perturbation, which carries the spirits outwards, preparlng tl,e 
body fo melancholy, and madnesa itself: Irafuror brevis est, "anger is tem- 
porary madness ;"and as  Piceolomineus aeeounta it, one of the three most violent; 
passions, tAreteus sers if down for an espeeial cause ( doth Seneca, ep. 18. l. 1.) 
of thiz malaAy. h[agninus gives t.he reason, £xfrequenti ira supra modu» 
cale, uni; it overheats their bodies, and if it be too frequent, if breaks out into 
manifest madnesa, saitl St,. Ambrose. 'Tis a known saying, Furorfit laesa sel)ius 
pat/ent/a, the most patient spirit that is, if he be often provoked, will be incensed 
fo madnesa; i¢ will make a devil of a saint: and therefore Basil (belike) in his 
/-Iomily de Ira, ealh if tendras atkmis, wrbum anirac,, et daemonem pessl- 
muta; the daxkening of out undemtanding, and a bad angel. Lueian, in 
Abdeato tora. 1. will bave this passion fo work this effect» eapecially La o14 

*Johanne Hersldu.% 1. . e. 12. de bello eacro • ulla die tantum potertt lenlre furorem. Etern bell 
iace sublatA gerunt. Jttrat odum, nec ante luvlmm ee desinit, quam ee deiit. Paterculu& vol. 1. 
• Ira ,vit hoec stygls ministra ut urbe8 eubvertat aliquando, delest populo, provincias alioqui florentes 
redigst in soltlmdinea, morta]e vero mieros In profunda mlneriarum valle mierabiliter lrnmergat. 
* Cartbago lem Rouan| Lmperfi funditu lnterllt. Salust. Catir. Faul. 3 Col. ztom 12. 
• Grad. 1. ¢. 54. I Ira et moeror et lngem animi ¢onternatio me|aneholcos facit. Aretetm. Ira immoica 
gigatt imantam, • R¢g. enit, parte 2. c. B. in apertam Inmniam bOX ducitur |ratus. t Gilberto 
Coguato tnterprete, lIultis, et lr-ertim eenibu ira impote it3aiam f¢eit, et importuna ea]nml]ia, ]a.e 
tnitto perturb6t animtxm, patxlatim vevgit ad insaniam. Pvrro mulierum evrpora mnlta infestant, et in hune 
morbttm a44cuut, prcipu $| ,um oderiut sut [nvideeut, &c. h:ee ultirn in Insanlam tandem evadtml. 



178 Cau*e* of Melazelwly. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

men and womeu. " Anger and calumny (sith he) trouble them af first, and 
aftcr a while break out into maduess: many thiugs cause fury in women, 
especidly if they love or h:tte overmuch, or envy, be much grieved or aUgl'y 
these thiags by little and little lead them on to this malady." From a disl,O- 
sitiou they proceed fo au habit, tbr there la no difference bctweea a mad man, 
and an ang T man, in the rime of his ti; angcr, ms Lactautius describes 
L. de Ira Dei, ad DonaSum, c. 5. is 'sceva anind tenI)est«s , &c., a cruel tem- 
pest of the mind; "making his eyes sparkle tire, and stare, teeth gnsh in 
hoad, his tongue stut.ter, bis face pale, or red, and what more filtby imitation 
can be of a mad man " 
«  Ora turacnt lr fervescunt sanguine venoe, 
Lumin Gorg0nio eviùs angue mitant." 
Thcy are vold of reou, inexorable, bliud, like bets and mousters for the 
rime, sy and do they know hot what, curs, swear, rail, tight, and what hot? 
]tory eau a mad man do more? as ho said in the comedy, °Iracundia non 
«pude, I ara hot mine ovn man. If thes fits be immoderate, continue 
l,,ng, or be frequeut, without doubt they provoke maduess. ][vutanus, consil. 2 I, 
had a melaucholy Jew fo his patient, he ascribes this for a principal cause: 
]«ascebatur let'il)us de causis, he was easily moved fo anger. Ajttx had no other 
begiauiug of his madness; and barles the Sixth, that lunatic French king, 
thll into thls misery, out of the extremity of his pression, desire of revcnge 
and malice, Pincensed aguinst the duke of Britaiu, he could neither est, driuk, 
nor sleep ç)r some days together, and in the end, about the caleuds of July, 
1392, he became ml upou his horseback, drawing bis sword, striking such 
came near him promiscuously, and so contiuued all the days of his lire, 
lib. 10. Gal. his$. .AT.ge.¢ippus de excid, urbis Hieros. l. 1. c. 37. hath sueh 
story of Herod, that o',t of au augry tir, became mad, «leaping out of his bed, 
Le killed Josippus, and played many such bedlam prauks, the vhole court 
could hot rtfle him for  long rime after: sometimes he was sorry and repented, 
much grieved for tbat be had doue, Post..,v.am de]ërbuit ira, by and by outrage- 
ous again. Ifi hot choleric bodies, nothing so soon causeth madness, as this 
l)siou of auger, besides mauy other diseuses, as Pelesius observes, cap. 21.1. l. 
(le. htm. aject, causis ; Sazguinem inmlnui, fel auge : and as "Valesius con- 
troverts, Med. controv, lib. 5. contro. 8. many rimes kiils them quite out. If t.his 
were tbe worst of this passion, it were more tolerable, ""but it rfins and 
tlbvergs whole towns, cities, amilies and kingdoms ;" 2VOE/a pestis ltmarm 
generi pluris setit, saith SeneoE, de Ira, lib. 1. To plague bath doue man- 
kind so much barre. Look into our histories, and you shall Mmost meet with 
no other subject, but what a company of hare-braius bave doue in their rage. 
Ve may do we.ll tberefore fo put this in our procession amongst the test; 
"Fmm all blindness of heurt, from pride, vain-gloLv , and hypocrisy, ftm 
envy, hatred and malice, anger, and all such pestifcrous perturbations, good 
Lord deliver us." 

SUSEr. X.--Dseonterds, Çares, $$1ser% &c. Causes. 
Dsco.xTv..xs, Cal'eS, crosses, miseries, or whatsoever if is, that shall caus 
a,y molestation of spirits, grief, anguish, and perplcxity, may well be reduced 
o this head (preposterously placed here in some meu's judgments they may 
seem), yet in that Aristotle in lais lhetoric dcfines these cures, as be doth 
envy, emulatiou, &c. still by grief, I think I may well tank them in this iras- 

m Soeva anlml tCmpes{a.s tantos excltans fluctus ut statim ardescant o:!, osemat, ln tltube 
coerepanL c.  O id. o Terece.  lnfensus ritannioe Duci, et in ultioncm versu ncc cibum 
cel,it, nec quietem, ad Calendas Juli 13 mitcs occidit, q lnditio:c nimi frens, animiquv 
impotens, exiit de Iccto, turentcm non apiebat aul &c. • An ira polit hominem interimere. 
a Abeethy.  As Tf,»,, soevæ memore Junonis oh iram. a Stmtorum regnm et po 
utinet oestus, a Lib. 2. lnvia t dolor et ambRio t dolog  



]Iem. 3. Subs. 10.] Discontents, Cares, &e. 179 

cible row; beiug that they are as the rezt, both causes aud symptoms of this 
disease, produciug tho liko inconvenienees, and aro most part accompanie01 
with anguish and pain. The common etymology will evince if, Cura, quasi 
cor u, ementes curœe, insomnes curœe, damnos curæ, tristes, otordaces 
ear»ifices, 'e., biting, eating, gnawing, cel, itter, siek, d, unquiet, pale, 
t .trie, mioerahle, intolerable eares, as the poets reall them, worldly tares, and 
are as many in mmlber as tho  sands. "Galen, Fernelius, Felix Plater 
Valesem de Taranta, &e., reekon afflictions, miseries, even all these conten. 
tons, and vexations of the mind, m prineipM eaes, in that thcy take awa] 
e!eep, hinder eoneoetion, dry up the body, and consume the substance of it. 
They are hot so many in number, but their eaus bem divers, and not oneof 
a thousand foee from them, or that eaa viadieate himselç whom that Are 
« * Per homlnum eaplta molliter ambulans» [ "Over men's hea walklng aloft, 
l'n pcdum tcner habens :" Wita tender feet trcading o soft," 
omesGde Atehath notinvolv in thisdionteud "ïank, or plagucd 
with me misery or other. Hyginus, fitb. 220, fo this I»Wpose bath a l»le 
sant talc. Dame Cura by chanoe went ora brook, and taking op some 
the dirty slime, ruade an image of it; Jupiter csoo coming by, Imt lire to 
it, but Cura and Jupiter could hot agree what nme to give him, or whoshoulJ 
own him; the matter w referred to Satu asjudge, he gave thisarbitemenl : 
his name shall be llomo ab humo Cura eum possideat quamdiu vi,at, 
8hall haro him whflst he lires, Jupiter hL soul, and Telhts his body when 
dies. But to lve talcs. A general cauoe, a continuate cause, an inoepab[o 
idcnt, fo all men, is discontent, cam, misery : were there no other parti- 
eular affliction (which who is free from ?) to molesta man in this lire, the ver] 
cogitaion of that common mi, T were enough to maoerate, and make 
meary of his life; to think that he n never be secure, but still in danger, 
s r*% efi and persecution. For to begin at the hour ofhis birth, as  Phny 
doth elegantly describe it, "he is born nak, and çoes  a whiniug at the 
very first, he is swaddled aad bound op like a prisoner, cannot help himself, 
and so he coutimes to his life's end." CO,,squefi.roe pabulum,saith * Senec 
impatient of heat and cold, impatient of labour, impatient of ieness, exposed 
to foune contumelies. To a naked marer Lucretius compar him, 
on shore by shipwreck, cold and comfortle in an unknown land : + no estate, 
age, sex, can secure himoelf from th common mLsery. "A man that is bol 
of a woman is of short eontuanoe, and fidl of trouble." Job xiv. 1, 22. 
« And whfle his h  upon him he shall be sorrowful, and while his so,l 
is in m it shall mourn." " A his days are ow and his travels grief. ; 
his heart also taketh hot rt in the night," Ecdes. . 23. and il. 1 l. " 
th:«t is in it is soow and vexation of spirit." e Ingress, progrcss, regress., 
egrem, much alike: Elin izeth on us in the beginning, labour iu th 
middle, grief in the end» error in all. What day ariseth tp us without some 
grieÇ OEre, or anguish ] Or what so cu and pleing a morning bave 
seen, that bath hot been overct before the evening ? One  mirabl% 
another ridiculous, a third ious. One complains ofth grievance, another 
of that. Allçndo nervi, aliquando pedes vexant (Seneca) hune dlstillatlo, 
ntow hepatis rb ; nunc det, hune s&ert sançuis : now the head aches 
thea the feet» now the lungs, then the ver, . l[uic sensus exu6erat, sed 
lnmn Claudian. Tte Vlrg. Mordac, Lac. Ed, Hor. MOE«tœe. Am Ovld. Damnos 
Inquie Mart. Urent, Rodt Mant. &c. • Galen. 1. $. c. 7. fie lotis affeetis, homin sunt maxime 
melanchollci, qando viglliis mtdt et so]icitudinlbu& et laboribu% et cm' ftteriut circuventi * Lucian 
Po«lag. *nia lmpeffec eonfus et perturbatlone plen Can. t Lib. 7 nat ist. cap. 
homlncm nudum, et ad vagi/ edit na/ura. Flens ab initio, devinct jacet &e 
et laclxrymans morlor, &c. * Ad Manum.  Boethhts. d lnitium ¢oecit% prgressum labor, exltu 
dolor, CTOr omnia : quem ,mquillnm qu:cso» quem non lario aut anximtt al»cal ¢gi 1 l'çtrnrc 



180 Causes of.'tlelanchlJ. [Part. 1. c. 2. 

est pudorl de9ener sanguls, gyc. Ite is rieh, but base bora ; he is noble, but 
poor ; a thirdhath means, but he wants health peradventure, or wit tomanage 
his estate; childrea vex one, wife a second, &c. 2Vemo faeilk cure ¢onditione 
$uâ concordat, no man is pleased with lais fortune, a pound ofsorrow is Iami- 
iarly mixed with a dram of content, little or no joy, little comfol', but °every- 
w here d:mger, contention, anxiety, in all places: go where thou wilt, and 
thou shalt find discontents, cares, woes, complaints, sickness, diseases, iacum- 
brances, exclamations : " If thou look into the market, there (saith * Chry- 
sostom) is brawliag and contention; if fo the cour, there knavery and fiat- 
tery, &c. ; if to a private man's bouse, there's cark and care, heaviness,"&c. 
As he said ofold, tHil komine in terrâ $pirag raierum mages almd 
creature so miscrable as man, so geuerally molested, "« in miseries of body, 
iu miseries oï mind, miseries of heart, in miseries osleep, in miseries awake, 
in miseries wheresoever he turns," as Bernard round, Nunquidtentatio est vita 
humana super terrain ? A mere temptation is out liïe (Austin, eo»Jès, lib. 
10, cap. 28). eatena perpetuorum malorum, et quis æotest molestias et d;J]ï- 
cultates pari? Who tan endure the miseries of it  " + In prosperity we aro 
insoleut and iutolerable, dejected in adversity, in all fortunes foolish and 
miserable."  In adversity I wish for prosperity, and in prosperity I ara ail'Md 
of ad'ersiy. What medioerity may be round? Where is no temptation 
What condition of lire is free ] 'Wisdom hath labour aanexed to it, glory 
eny; riches and cares, ehihlren and incmblances, pleasure and diseases, rest 
and beggary, go together: as if a man were therefore born ( the Platoaists 
hohl) o be punished in this lire for some preceden sins." Or that, as  1-'liny 
eompldns, "/qature may be rather accouuted a step-mother, than a mother 
unto us, ail thiags eonsidered: no ereature's lifo so brittle, so fuil of ïear, so 
mari, so furious; only man is plagued with envy, discontent, griefs, eovetous- 
ness, ambition, superstition." Our whole life is an Irish sea, wherein thero 
is aought fo be expectcd but tempestuous storms and troublesome wave% and _ 
those infinite., 
u» Tantum malorum pela:u spiclo. 
Ut non ait inde enatndi copi'" 
no haleyonlan rimes, whereln a man cat hold himselfsecure, or agree 
present esgate; bnt as Boethius inïers» « There Js somehing in every one or 
us whieh 10efore trial we seek» and having tried abhor : ° we earnstlywish, and 
egerly covet» and are efgsoons wea oï it." Thus between hope and fear, 
suspicions, angers, ° Inter spernque neturnque, timores inter et iras, betwixt 
alling in, falling out, &c., we bangle away our best days, befool out out 
rimes, we lead a conentious, diseongent, tumultuous, melaneholy, miserablo 
lire; iasomueh, th:t if we eould foretel| wh,t was to corne, nd i 1)ut to out 
ehoiee, we should rather reïuse ghan aeeepg oï çhis painful liîc. In a word, 
world itselï is a maze, a labyrinth of errors,  desert, a wilderness, a den of 
.hieves, eheaters, &e., fifll of filghy puddles, horrid roeks, preeipiiums, an 
oeean of e.dversiy, an heavy yoke wherein infirmities and ca]amifiesove|'take 
and ïo]low one another, a the set waves; and if we scape Seylla, we fall fotd 
on Chaxybdi% atd so in ierltun] fear» labour» anguish, we rtm om one 
• Ublqe peHculum, b|qtte do|or, ublque naufragIum In hoc ambItu quocuque me vertsm. Lypiu.. 
• Hom. 10. ni in forum iveris» ibi rxoe et pugnœe ; si In curiarn, ibi frau, adulatio  si In domura 
privatam &¢.  Homer. • Mullis rcpletur horno rn[seriis, corporis miscriis» anim| miserli dura 
dormir, dura vlgilat, quoctmque se vertiL Lususque rerum, temporumque nascimur. "" In blandiento 
fortuna intolerandi, in calarnitatibls lugubres, semper stulti et niseri, Cardan. • Prosper in adversi$ 
dcsltlero et atlversa prosperis timeo, quis inter hoec rneùius locus, ubi non fit humanoe vit 
 Cardan. Consol. Sapientioe labor annexus, glorioe invidia livitlis ©ure oboli solcitudoÆ volupt«t! morbl 
quieti paupcrta» ut quasi frueudorum 8celcrum caua noEI houalnern possis curn 
• Llb. 7. cap. 1. NOn tis .timage, an mcli0r parens natura horninl, n trtstior noverca fut'rit: qulll 
fro.gi|ior 'it paver, confus|o, rabies major, uni animantium ambitlo ùata, luctu avaritla, uni stlpertitio. 
z L uripides. "I percelve such an ocean of trouble before me,/bat no means of ecape remal'n." 
olat)]. 1.9__. • - - . . 
lemo facile curn condztmnc su ctmcordat lncst 5!.gttiis qucd imperiti pctan.» exper:i horreur. 
• Ese in honore juvat, mox di»piit et, * Or. 



Mem. 3. Subs. lO.J 1)iscontents, Cares, &c. 181 

plague, one mischief, one bm-den te hnother, durera servièntes ser.ituera, and 
you may as soon separate weight frein lead, heat frein tire, moistnesa frein 
water, brightness frein the sun, as misery» discourent, eare, ealamity, danger, 
fivm a man. Out towns and eities are but se many dwelhngs of human 
misery. "In whieh grief and soxa-ow (»as he right well observes out of Selon) 
innumerable troubles, labours of mortel men, and ail rnanner of vices, are 
ineluded, as in se many pens." Out villages are like mole-hills, and men as 
se many emmets, busy, busy still» going te and fro, in and out, and erossing 
one another's projeets, as the lines of several sea-eards eut eaeh other in a 
globe or map. "low light and mexTy, but (cas one follows if) by-and-by 
sorrowful and heavy; new hoping, then disrusting; new patient, to-morrosv 
erying out ; new pale, then red; running, sitting, sweating, trembling, halt- 
ing," &e. Seine few amongst He test., or perhaps one of a thousand, may be 
Pullus Jovis, in the world's esteem, Gal[inoe 371ius albce, a.n happy and forgu- 
nate man, ad invidiarafelix, became rieh, fait, well allied, in boueur and otfice 
ye peradvenm-e ask himself, and he will say, that of ail others, "he La most 
miserahle and unhappy. A fait shoe, lIie soeczs nov, el, e#cs, as he ' said, 
sed nescl.s ubi ur(t, but thou knowest net where it pineheth. It, is net another 
man's opinion ean make me happy : but as t Seneea well bath if, " He is a 
miserable wreteh that doth net aeeount lfimselïhappy; though he be sovereigt,. 
lord of a world, he is net happy, if he tlfink himself net te be se; for what 
availeth it what thine estate is, or seem te others, if thou thyself dislike itl" 
A eommon humour it is of all men te think well of other men's forunes, and 
dislike their own: *6ui placet alt«ius, sue nimirum e.t odio sors; but 
$[eceenas, g:c., how cornes it te pass, what's the cause of i¢ lIany mcn are 
ofsueh a perverse nature, they are well pleased with nothing, (saith °Theodoret) 
"neithet- with riches ner poverty, they eomplain when they are well and when 
they are sick, grumble et ail fox, unes, prosperity and adversity; they are 
troubled in a eheap year, in a ban'en, plenty or net plenty, nothing pleaseth 
them, war ner peaee, with ehildren, ner without." This for the mosç part ia 
the humour of us all, te he discourent, misemble, and most unhappy, as wo 
think at leas; aud show me him that is net se, or that ever was otherwise. 
Quintlas Metellus his felieity is infinitely admired amongst the Romans, inso- 
much that as  Paterculus mentioneth oflfim, you eau scaree find of any nation, 
order, age, sex, one for happiness te be eompared unto him: he had, in a 
word, JBona animl, eorporls etfortunoe, good of mind, body, and fotune» se 
had P. ]Iutianus, * Crassus. Lampsaea, that Lacedemoni.an lady was such 
another in « Pliny's eoneeit, a kings wffe, a king's mother, a king's daugher: 
and ail the world esteemed as mueh of Polyerates of Samos. The Greeks 
brag of their Soera¢es, Phoeion» Aristides; the Psophidians in partieular 
their Aglaus, Omnl vitâ felix, ab omni periculo iamunis (whieh by the way 
Paunias held impossible); the Romans of their ° Cato» Curius, Fabrieius, for 
their eomposed fo¢tuaes, and retil estates, government of passions, and eon- 
temp of the world : yet noue of all these were happy, or free frein discourent, 
taeither Metellus Crassus, or Polyerates» for he died a violen death, and se 

luct et moervr, et mosl[um vl[ irfinitique Iabor et vmnis genes viti qui aept includuntur. 
Ç Nat. Cheus de HI. Europoe: Ls nuu mox tristis; unc sranN pulo st diffidens; çatiens bodiN 
¢ras ulans nunc pallenN ben cueus, sedenN claudicans, trcmeus, &c. • Sua cque ealamit 
pripug.  Cu. Groedn. « Epist. 9. 1.7. Mer t q se beatiimum non jut; Hcet impere 
mundo non tb q  non pat: qd enlm refert quels status  si al tibi detur malust 
 Hot. . 1. 1.4. ffi Hot. Ser. 1. Sat. 1. Lib. de rst. oec. affect, cap. 6. deprodeut, btis 
ihfl plat tque adeo et diti dnaut, t pupettm» de mrbis exposlau ue valent aviter 
ferun arque ut semel dicam, uihil e delecta &c. » Viz ul genti oet crdini hcminem 
inveni c feUcitsm fortun leteHi compr, vol 1. * P. Crsus Muti quinque habusn 
lcitur rem bonum maxim quod et ditiim, quod es$ nvbilissimuN eloquentiimuN juou- 
suifllm pontifex mim, d Lib. 7. Res flli Rs uxor, Res mater, • Qui u uuqua 
m aut  aut fcci aut esl qui bene er fecit, nnd li* fcre v p0L 



d i,l Cato; and how much cvil «loth Lactantius and Thcodoret speak of Socrates, 
u weak man, and se of the rcst. There la no content in this lire, but as • he 
said, «Ail is vanity and vexation of spirit ;" lame ami imperfect. ]=Iadst thon 
Sampson's huit,/[ilo's strength, Scanderbeg's arm, Solomon's wisdom, Absa- 
lom's beauty, Croesus's vealth, /aset/s obulum, Coesar's valeur, Alexander's 
sœeirit, Tully's or Demosthenes' eloquence, G.vge' ring, Pcrseus' Pegasus, and 
Gorgon  heu,l, Nestor's years te corne, ail thi. wouhl net make thee absolute, 
give thee content and trte happiness in this lire, or se continue if. Even in 
the midst ofall out mirth, jollity, and Iaughter, is sorrow and grief or ifthere 
be truc happiness amongst us, 'tis but for a time, 
"• Destnlt in lhcem roulier formosa -uperuè :"  « A haudsome woman wlth a flsh's til." 
a l'air morning turns te a lowering afteraoon. ]3rtts and (assius, op.c0 
rcnowned, both eminently happy, yet you shall scarce find two, (saith Pater- 
ehs) Q,.tosfortuna naturlùs destituerit, whom fortune sooner forsook. 
nibal, a conqueror all his lire, met with his match, and was subdued af las, 
Occurrie forti, qui magè fortis erit. One is brought in triumph, as Csar into 
]'ome, Alcibiades into /kthens, coronis aureis don$us, crowned, honoureoE 
a imired; by-and-by his statues demolished, be hissed out, massacred, &c. 
 Magnus Gonsalva, that famous Spaniard, was of the prince and people af 
t:rst honoured, approved; forthwith confined and banished. Ad«tiradas 
actiones ; graves plerunqu, e seuuntur nvizlice, e actes calumnize: 'tis Polybius 
his obser'ation, grievous enmities, and bitter calumnies, commonly follow 
rcnowned actions. One is boru rich, dies a beggar; souud to-day, sick to- 
morrow ; new in most flourishlng estate, fortunate and happy, by-and-by de- 
prived of his goods by foreign enemies, robbed by thieves, spoiled, captivatcd, 
impoverished as they of" t Rabbah, put uneler iron saws, and under it'oa har- 
rows, and uader axes of irou, and cast into the tile -kiln," 
«« kQuid me fel|cem Ioties:laet$ti• arnicl, 
Qui ceci4it, tabili non erat ille gratin." 
/de that crst marded like Xcrxes with innumerable armies, as rich as Croe:s, 
nov shifts for himself in a poor cock-boat, is bomd in iron chains, with 
]3ajazet theTurk, and a footstool with .urelian, for a tyrannising conquçror te 
trmple on. Se many caouMties the are, that as Senec said of eiy con- 
sumed vith tire, Uns dies iuerest inter asma» civitat et nullam, one 
betwixt a gat city and none: se many grievances from outward accidents, 
and frein ourselves, our own indiscretion, inordinate appetite, one day betix 
a man antl no man. And which is worse, as if discontents and mLseries would 
net eome tïtst eaough upon us: Iwnw homini dvemon we maul, persecute, and 
sttdy how te sting, gall, and vex one anothcr ith mutuM hatred, abuses, 
itjuriesj preying upon and devouring as se many  ravenous birds; and as 
jggle, panders, bawds, cozening one another; or raging as  wolves, tigers, 
and devils, we take a delight te forment one another; mon are evil, vicked, 
malicious, treacherous, and ° naught, net Ioving one auothe; or loving them- 
sclves, net hosl)itable , charitable, ner sociable as they ought te be, but counter- 
ït.it, dbsemblers, ambidextêrs, all for their own ends, haM-hearted, merciles 
1,itiless, and te benefit themselve_z, they cure net what mischief they procure te 
others, ° t'raxinoe and Gorge in the port, when they had got in te ser those 
costly slghts, they thên cried be»è est, and would thrust out all the rest: when 
thcy are rich themselves, in honour, preft.rred, ïull, and haro even tha-t they 
would, they debar othcrs of those l)leasua-ea which youth requircs» and they 
tSo|omon, Eccles. I. 14. • Hot. Art. Poet.  Jovu vita ejus. 2 Sain. xii. I. • Boethius 
|lb. I. M,_t..Ieto I.  0mnes hic aul captantur, aut captant: aat ead&vera qttœ lacerantur, ant cor'i qui 
lacerant, l'etrn. 
m Homo omne monstrum est, ille nm .upirat feras, ]..nposque et ursos pectre obscuro 
tegit. Hens.  Quod P,tercult de populo Bomano, durante belIo oEco per nos ] i5, &ai bell,,m 
ite" coS aut belli i,roeparatio» &ut inflda psx» idem ego de mmldt &ccolls.  Theocrit1 Idyll. I° 



Miem. 3. Subs. IO.] 

Dsconhnts, 6'u s, ,'c. 

183 

ibrmerly bave enjoyed. He sits aç toEble in a soïu chair af case, but he d,»th hot 
rcmember in the meantime that a tired waiter stands behiud hhn, "an hungry 
tbll,»w miniers to him full, he is athirst that gives him driuk (saith p Epictetu.) 
and is silent whilst he speuks his pleasure: pensive, sad, when he latghs." 
]*leno se prolai auto: he feasts, revels, and profasely spends, bath variety of 
robes, sweet music, ease, and all the pleasures the world can afford, wh]lst many 
an hunger-starved poor creature pines in the street, wants clothcs to cover him, 
labours hard ail day long, runs, rides for a trifle, fights peradventure from sun 
to sus, sick and ill, weary, full of tin and grief, is in gat distress and sorrow 
of heart. He loathes sud scorns his iaiërior, hates or emulates his equal, envie» 
his superior, insults over all such as are under him, as if he were of another 
species, a demi-god, hot subject to auy fall, or humau infirmities. Generaily 
they love hot, are hot beloved again : they tire out ot.hers' bodies with cou- 
tinual labour, they themselves living af case, caring for none else, sibi 
and are so far many rimes from putting fo their helping hand, that thcy seek 
al! means to depress, even most worthy and wcll deserving, better thaa them- 
selves, those whom they are by the laws of nature bound fo rclieve and help, 
as much as in them lies, they will let them caterwafl, starve, beg, and bang, 
before they will any ways (though it be in their power) assist or ease: 
uunatttral are they for the most part, so uaregardfid; so hard-hearted, so 
clmrlish, proud, insolent, so dogged, of so bad a disposition. And being 
brtish, so devilishly bent one towards another, how is it possible but 
we should be disconteat of ail sides, full of cares, woes, and miseries  
If ths be hot a sufficiet proof of their discontent and misery, examine every 
condition and calling apart. Kings, princes, monarchs, and magistrates seem 
to be most happy, but look iato their estate, you shall "find them to be mos 
encumbered with cares, in perpetual fear, agony, suspicion, jealousy : that as 
• he said of a crown, ff they knew but the discontent that accompaay it, they 
woud hot stoop to take it tp. Quem mihi regem d,5is (saith Chrysostom) non 
curis plenum? What king canst thou show me, noç ftfll of cares ? "«Look 
noç on his crow, buç consider his afflictions; atterd hot his number of servants, 
but multitude of crosses." Ni/il «l'td potestas culndds, ?uàm tempests mentis, 
as Gregory secouds him; sovereignty is a tempest of the soul : Syllu-like 
they bave brve titles but terrible fits: splezzdorem titu[o, crwitum aH»w : 
which ruade * Demosthenes vow, si vcl ad tribunal, rcl ad iteritum duceretur : 
if to be a judge, or to be condcmned, wcre put to his choice, he would be con- 
demned. Rich men are in the saine predicament ; what their pais are, stuRi 
esciut, ipsi sett'nt: they feel, fools perceive hot, as I shail lrove el.sewhcre, 
and their wealth is bt-ittle, like children's rattles: they corne and go, thcre 
no certainty in them: those whom they elevate, they do as suddea[y depress, 
and leave in a wde of misery. The middle sort of men are as so many asses to 
bear btrdens; or if they be free, and lire af esse, they spend themselves, and 
consume thcir bodies and fortunes with luxury and riot» contention, emulatiot, 
&c. The poor I reserve for another place, and their discontents. 
For particular professions, I hold as of the rest, there's no conten or security 
in any; on what course will you piteh; how resolve? to be a divine, 'tis coa- 
temptible in the world's estcem; to be a lawyer, 'tis to be a wrangler ; to bo 
a physician, *pudet [otii, 'ris loathed ; a philosopher, a madman ; an alchymist 
a beggar; a poet, esurit, an hungry jack; a musician, a player; a schoolmas- 
ter, a drudge; an husbandman, au emmet a merchant, hL gains are tracer- 

• Q,tl sedet in mensa, non meminlt sib! ofioso miulstrare 
« Quado in adolescenfia sus ipsi vixent, lautius et liberius vo]uptat su expleverin ilfi atis imp 
unt duriorcs contincnfioe legs.  Lugubris Are hictu,lue fero Regum tumid obsidet arcs. R 
quief'lictt * Plgloquammelh«hbet. Non humij4ctemtoIler. Valet. I. 7. e. 
da«Icm «plcm, sed vimm aicfione refertam, non caeç satellim, sed cura mulfidvcm. 
luch rclatet - Sect. 2. memt. l. ubsect. 6. 



18t Cause of JIelancolg. P_art 1. 
; a mec]mnleian, e;  ehurgeon, me; 
tailor,  thief a serving-man,  slave ; a soldier, 
metalman, the pot's never from'a no;  courier,  rite,  he could fiad 
no tree in the wood to bang mœelf; I n show no stoEte of life to give con- 
tent. The like you may y of all agea; childrea ve   peet slaves, 
stiH dcr that tauoE1 government of mtc; youag men, and of riper 
yea, subject to labour, and a thond cares of the world, fo treache, f- 
hood, and cozenage, 
«' Incedit per 1 ] 'you lncauflo ead 
Supposis ccri doloso," 
%Id are lI of aches in their bones, cramps and convsio, sgl;cernia, dI of 
heag, weak sighd, boat, wriled, bath, so much altered  that they 
cannot ow the own face in a glass, a bmhen to theelv and othe, aftcr 
70 years, "ail is ow" ( Dard th it), they do not live but lr. If 
they be sound, they fear des; ff sick, wey of their Hves: N est gere 
ced va[ere, vRa. One complains of want, a second of servitude, banother of a 
ecrct or incurable disee; of some deformity of body, of some loss, danger, 
death of friends, spwreck, peecutio, impsonment, disgr, repuhe, 
contumely, calumy, able, iju, contempt, atitude, kdness, scofl, 
flotts, unïortunae maiige, singie le, too ny chHdre no cdren, false 
servants, unhappy chfldren, barre, banent, oppression, frtra 
hors and fil success, &c. 
" Talia de geuere hoc adeo sunt mt loqnacem ut [ « Bu ee vado ln fo repeah 
Delare valent Fabi.-:' %Vod te en Fabi of ct prateD 
Talking Fabius will be t]red belote ho OEn tell ha of them  they are the 
subject of whole volumes, and shall (some of them) be more opportely dilated 
.Isewhe. In the meaufime th much I may say of them, that genelly they 
crudfy the soul of ma *atnuate o bodies, dry them, wit.her them, shrive[ 
them up ke old apples, make them  so manyamies 
et totus, ira cur[s macet), they u tem]» foedum et sçulidum, cumbersome 
days, ra$aue temora» slo% dull, and hea rimes: make 
and tear our hairs,  sorrow did  gCebe table,.and an for the very 
anguh of o souls. Our hearts fail  as David'a did, Psal.  12, "for 
numcrablc troubles that compsed hin ;" and we are ready to confe with 
]lezckiah, Isaiah Ivifi. 17, " bchold, for fcliclty I had bitter ief;" to weep 
with Hcraclitt, to curse the day of out bih with Jemmy,  14, and our 
stars with Job : to hold that axiom of Silenus, " betr never  bave been 
born, and the best next of all, to e quickly :" or we mt lire, to abdon the 
worl[,  Timon did ; creep ht caves and hoIes, 
htto the sea,  Cras Thebanus ; or as Theombrot Ambrociato's 400 
auditors, precipite oelv to be rid of these meries. 
SsE. XI.Concp[aclble Mpetite as esires, Ambiti, Caes. 
Tuv concupiscible and cible appetites are as the two twists of a tope, 
mutually med one with the other, and both twg about the hea : both 
good,  Atin holds, l. 14, c. 9, d« civ. Dei, "if they be modem ; both 
pernicious  they be exorbitant." Th concupcible appefite, howsver it 
may seem t c T t it a show of ple and dcght,and o oencupinoes 
o»t par aect us with contentanda plg object, yet they be  exem 
they rack and iag  on the other side. A te g it , « Dee bath no 
xst;"  infi  itsel enoe; and  one OE it, a peet  or 
• êl lucratif, n mod entiendo. T. OoEc. z Hor. I. 2. od. I. a Rus  ldque 
 x. eac m er. oet. t Omitto oN  moe quos nemo audet foeDc dicoee C 
. F auto. , HOec quoe crm e elh oe$. 
 rectam rationcm scqutur» moe  exorbitant, k Tho. Buoe. Frob. 



]orse-mill, aceording fo Austin, sri11 going round as in a ring. They are hot 
so continual, as divers, .fd//ùs aomo» dnumfae posem, ith  Beard, 
m t cord; nu,m , u  cogito, you may as well reckon up the 
mos in the sun  the " I exteuds itsdf every thing," m Gnerius 
fi bave it, "that  superfluomly sought afr :" or to any  fervent desire, m 
Feme]ius rprets lU; be if in what nd soever, it tortures if moderate, 
and  (ecorg fo  Plar and othe) an eseial OEuse of melacholy. 
Mt cocti dnur coghat , q Aust eonfed, tt 
he w to  pieces ith his manifold dees: and  doth  rnard ¢om- 
pin, « that he eould hot test for them a mu of nn hour: t I wod 
bave, and that, nd then I desire fo be such and sueh." 'Tis a rd marrer 
themfore to confine them, beg they are so various and many, imssible fo 
appmhend u. I 11 only t upon ome few ofthe ceç d mos noxio 
in their kind,  thut exorbitt appetite and doee of hono, hich e com- 
monly el mbition; love of moy, ch  eovetone, and that eedy 
dese of : -love, pr[de, and [nordi dire of vain-glo or applae, 
love of study in exs; love of women (which ill requh'e a jtmt volume of 
itlç, of the other I will briefly speak, and  theoE order. 
&mbitio a proud eovetousness, or a d tht of honour, a t toure of 
the nd, comped ofen, pride, aad veoue, a Hant madnes% ono 
"defiaes it a plent poon, brooe "a canker of the soul, an dden 
plae:" t Bernard, «  secret poin the father of vor, and mother of h 
esy, the moth of hoess, and c ofmadns, crucying and qtfietg 
aH tha it takes hold of."  Sen oells i rem solgtam, tlmidam, vanam, 
v«osam, a windy thing, a vain, solicitous, and feafful thing. For commonly 
they that, like Sysiph, roH th restle sne of ambition, are in n etual 
agony, still "perplexed, semT taciti, ts reunt ucrcti), doubtful, 
orous, suspicious, loath  offend  word or deed, st cogging and colloe- 
ing, embracing, oepping, cringing, applaudhg, flattering, flceg, visiting, 
waiting at men's doo, th M1 ability, counte¢eit honesty and humty.  
If that 1 hot sexe,  onoe this humour (as z Cypfian deribes it) posse 
his tty soul, aitis saugo i b inmm posde, by hook and 
by crook he wi obtain if, "and from his holc he will climb  all honou and 
offices, if it be poble for m to get up, flattering one, b6bing another, he 
wiH leave no means essay'd  win a." "It  a wonder to see how slavishly 
the d of men subjt themselves, when they ara about a st, to eve 
inferior rson; what pai they will ke, n, ride, cast, plot, countermine, 
protest and swear, vow, promise, what hbours dergo, dy up, down late; 
how obsequiom aud affable they are, how popular and coeous, how they grin 
and fleer upon eve mau they meet; with what le,ring and invitg, how 
they snd theelv and their founes, in seeking that many tim, which 
they had much tter be without i " Cyneas the orator told Pyhus: with 
what woeng nights, pnf home, anxious thoughts, and bitrness of mind 
in soee tu, distracted and ted, they oensume the tem of their 
rime. There can be uo ter plae for the preoent. If they do obta their 
s wch th such oest aud socitude theyhave sought, they are hOt so freed 

m Tract. de Inter. e. 92.  Ciron quamlibet rem mundl hoee passlo flert potest, quoe superflub dlllgatur. 
Tract. 15, c. 17. o Ferventlus destderium, p Imprimis ver6 Appetttus &e. S. de alien, ment. q Conf. 
1. c. 29. • Per dlversa loca ragot, nullo temporis momento quieco, ta]is et tal/s esse cupio, Dlud arque lllud 
labere desldero, • Ambros. t. . super Lucm, oerugo tmoe. t lqihil aimum crucial, nihil molestiùa 
lnquictat, ecretum virus, pestis occulta, &e. epist. 126. u Ep. 88. • Tihfl infelicius his quantus ris 
timor, quanta dubRatio, quantus couatus, quanta sollc|tudo, nul]a illls t molestils vacua hora. • Semper 
attonltus, semper pavidus quid dica, fsciatve: ne displiceat ltumllitatcm simulat, honestatem mentitr. 
• Cypr. Prolog. ad ser. To. 2. cunctos honorst, unlversis incl[nat, subsequitur, obsequitur, frequentat curla% 
visltat optimates 'tmplexatur, appiaudi, w.lultr : per fs et uefas  latebri% in omnem grsdum ubl adt,m 
pater se ingeri discurrit, • Ttwboe cogit ,tmbitio regem inservire o rit Hornerus Ag,tmemnonem quereutem 
l,tdue.t, • k'lutarchlll, qun convivemur, eg in oto nos oblectcmur» quoniam In 9romgtu id noble 



186 Causes ,,je M'elanclwly. [Part. 1. Sec. 

their anxiety is anew to begin, for they are never satisfied, ni£il aliud nid 
imperiu»t spirant, their thoughts, actions, endcavours are all for sovereignty 
and honour, like b Lucs Sforsia that huffing duke of Milan, "a man ofsinmalat 
wisdom, but profotmd ambition, born to his own, and fo the destruction of 
Italy," though it be to their own ruin, and frlends undomg, they will contend, 
tbey may hot cease, but as a dog in a wheel, a bird in a cage, or a squirrel in 
a chain, so ¢Budoeus compares them ; « they climb and climb still, with ranch 
labour, but never make an end, never at the top. A knightwould be a baronet, 
and then a lord, and then a viscount, and thcn an earl, &c. ; a doctor, a dean, 
and then a bishop; from tribune fo proetor; from bailiffto major; first this 
office, and then that; as Pyrrhus in ° Plutarcb, they will first have Greece, 
then Africa, and then Asia, and swell with 2Esop's frog so long, till in the end 
they burst, or corne down with Sejanus, ad Geraonias scalas, and break their 
owa necks; or as Evangelus the piper in Lucian, that blew his pipe so long, 
till he fell down dead. If he chance to miss, and bave a canvass, he Lu in a hell 
ou the other side ; so dejected, that he is ready to bang himself, turn heretic 
Turk, or traitor in an instant. Enraged against his enemies, he rails, swears, 
tights, slanders, detracts, envies: murders : and for his own part, s/appetitura 
explere na potest, fm'ore corripitu'; ff he cannot satisfy hLU desire (as t Bodine 
writes) he ruus mad. So that both ways, hit or miss, he is distracted so long 
a his ambition lasts, he can look for no other but anxiety and care, discontent 
and grief in the meantime, r madness itself, or violent death in the end. The 
event of this is common to be seen in populous cities, or in princes' courts, for 
a courtiet:s lire (as Budoeus describes it) "is a  gallimaufry of ambition, lust, 
fraud, impostnre, dissimulation, detraction, envy, pride ; the court, a common 
conventicle of flatterers, time-servers, politicians," &c ; or as  Anthony Perez 
will, "the suburbs of hell itsclf." If vou will see such discontented persons, 
there you shall likely fmd them.  d whlch he observed of the markets of 
old Rome, 
t« Qui perJuram convenlre vlflt hornlnem, mltto in Cornitlum; 
Qui rnendaeern et gloriosurn, apud Cluasinoe sacrum; 
Dite. damnoaes marito ub ba.icA quœrito»" 
leured knaves, knights of the post, liars, crackem, bad husbands, &c. kee F 
theirseveral stations; they do still, and always did in every commonvcalth. 

soscr. XlI.--¢,«:,, Covetousness, a Cause. 
1)LVACH, ila hLU = book whether the diseazes of the body be more grievous 
than those of the soul, is of opinion, " if you will examine all the causes of out 
miseries in this lire, you shall find them most part to have b.ad their beginning 
from stubborn angcr, that îurious desire of contention, or some unjust or im- 
moderate affection, as covetousness," &c. "From whence are wars and con- 
tentions amongst you" * St. James asks: I will add usury, fraud, rapine, 
simony, oppression, lying, swearing, bearing false witness, &c. are thcy hot 
îrom thLu tbuntain of covetousness, tbat greediness in geting, tenacity in 
keepiug, sordity in spending ; that they are so wicked, "* unjust again.st G,d, 
their neighbo«r, themselves/" ail cornes hence. "The desire of money is the 
root of all evil, and theythat lust afçer it, pierce themselves through with many 
b Jovlus hist. I. !. vir singulaxi prudentia, sed profunda ambitione, ad exitium Italioe natus. ¢ Ut heders 
arbori adhæret, sic arnbitio, &c. a Lib. 3. de conternptu rerum fortuitarum, blaguo conatu et irnpetu 
moventur, super eodern centro rotati, non proficiunt, nec ad finern perveniunt. ® Vita Pyrrhi. «Arnbitio 
in insaniarn facilè delabitur, si excedat, latritius 1. 4. tir. 20 de regis instit, g Lb. 5. de rep. cap. 1. 
 1., p imis vero uppetitus, seu concupiscentia nirnia rei alicujus, bon,Le vel inhonestœ, phantasiam I t.dunt; 
un,le rnulti arnbitiesi, philauti, irati, avari, insani, 'c. Felix Plater 1.3. de rnenti alien.  Aulica vita 
colluvies arnbitirnis, cupiditatis, irnulationin, irnposturoe, fraudis, invidioe, superbioe Titannic. diverao-iurn» 
aula, et commune conventiculum assentandi, artificurn, &c. Budoeus de asse. lib. 5. a In his Aphor. 
| Plauttt Curcul. Act. 4. cen. l. m Tom. 2. bi examines, otaries mlserioe causss vel a furieso iontendindl 
atudio, vel ab inju«ta CUl»idtate , originern traxisse scies. Idem fere Chrysostornus coin. in c. 6. A ltomaxL 
ser. 11. * Cap. . 1. n Ut sit iniquus in deum, in lroxirnum, in selsum- 



lIcm. 3. Subs. 12.] Covetousness, « C«us«. 187 

sorrows," 1 Tire. vi. I0. Hippocrates therefor in hi- Epitle te Crateva, au 
herbalist, gives him this good counsel, that if if were posssible, "°amongst 
other herbs, he should cut up that weed of covetousness by the roots, that thcre 
be no remainder left, and then know this for a certainty, that together with 
their bodies, thou mayst quickly cure all the diseases of their minds." For if 
is indeed the pattern, image, epitome of all melaucholy, the fountain of many 
niseries, much discontented care and woe; this «inordinate or immoderate, 
desire of gain, te get or keep money," as PBonaventure dcfines if: or, ms 
AtLstin dvscribes if, a madness of the seul, Gregory, a torture; Chrysostem, an 
insatiable drtmkeuness; Cyprian, bliudness, speeiosu suppIiciu», a plague 
subverting kingdoms, families, an +incurable disease i Budoeus, an ill habit, 
"«yielding te no remedies:" neither, seulapius ner Plutus can cure them: a 
continual plae, saith Solomon, and vexation of spirit, another hell. I know 
there be seine of opinion, thag covetous men are happy, and worldly-wise, thag 
there is nmre pleasure lu getting of wealth thau in speuding, sud no delight in 
the world like unto it. 'Twas  Bias' problem of old, "With what art thou 
net wearyi with getting money. What is more delectable? te gain." What 
is it, trow you, that make a poor man labour all his lifetime, ear T such great 
burdens, fare se hardly, maeerate himsel and endure se mueh misetT, undergo 
such base oflàees wit.h se great patience, te fise up early, sud lie clown late, if 
there were net an extraordinary delight in getting and keeping of money? 
$Vhat makes  merchant that bath no need, satis suTerque &»ni, te range ail 
over the world, tbrough all those intemperate *Zones of heat and eold; volun- 
tarily te venture his lire, and be content with such miserable famine, nazty 
usage, in a stiuking ship; if there were net a pleasure sud hope te get money, 
which doth season the test, and mitigate his indeïatigable pains? What makes 
them go into the bowels of the earth, an hundred fathom deep, endangering 
their dearest lives, enduring damps and filthy smells, when they bave enough 
already, if they could ho content, and no such cause fo labotr, but au extmor- 
diuary delight they take in riches. This may seem plat«ible at first show, a 
popular and strong argumeut ; but lvt him that so thilks, consider better of if, 
and he shall soon percive, that if iz far otherwise than he supposeth; it may 
be haply plcasing at the first, as most part ail melancholy is. For such men 
likcly bave some lucda intervalla, pleasant symptoms intermixed ; but you 
muet uote that of Chrysostom, "'Tis oue thiug fo be rich, another to be 
covetous :" generally they are all tbols, dizzaroE, mad-men, "miserable wretches, 
living beside themselves, sie artefrue,di, in pe]getual slavery, fear, suspicion, 
sorrow, and discontent, laUS aloës çuam, mellis ]abent ; and are indeed, "rather 
l'ossessed by their money, than possessors:" as "Cyprian bath if, manci]gat£ 
pecun£i.s; bound prentice to their goods, as :Pliny  or as Chrysostom, servi 
divitiarum, slaves and drudges fo their substance ; and we may conclude of 
them ail, as Valerius doth of Ptolomoeus king of Cyprus, " He was in title  
king of that island» but in his mind, a miserable dndge of money:" 
« - § potlore metallis 
Libertate carens " 
wanting his liberty, which is better than gold. Damasippns the Stoic, in 
]/orace, proves that all mortal men dote by lits, seine one way, seine another, 

z Si vero, Crateva, Inter eoeteraa her'oarum radlces, avaritloe raxlicera ecare posses amararn, ut nulloe 
rcliquiœe essent, probë scito, &c. P Cap. 6. Di¢tœe salutis: avaritia est mnor imraoderatus pecunioe vel 
acqurendoe, vel retineudoe. f Ferum profecto dirumque uicu uitai, remediia non cedens medend« 
exasperatur, q Maltm est morbu rnttleque alllcit avaritia siquidem censeo, &e. avarilia difficiliui curatur 
quam insauia : quoniam bac OlntlS Ici . medlcl iabormat. Hip. ep. Abdcrlt.  Extremos currit merc'xtor 
Id lndos, lier. * Qua re not es lassust lucram faciendo : qmd maxirn delectbile ? lucrarL J" t/oto. 
2. aliud ttvartm aliud dives, • Di-itioe ti. spinoe tuimura homiui thnoribua» solicitunibtts angoribu 
miriflci pungunt, vexant, cruciant. Greg. in hem.. . • Epist. ad .D.onat gap. 2. :l: Lib. 9. ep. a0. 
; Lib. 9. Cap. . insul rcx tltulo» setl anime letmt mtser&bil.e mnczgttua- § lier. 10. lib. 1. 



188 Çses OE fnclwy. [Part. I. Sec. 

but that coveLous men Uaro madder than the rest; aud he that shall truly look 
into their estates, and examine their symptoms, shall fiud no better ofthem, but 
that they are all Xïools, as lgabal was, Re es fwrnir (1. Re 9. 2.5). For what 
greater folly can thêre be, or II maduess, than to macerate himself when he need 
noti and when, as Cyprian notes, "7he may be freed from his burden, and 
eased of his pains, will go on still, h wealth increasing, when he bath enough, 
to get more, to lire besides himselï," to starve his genius, keep back from his 
xvife =and children, neither letting them nor other friends use or enjoy that 
which is theirs by right, and which they much need perhaps; iike a hog, or 
dog in the manger, he doth only keep if, bccause it shall do nobody else good, 
hurting himself and othem: and for a little momentary pelf, damn his own 
soul! They are commonly sud and tetric by nature, as Ahab's spitt was, be- 
cause he could hot get lgaboth's vineyard, (3. Reç. 21.) and if he lay out his 
money af any time, though it be to necessary uses, fo his own children's good, 
he brawls and scolds, his heurt is heavy, much disquieted he is, and loath to 
part from it : Miser abstnd et rimes uti, Hor. He is of a wearish, dry, pale 
constitution, and cannot sleep for cares and worldly business; his riches, saith 
Solomon, will hot let him sleep, and unnecessary business which he heapeth on 
himself; or if he do sleep, 'tin a very unquiet, intermpt, unpleasing sleep: 
with his bags in his arms, 
 congcstls undlquc accL 
Indormlt inhiu " 
And though he be st a banquet, or st some merry feast, "he sighs for grief of 
heurt (as "Cyprian bath it) and cannot sleep though if be upon a down bed; 
his wearish body takes no rest, btronbled in his abundance, and sorrowful in 
plenty, unhappy for the present, and more unhappy in the lire fo corne." BasiL 
Ite is a perpctual drudge, Crestless in his thoughts, and never satisfied, a slave, 
a wretch, a dust-worm, semper çuod idolo sv.o imwlet, sedulus observag, Cypr. 
Trolog. ad sermon, still seeking what sacrifice he may offe.r to his golden god, 
er las et nef as, he cures hot how, his trouble is endless, «crescung divitiæ, 
tam2n curtæ nes«o çuid semper «bes 'ei: his wealth increaseth, and the more 
he bath, the more °he wants: like Pharaoh's lean kine, which devoured the 
fat, and were hot satisfied. Austin therefore defines covetousness, çuarum- 
libt -erum iz]wnvstam eS insatiabilem culiditatem , a dishonest and insatiable 
desire of gain; and in one of his epistles compares it to hell; "which 
devoum all, and yet never bath enough, a bottomless l»it, '' an endless misery; 
in çuem scopulura avaritiæ cadaverosi senes u 2lurimù» impingung, aud that 
which is thcir greatest corrosive, they are lu continual suspicion, leur, and dis- 
trust. He thinks his own wife aud children ire so many thieves, and go about 
to cozen him, his servants are all fale: 
« Rera uam perilsse eque eradlcarler, | « If hls doors creek, then out he cries anon, 
Et divilm arque hominum clamat coutinu5 ridera, I tt gooela aa-e gon% and he in tlUit uadane." 
De uo tigillo famua ai tlU exit foraa." 
Timidus Plutus, au old œeroverb, As fearful as Plutus; so doth Atstophanes 
and Lucian bring him in fearïul still, pale, anxious, suspicious, and tmsting no 
man, "They are afraid of tempests for their corn; they are afraid of their 
Danda est hell-_bori raulto pars raaxlraa avaris, ffi Luke, xii. 20. Sttlte, hue notre erlplara anlraara 
tuath. I Ope quidetn raortalibua unt demeufla. Theog. • Ed. 2. lib. 2. Exonerare cure ne posait 
et relevare ponderibus pergit raagi fortunia augeatibua pertinacRer lncubare, • Non amicia non liberi 
non ipsi ibi quidquatn impertit; possidet ad hoc tantum, ne possidere altea'i liceat &c. Hieron. ad Pauiin. 
tare dees." lUOd habet luara quod non habet, • Epiat. 2. lib. 2. Suspirat in convivio, bibat licet gemrai$ 
et toro molliore marcidum corpu condiderit vigilat in plum  Angastatur ex abundantia, coutriatatur 
ex opulentia, lnfelix preaentibus bonia, infelicior in futttria, • lllorum cogitatio uunquara cesaat qui 
pecunlaa upplere diligunt. Gulaner. tract. 15. e I'/. d Hot. 3. Od. 24. Quo plus uut potoe, plus 
itiuutur aqu. • Hot. 1.2. Sut. 6. O ai angulua file proximua accedat, qui nm]c deforraat agelinm. 
« Llb. 3. de lib. arbit. Iraraoritur tudila, et amore eneacit habendi, • Avarus vr iaf«l'no est aimilis. &c. 
.odum non habet, hoc egeutior lUO plura habet.  Eraara. Adag. chil. 3. cent. . pro. 72. Nulll fideutes 
arnnium formdant open, ideo pawdmn raainm vocat Ettripides: metuunt tempestatea oh frumeutum, araico 
nv roget i-imiça ne ldaat fores ne ragiaat b¢llum timcnt lacem timcat ummoa media imimOo 



fend let they should k methg of th bg or boow; th«y re 
afid of their enc lest they httrt them, thieves lest hey rob them; thcy 
are afraid of war and afid of peace, afraid of rich and afraid of poor; afraid 
of aiL" Lt of all, they are afraid of want, that they shall die beggars, 
whch mak them lay up stil and dette nos use that they vo : what if adear 
year me, or dcarth, or me loss and ere if net that they are loath te 
out money on a tope, they would be hanged forthwith, and sometimes die te 
vo charges, and make aoeay themselve if their cern and cattle miscarry] 
though they ve abundan left,  *Agellius note * alerius makes men- 
tion of one that in a famine Id a rueuse for 200 pence, and £mished 
himself: such are their cares, griefs and perpetual frs. These sympto 
are elegautly exprd by Theophmst  his charter of a coveto man 
«lying in bed, ho ked h wife whether she shut the tmnks and chests 
the cama be soEled, au.1 whether the hall door  bolted ; and though 
say aH  weB, he riseth out of his bed in h shirt, brefoot and barelegged, 
te  whether it be , with a dm'k lantern searching every corncr, scarce 
sleeping a wink ail nigh" Lucian in that plnt and tty dialom called 
GaHus, brings in Mycills the cobbler disputing with his cock, sometim 
thoras ; whe after much spoech pro and con te prove the happine of a 
mn t and disconnts et" a rich man, Pytgo' cock in the end, te 
fllustrate by examples ghat which he d id, brings him te Gnyphon the 
muFs bouse at mi«lght, and aer tha  Eucrat ; whom they round 
both awake, cting up the accounts, and lling of their money,  lean, dry, 
pale d ano, sti smpectg lest somebody should make a hole throngh 
the wall, d se get in ; or  a rot or rueuse did but st, srtg upon a sud- 
den. and nning te the door go see whether ail were st. Plautus, in his 
Aula, makes old Euclio  commanding Smphyla his we te shut the doom 
ft, d the tire te be pu out, lt any body shod make that an ermnd te 
oeme te  house: when he whed  nds, Che w lth te fiing away the 
foui water, compining that he w undone, beoEuse the smoke got out of 
his roof. And  he went frein home, soeing a crow ratch upon the muck-hill, 
returned in ail , mking it for lum on, an ill aigri, his money w 
$ed up; with many suc He that wfll but oboerve their actions, sha find 
ese and ny such psag no fe@ed for spot, but rlly fforme 
fied deed by such oevego and misemble etches, and that if » 
«  manifa eni 
t loepl moa egenti vere fatÇ." 
mere  te lire like a etch and die_fic 

SUBSECT. XIII.--/;ove of Gamnj, &c. and pleasures mmodera ; Causes. 

I is a wonder te see, how many poor, dlstressed, miserable wretches, one 
shall meet almost in every path and strcet, begging for an altos, that bave beeu 
well descended, and sometimes in flourishing estate, new ragged, tattered, and 
ready te be starve lngeriug out a painf lire, in discontent and grief of body 
and mind, and all through immoderat lust, gamin, pleasure and flot. 'Tis 
the common end of all senual epicures and brutish prodigals, that are stupified 
and carried away headlong with their several pleasures and lusts. Cebes in his 

! Hall Char. I Agelilus iib. 3. cp. l. lnterdum eo sceleris pervenlunt oh lum, ut tam am 
mmut. Lib. 7. . 6. m Omn peeo morbo agitant, suspi omn timid ibi.lue 
ob aurumidla uta unqm qteu P. Prooem. lib. I.  Cap. 18.  lecto Jaceus ogat 
or an arm pro ci an psul & E lecto sgeus nud et taboue cei sa lucerna 
oma obieus et lustran et vix somno dgens. ,Cis exteuua gia et secum suppuns. 
Cave que,nqu alieu lu  iuWoe. Iem exfiugul vole, ne  quldquam sit quod  quL 
qusm qtct. Si bons fa venir ne iutromi; Ocude s fores ambob p. Dirutio 
imi quia domo abed'at t mihi : Nhn hercue invit abeo, n quid agam o, q Plorat ag 
rdere» &c. perfit d fum de fi]lo et lor. * Ju¢. . I 



190 Causes of Mdncholy. [T'art. 1. Sec. 2. 

table, S. Ambrose in his second book of Abel and Caln, and amont the rest 
Lucian in his tract de 3[ercede condttctis, hath excellent well deciphere, l such 
men's procee,]ings in his picture of Opulentia, whom he feigns to dwcll on the 
top of a high mount, mach sought after by many suitors ; at their first com- 
ing they are ener«|lyentertuined by pleasure and dalliance, and have all 
content that possibly may bc given, so long as their money lasts : but wh,m 
their means il, they are contemptibly thrust out st a back door, headlon, 
an I there left to shme, reproach, despair. And he st first that had so many 
atten,lant parxites, and followers, young and lusty, richly armyed, and ail 
the dainty titre that might be ha,t, with all kiud of welcome and good respcct, 
is now upon a su,iden stript of ail, "p.,le, nake'J, ol,t, diseased and for.tken, 
crsing his stars, and ready to strangle himself; having no other company but 
rcpeutance, sorrow, grief, derision, beggary and contempt, which aie his daily 
attendants to lais life's end. As the ° prodigal son had exquisite music, mem T 
copany, dMnty rare st first ; but a sorrowhl reckoning in the end ; so have 
ail such vain delights and their followers. «Tristes voluptatmrt exitus, et çuis- 
q,ds voluptatum suarur rerainis,:i volet, intelliget, as bitter as gall and worm- 
wood is their last ; grief of mind, madness itself. The ordinary roeks upon 
which sueh men do impinge and precipitate themselves, are eards, diee, hawks 
and houn015 Ianura venandi studium, one ealls it, insance substractiones : 
their mad structures, disports, plays, &e., when they are unse¢sonably used, 
imprudently handled, and beyond their fortunes. Some men are eonsumed by 
mad fantastieal buildings, by making galleries, cloisters, terraces, walks, 
orchards, gar, lens, pools, rillets, bowers, and such like places of pleasure 
Iutiles domos, Xenol»hon calls them, which howsoever they be delightsomc 
things in themselves, and acceptable to ail beholders, an ornament and befit- 
ring some great men ; yet unprofitable to others, and the sole overthrowof their 
estates. orestus in his observations bath an example oÏsuch a one thatbecame 
melancholy upon the like occasion, having consumed his substance in an unpro- 
fitable bui|ding, which would afterward yield him no advantage. Others, I say, 
are • oveloEhrown by tho mad sports ot hawking and hunting ; honest recrea- 
tions, and fit for some great men, but hot for every base intrior person; whilst 
they will maintain their falconers, dogs, and hunting nags, their wealth, saith 
• Salmutze, "ruas away with hounds, and their fortunes fly away with 
htwks." They persecute beasts so long, till in the end thcy themselves 
degenerate into beasts, as " Agrippa taxeth them, "Actoeon-like, for as he was 
catch to death by his own dogs, so do they devour themselves and their pa- 
trimonies, in such idle and unnecessary disports, neg|ecting in the mean rime 
their more necessary business, and to follow their vocations. Over-mad too 
sometimes are out great mcn in delighting, and doting too much on it. "b,Vhen 
they drive poor husbandmen from thcir tillage," as eSarisburiensis objccts, 
_Polycrat. l. 1. c. 4. "fling down country farms, and whole towna, to mako 
parks, and forests, starving men to feed beasts, and  punishing in the meau 
rime such a man that shall molest their gaine, more severely than bim that is 
otherwise a common hacker, or a notorious thief." But great men are somo 
vays to be excused, the meaner sox¢ bave no evasion why they hould hot be 

• Ventricous, nudu,pa]lidus, læva pudoren occult.'l% dcxtra seipsum sDaugulang occt autem 
exeunti poenltena h misem conficiens, &c. • Luke xv. t Boethi.  In conom. Qd 
$ mnc ostendam eos qui mna  genfi dorons lnutil iflcau in,luit Socrat. ffi Sabensi$ 
l',,lycrat. 1. 1. c. 14. venator omn auc atitutioncm rcdolent cenuror. Raro lnvenlt qu tuam 
eorum modt et avis, ro contineng et ut credo sobri quam. r PanciroL Tir. . avolt opoe 
(um a "cipitre. • Isiis veuatomm stiti et supervacauea cura eor qui d nium venationi 
Insistant, ipsi abje omni hanitate in fer degenerau ut Acon, &c. • Sab.  Osd. Meor. 
b Aippa de vanit. ient. lnsanum vaudi studiu n, dura à novalibus cen oe subunt p 
ticis, agcolonis proecluntur sylvoe e pr, ptorib ut augntnr paua feMtis rea 
agrioelg si gtat, • A novalibu suis arcentur agricole, dura fea habnt vagandi libertatem : i»ti u 
pcua augct »r, proedia subtraha¢ «ç ,¢c. 5arisha, ic,sl, d Fer qumn hominib oeqo. 
àe G. Ca'. u $5 E¢c1¢$i matriccs dcpopulat OEt  forestam novam. at. 



ll%m. 3. Subs. 13.] Z, ove of Gamine, &e. 191 
cotmted mad. Pogus the Florentine tells a merry story te this purpose, con- 
demning thefollyand impertinentbusineofsuch ki»dofpersons. -& physieian 
of Iilan, saith he, that eured mad men, had a pig of water in his house, in 
wh|ch he kept his patients, seine up te their knees, some te the girdle, seine te 
the eh|n, pro »wdo in.saniw, as they were more or less affeeted. One of them 
by chance, that was well reeovered, stood in the d.or, and seeiug a gallant ride 
by with a hawk on his fist, well mounted, with his spaniels after him, wou]d 
needs ktmw te what use ail this preparation ser,'ed; he nmde answer t« kill 
certain fowls; the patient demanded again, what lais fowl might be worth which 
he killed in ayear; he replied 5 or 10 erowns; and when he urged him farther 
what his dogs, herse, and hawks stood him in, he tohl him 400 crowns with 
that the patient bade be gone, as he loved his lire and welfare, for |four toaster 
eome and find thee here, he will put thee in the pit amongst mad men up te tho 
chin : taxing the mlness and folly of sueh vain men that spend themselves i** 
those idle sports, neglecting their business anti neees..ary aflairs. Leo dee/mus, 
that hunting pope, is mueh diseommended by ° Jovius in his lire, for hiz immo- 
derate des|re of hawking and hunting, in se much that (as he saith) ho wotd,l 
somcçimes live about Ostia weeks and months together, leave su|tors «unre- 
spected, bulls and pardons unsigned, te his own prejudiee, and many private 
men's loss. "«And if he had been by chance erossed in his sport, or his gaine 
net se good, he waz se inwatient, that he would revile and miseall many times 
men of great worth with most bitter taunts, look se sour, be se angry and 
waspish, se grieved and molested, that it is incredible te relate it." But if ho 
had good sport, and been wdl pleased, on the other side, icredbili munificentiâ, 
with unspeakablebounty and munificence he would reward ail his fellow hunters, 
and deny nothing to any suitor when he was in that mood. To say truth, 'ris 
the commun humour of ll gamesters, as Galatoeus observes, if they win, no mex 
living are so jovial and merry, but n if they lose, though it be but a trifle, two 
or three games ai tables, or a dealing ai cards for twopence a game, they are 
so choleric and testy that no man may speak with them, and break many rimes 
into violent passions, oaths, imprecations, and unbeseeming speeches, littlo 
differing from mad men for the rime. Generally of all gamesters and gaming, 
if it be excessive, thus much we may conclude, tlmt whether they win or los 
for the present, their winnings are hot 2[unera fortunve, sed inoediôe, as thag 
wise Seneca determines, hot fortune's gifts, but baits, the common catastrophe 
is beggary,  US pes$is vgam, sic adimi alea peeuniam, as the plague take 
away ILfe doth gaming goods, tbr lomnes nudi, inopes et e2e»d; 
' m Alea Seylla çorax, spee|es eertSss|ma fartl, 
Non eontenta bonis an|mure q«oque perlida mergit n 
Foeda furax, int'amL% inere furiosa ruin." 
For a little pleasnre they take, and some small gains and gettlngs now and then, 
their wives and children are wringed in the mean rime, and they themselves with 
loss of body and soul rue it in the end. I will say nothing of thos prodigious 
p.rodigals, perdendoe pecu/nice gentos, as he taxed Anthony, Qui patrimoniun, 
,ne ullâfor£ calumniâ amittunt, saith °Cyprian, and mad Bybaritical spend- 
thrifts, Que unâ eomedgnt patri»mnia cœeenî; that est up all ai a breakfazt, 
ai a supper, or amongst bawds parasites and playera consume thetaselves iax 

sTore. 2. de vitis iilustrinrn, !. 4. de vit. Leon. 10. tVenationlbu adeo perdit tudebat et aucupiis. 
• Aut infeliciter venatus tare impatien• intlc, n •ummo$ oepe viro• cerbi$$itni coutmnelii oneraret, et 
|ncredibile et quai| vultl$ animique habitu dolorem iracundiamquc psoeferret, &c.  Unicuiqne autem 
hoc a natura in•|tutu et, ut dolca •icubi erraverit ut deceptu $i. Ju¢en. Sat. 8. lec enim lvculis 
comitantibtm itur ad casnm tbul posit •ed luditur arcs. Lemniu« |nstit. ca. 44. mendaclorum quidem, et 
pesjuriorum et paupertatis mater et ale$, nttllam haben• patrimonii reverentiam, qnnm illud eflnderit, 
• ira in furta ddabitur et rapina Srt. polycrat. 1. l. c 5. a Darnhoderus.  Dan. Souter. - Petrar. 
dial. 2"/.  Sallust. o Tom. 3. Ser. de Alea.  Plut-us in Aristopla. call al| •nch gameste.-s madmen. 
i iau hominem ¢otigero. Sp«utanettm ad e trahut furorem, et os» et uare.% e oculo• rivoe faeiunt 
furoris et dverorla Chry•. hom. 



192 Causes OEMncly. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

an inztant, as if they had flung it into «Tiber, with great wagers, vain and 
idle expenses, &c., not themselves only, but even all their friends, as a man 
de.perately swimming drowns him that cornes to help him, by suretiship and 
borrowing they will willingly undo all their associates and allies. "]rati pe, cu- 
i/s, as he saith, angry with their money: "°what with a wanton eye, a liquorish 
tongme, and a gamesome hand, when they have indiscreetly impoverlshed 
themsclves, mortgaged their wits together with thelr lands, and entombed their 
ancestors' fair possessions in their bowels, they may lead the rest of their days 
in prison, as many times they do; they repent at leisure; and when ail is gone 
begin to be thrifty: but ,Ser« est iTfundo]rsirrwnia, 'tis then too ]ate to look 
about; their «ead i misery, sorrow, shame, and discontent. And well they 
deserve tobe inFamous and discontent. C«taraidiari7 AraFhitheatro , as by 
Adrian the emperor's edict they were ofold, decoctores bonorum suorum, so he 
cal]s them, prodial fools, to be publicly shamed, and hissed out of ail societies0 
rather than to be ptied or relievecL ffi The Tuscns and Boëtians brought their 
bankrupts into the marlret place in a bief with an empty purse carried before 
them, ail the boys following, where they sat alj day crcura, stante p[ebe, to be 
inamous and ridicu]ous. At Padua in Italy they bave a stone called the 
stone of turpitude, near the senate house, where spendthrifts, and such as 
disclaim non-payment of debts, do sit with their hinder parts bare, that by 
that note of disrace, others may be terrified from ail such vain expense, or 
borrowing more than they can tell how to pay. The ivilians of old set 
guardians over such brain-sick prodigals, as they did over madmen, to mode- 
rate their expenses, that they should not so loosely consume their fortunes, to 
the utter undoing of their families. 
I may not here omit those two main plagaes, and common dotages of human 
kiud, wine and women, which have infatuated and besottcd my»iad ofpeople: 
they go commonly together. 
«- Qui vino lndu]get, quemque alea dec0tult, llle 
In venerem putret------" 
To whom is sorrow, saith Solomon, Pro. xxiii. 29. to whom is woe, but zo such 
a one as loves drink ? it causeth torture (vino orus et irâ), and bitterness of 
mind, Sirac. 31. 21. Vinumfuroris, Jeremy calls it, 15. cap. wine ofmadness, 
as weil he may, for insanirefacit sanos, it makes sonnd men sick and aad, and 
wise men mad, to say and do they know hot what. Accidi hodie terH2£lis 
casus (saith ¢ S. Austin), hear a miserable accident; Cyrillus' son this day in his 
drink, l[atre»rt prtegnantem nequitèr opFressit, sorore»rt violare voluit, patrem 
vccidit f«è, et duas alias sorores ad mortort vulrteravit, would have violated his 
sister, killed his father, &c. A true saying if was of him, Vino dari lxetitiaTrt 
et do/ore»rt, drink causeth mirth, and drink causeth sotwow, drink causeth "po- 
verty and want," (Prov. xxi.) shame and disgrace. Jlulti ignobiles evasere oh 
vini potura, et (&ustin) amissis ho»wi'ibus prof ugi aberrârunt : many men bave 
ruade shipwreck of their fortmes, and go like rogues and beggars, having 
turned ail thcir substance into aurum pot, that otherwise might have lived 
in good worship and happy estate, and for a few hours' pleasure, for their 
Hflary term's but short, or free madness, as Seneca calls it, purchase tmto 
themselves eternal tediousness and trouble. 
That other madness is on women, Apostatarefaclt cor, saith the wise man, 
• Atque homini cerebrum minuit, lleazant ai first she i like Dioseorides 

«Pascalus Sustus, I. I. de sles. rSenecs. "Hall. tln S. II. Sed defldte ens : et 
cente I q  manet exirebus  venem is. s Spartian. Adano. • Alex. ab Alex. 
lib. 6. e. 10. Idem Gerli lib. 5. G. dc.  Fin bIos. * Jn.  Dltl • Pu 
Sat. 5. aOrte dd  wln snothoe the dle consum a third ls dmposed by veueD-." b Poculum 
qul sus In quo pe na i Jactes tutu pecun t met. Erm. In ov. icum 
rem,g chii. 4. cent. 7. Pro. 41. Ser. .  at.  Eremo. a Liberoe i horæ s 
oeteo tem o penser. "enauder. 



Jifem. 3. Subs. 14.] .PMlaut, or ,dflow, &. 193 
Rhodorhphne, that fair plut  tho eye, but poison to tho tasto, tho rest « 
biffer  wormwood in tho end (Prov. v. 4.) and sha as  gwo-edged sword. 
(vil 27.) "Her houso h tho way to hell, and goes do to the chambe of 
death." What moro owful tan be id$ they are miserble in this lifo, 
md, bts, led le "toxen to the slaughter :" and that which is wome, whore- 
m and drunrds shall be judged, amittn .qrat»n, saith Austin, per- 
du glam, inn$ damnation oenam. They lose ace and glory; 
« Sbrevl llla volupté,, 
Abrogat oeteum eoEli dee  
they g hell and eM dmuation. 

Stmsz. XIV.--Philautla, or Sdf-love, V«in-9org, PrMse, ITonour, Imm 
a ATpMuse, Pri, eruch o, &c., 
8v-o, pfide, and vain-glory,  cus amor sui, whieh Chrystom ealls 
one of the dvil's the at nets; " Berua, an arw whieh piereeth ho 
soul through, and slays it n sly, iensible enemy, hot eived," re maiu 
causes. Where neither anger, lust, covetousne, fear, som'ow, &c., ner any 
other peurbation can lay hold; this will slily and inoensibly pervc us, 
Q  gu it, Phut sup«avit, (saith Cyprian)whom suffeitiug 
could net ove,ae, oeil-love bath overcome. " He bath scorned all money, 
bribes, gifts, upright otherse and since% hgth inrted hlmoelf te no fon«i 
imagination, and sustained MI those tymnnical conpiscences of tho body, 
hth lest gll his honour, captiv«tted by van-lory. Chrysostom. sup. 
so animum te pe, gia. A goeat asmult and cnso of out 
poesent malady, although we de most pgrt neglect, take no notice of it, yet 
this  a violent batterer of out seuls, OEuth melaucholy and dotge. This 
pleing humour; this sort and whisring popular air, Abg insania; 
th delectble frenzy, most irrefmggbie pion, Ments grasm e, this 
eptable dase, wch se sweetly sers upon us, radsheth out nses, lulls 
out souh mlep, puffs up out heure m se many bddem, aud that without 
ll feeling, much " tho that m misaffected with it, never se much 
 once peive it, or think of auy cure2' We commonly love him best iu 
t "malady, tht doth us most barre, and re very wig te be hurt; 
snoEus ost libnterfavemus (gxith  OEerome) we love him, we love 
him for if: O on, ave guav« fuR à te li c tbui; 'Tws swt te 
hr it. Aud as  Pgny doth iugeuuously oenfess te his dear fi'iend Augu- 
rhin, "all thy writin e most acceptable, but those escially that spcak 
of us." Agah, a little gfr te am, "ci canner expre how pleing 
if is te me te hear myoeH commended." Though we smile te ourlves, ai 
let ironically, whon parit bedaub us with false eucomiums,  mauy 
priuc canner choo but de, Quum &  nlhil intra se reperent, when 
they know they corne  far short, m a rueuse te an elephaut, of any such 
virtues; yet if doth us goed. Though wo seem many times te be augry, 
"*and blush af out o prais, yet out s inwr, ily mjoice, it pu«  up ;" 
'tisf , blague doem, « makes us swell yond out bouuds, and 
forger oelv." Her two daughtem are lightne of mind, immoderte 
and pfide, net oxcludiug those other conc6mitant ces, which  Iodoeus 
Lorichius reckons up; bmgging, hypoerisy, çevhne, and curiosity. 
Prov. 5. s Merlin. e. "t momen plere blo out the eai glo of a heavenly fo.'" 
t Hor.  Sitta qu sniœem peneWa lev,tcr penctra sed non leve inflt 
ofi« concupisoenti stinuerin hi mult capti • varia gloria omnia perd,de.rit. ; H crrepti 
on gitaut de meel, m Dii tem • tels aveite pestera, u Ep.  Emtochium,  custod, virgin. 
e Ls. Ep.  aavim. p Èp. lib. 9. Omnla tua scripta pchima existimo, maxim tamen 
de nob. q Exçmerc no psum qm sit jucundm, e. * Hieron. et licet n indignoa dicim 
0 



Now the common cause of this mischief, ariseth from ourselves or others, 
"we are active and passive. ]t proceeds inwardly from oursIves, as we are active 
causes, from an overweening conceit we bave of ottr good parts, own worth, 
(which indeed is o worth) out bounty, favour, grace, valoar, strength, wealtb, 
patience, meekness, hospitality, beauty, temperauce, gentry, kuowledge, wit, 
science, arç, learning: our • excellent gifts and ïortunes, for which, Narcissus- 
like, we admire, flatter, and applaud ourselves, and think ail the world esteems 
o of us; and as deformed women easily believe those that tell them they be 
fai; we are too credulous ofour own good parts and praises, too well persuaded 
of omclves. "We brag and venditate out « owu works, and scorn all others in 
respect of us; Inflati acientld (saith Panl), out wisdom, "out learning, all our 
geese are swans, and we as bely esteem and vilify other men's, as we do 
over-highly prize and value ottr own. We will hot surfer them fo be in «ecund/a, 
no, hot in tertiis; what, Mecura cooEertur Ulysses ? they are Mres, Muscce, 
culizes prce se, nits and flics compared to his inexorable and supercflious, emi- 
rient and arrogant worship: though indeed they be far bcfore him. Only wise, 
only rich, only ibrtunate, va]orous, and fair. poEçd up with this tympm«y of 
self-conceit; as tbat proud Pbarisee, they are hot (as tbey sul)pose ) "like 
othcr men," of a purer and more precious metal:  Soli rei gerendi sunt 
ces, which that wise Periander held of such: rclitantur omw qui prius 
gotium, &c. Nov quvndam (satb Erasmus) I knew one so'arrogant that he 
thought himself iaferior to no man living, like "Calilsthenes the philosopher, 
that neither held Alexander's acts, or any other subject worthy of his pen 
such was his insolency; or Seleucus king of Syria, who thought none fit to 
conteud with him but the Romans. "Eos sol»s di#nos ratua quibuacum d 
imperio certaet. That which Tully writ to Atticus long since, is still in force, 
,, b There was never yet truc poet nor orator, that thought any other better 
than himself." And such for the most part are your princes, potentates, great 
l,hilosophers, historiographers, authors of sects or heresies, and ail our great 
scholax-a, as  Hierom dcfines; "a natural philosopher is a glorious creature, 
and a very slave of rumour, faine, and popular opiuion," and though they write 
de contemlotu g/or,yet as he observes, they will put their names to their bool 
i'obis et famce  semper dedi, saith Trebellius Pollio, I bave wholly conse- 
crated myself to you and faine." "'Tis ail my desire, night and day, 'ris all 
my study to raSse my naine."Proud dpilny seconds him; Quanquam Ol &c. 
and tiret vain-glorious °orator, la hot ashamed to confess in an Epistle of his 
to ]Iarcus Icceius Ardeo incredf].dli cup.ita, &c. I buru with an incre- 
dible desire to bave my tname registercd in thy book." Out of this fountain 
procecd all those cracks and brags,-s sjoeramus carmitafil Posse linend 
cedro, et leni servanda cujoresso--.-  Non usitatâ nec tenui ferar pennâ 
ec in terra morabn" lo»gius. 2ïl Tarvum sut Aumli modo, ni mortale 
uor. Dcar qua volens obstrepi$ Auaidas.--1xegi wtunwntun 
perennius. Jamque ojous exegi, qod nec Jovs ira, nec gns, &c., cure 
OE, e dies, &c., parte tamen meliore me super aha Ioerenns astra ferar, 
erit incle&bile nostrum. (Th of Ovid I bave paraphrased in English.) 
«And when I ara dead and gone And I shall be allve 
lly corpse laid under a stone In these my works for ever, 
Iy faine shall yet survive Iy glo T sho21 pcrever»" 
• Nec enlm mihi cornea fibra est. Per. * E manibus illla, Nacentur violoe. Pers. !. Sat. ¢ Ornnia 
enim nostra supra modum placent, u Fab. i. 10. c. 3. Ridentur, mala componunt carmins, verum gaudent 
scribentes, et se venerantur, et ultra. Si taceas lau4ant, quicquid scripsere beatL Hor. ep. 2. 1.2. • Luke 
xviii. 10. "" De meliore iuto finxit proecordia Titan. • Au.son. Sap. : Chil. 3. cent. 10. pro. 9¥. 
Qui se crederet neminem ulla in re proestantiorem, • Tanto rasta scripsit, ut Alexandri gesta inferiora 
scriptis suis existimaret, Io. Vosaiu lib. 1. cap. 9. de hist. a Flurarch. vit. Catoni$. blNemo unquam 
Poëta aut Orator, qui quenquam se meliorem arbitraretur.  Consol. ad Pammachium. Mundi philo- 
' Ut nomen memn scrip[is tuis iiiutretur. Inquie animus s[udio oeternitatia, nocte et die angebatur. 
leusius forat, tmeb. de ScaL • lier. art. Pë. u Od. Vit. 1. . Jamue opus exegi. Vie liboe 



Mcm. 3. Subs. li.] traln-r,j, Pride, J'og, Prae. 

195 

And that of Ennius, 
' Nemo me laclrymls deeoret, eqe funera fl 
Faxtt, c t vo doc r ora " 
« Let none shed  over me, or adorn my hier with soowbecause I 
eteally in the mouths of men." With many such proud straius, and 
flsh too common with wri. ot so much  Democharis on the * Topics, 
but he wfil  immortsl. Tyoti 
desees, becauoe he writ of fme; and evei T tri[ poet must be reuowne«], 
"Pçei cresc«e ji." " He seeks the appluoe ofthe publie." 
This puffing humour it , tht bath prodoed so many grt tomes, built such 
famous monuments, strong ctles, and Mausoleau tomb to bave their acts 
eed, "Dii monsr«, e di, A i" "to be poind t wiçh tho 
finger, and to bave it sid, ' the he goes,' " to sec the names insibed, as 
Phi-yne on the wa]ls of Thebes, Phryneflt; this cauth so many blooIy 
battles, «e noct coi vire sas;" "and iuduces us to wtch during cahu 
nights." ng joueys, "][nu 
contemplate a monstrous journey, but the love of glory strenthens me for if," 
gaining honour, a iittle apl,lause , pride, self-love, vain-glo. This is it whi«h 
makes them ke such ps, nd reak out into those diculous Stt, this 
high conceit of themselves, to t scorn ail othe; 
conmptu ;   aloemou the gmmarian conmned Varro, secum et natas eg 
mu¢«s lr j«c«, and brings them to tt height ofiulency, that they 
oennot endure tobe coutraeted,  or "hear of any thg but thir o com- 
mendation," which erom notes of such kind of men. And as  Austin well 
seconds him, "'ris their le study day and night tobe commended and al»- 
plaudeoE" Vhen  in,leed, 
they are  mad, emœty vessel funges, beside themselves, derided, 
in vb quœers cn, etiam qs a aur a»zit, their works 
 toys,  an almn out of dte, » aut n ç«çru[ie , thcy 
seek fme and immolity, but reap dishonour and infamy, they are  com- 
nlon oloquy, iati, and corne far short of tht which they suppose or 
expect. « 0    vi 
«  How mch I drd 
y da e sho, eome lord 
Ofso mauymiads of poe, rhetoricia, philosophers, sophisters,   Euseiua 
e observes, wch hve writn in former age% scrce one of  thousand's 
wor remains, ni e l mu m cus infant, their books 
aud bodi are perished together. It h hot they valy thik, they ssurly 
e admired and immoral,  one told Philip of Maoedon insultigly, 
victolT, that his shadow was no longer tha befe, we my y to them» 
 N demimur, d non m dide lg% [  We mael t, hot  the çar w 
S vut y Gorgon et F." But  we Gorgo 5i or Fm sec." 
Or  we do applaud, honour and admire, 
spect of the who]e world, never so much  hea our names, how few take 
notice of us, how slender a tract, 
And yet eve man must nd will 
thme to o antipode, when 
city, nelther knows nor hea of him: but say they did, what's a city to 
kJngdom, a kingdom to Europe, Europe to the world, the world ielf that 
must ve an end, ff compred to the lt visible star in the firmament, 
eighteen times bigger thon it I and then if those sta be infinite, and evcry 
•  b. 8. I De ponte dejlce, k Sueton. lib. deam.  lhil libenter suun nisi ]aude 
su Epis. . ihJl sliud  noctue cogRant nisi rit in sdiis su laudentur bhomibus. 
 Quoe mor dementia sut di, aut excoota pot qtm sic obglom ciari  lnsiam tam, dmnin% 
longWf a e. Atiu. cons. lib. I0. cap. 3.  '" As Camel i the uovcl whu lost his ea whfle It 
w tuking for a pa of hor." r 51't 



196 Caes of MelancIwly. [Part. I. Seo. 2. 

star there be a mm, as some will, and as this 2tre of ours hath his planers about 
him, all inhabited, what proportion bear we fo them, and where's out glory 
Orbem terrarum victf Rornanus habeba, as ho cracked in Petronius, all tho 
world was under A ugustu2 : and 2o in Constantine'2 rime, Eusebius brags ho 
governed all the world, unlversum mundun lroeclar$ admodum admlnistravit, 
et omns orbis gentes Imperatori subjecti: so of Alexander if i2given out, 
the four monarchies, &c., when as neither Greeks nor lomans over had 
fifteenth part of the nowknown world,nor hall of that which was thon described. 
What braggadocioe2 are they and we thon  quàn, brevis hic de nobis sermo, as 
' ho said, pudebit aucti nominis, how short a rime, how littIe a while doth this 
fume of ours continue F.very private province, every 2mall teritory and city, 
when we have all doue, will yield as generous 2pirits, as brave examples in ail 
rcspccts, as famous as ourselves, Cadwallador in Vales, l'{ollo in ormandy, 
obiu Hood and Little John, are as much renowned in Sherwood, as Coe2ar in 
ome, Alexander in Greece, or his Hephestion, Omnis ceins omnlsquepopulus 
i, exemTlum et admiratioEnem ve, every town, city, book, is full of brave 
oldierz, senators, scho]ars; and though "Bracydas was a worthy captain, a 
good man, and as they thought, hot fo be matched in Lacedoemon, yet as his 
mother tru]y said, plures habet Sparta Bracycla melires, Sparta had many 
botter men than over ho was; and howsoever thou admirest thysclf, thy friend, 
many an ob2cure fellow the world noyer took not.ice of, had ho bcen in placo 
or action, would bave doue much botter than ho or he, or thou thyself. 
Another kind of rond mon there i2 opposite to these, that are insenaibl mad, 
and knownot of it,2uch as contemnall praise and glory, think themselves most 
free, when as indeed they are most mad: ca&anS sed aIiofazlu: a company of 
eynics, such as are monks, hermits, anachorites, that contemn the world, con- 
temn themselves, contemn all titles, honours, offices: and yet in that contempt 
are more proud than any man living whatsoever. They are proud in humility, 
proud lu that they are hot proud, SCel»e ho»w de vanc glzri coem2tu , vaniùs 
glyriatur, o.s Austin hath it, confess, lib. 10. cap. 38, like Diogenea, 
gloriantur, they brag inwardly, and feed themselves fat with a selï-conceit of 
sar, cfity, which is no better than hypocrisy. They go in 2heep's russeS, may 
great mon that might maintain themselve2 in cloth of gold, and seem fo be 
dejected, humble by their outward carriage, when as inwardly they are swola 
full of pride, arrogancy, and self-conceit. And therefore Seneca adviseth 
fi'iend Lmilius, "* in his attire and gestre, outward actions, especially to 
avoid all such things as are more notable lu themselves: as a rugged attire» 
hirsute head, horrid beard, contempt of money» course lodging, and what- 
soever leads fo fume that opposite way." 
Ail thi2 madness yet proceeds from ourselves, the main englue which buttera 
us i2 from others, we are merely passivo in this business: from a company of 
parasites and flatterers, that with immoderate praise, and bombas¢ epithets, 
glozing titles, false eulogiums» so bedaub and applaud, gild over many a silly 
and undeserving man. that they clap him quite out of his wits. Res 
violent.a est, as Hicrom not., this common applause is a mo2t violent thing, 
laudum placenta, a drum» fife, and trumpet canaot 2o animate; that lattons 
men, erects and deject them in an instant. /a/»a neata wcrum, 
reducit olbnum. It makes them fat and lean, as frost doth coules. "• Ad 
who is that mortal man that can 2o contain himself, that if ho be immoderately 
¢ommended and applauded will hot be moved" Let him be what ho will, 

• Tul. Soin. Sclp. a 8oetlms.  Putean. Clsaip. hist. lib. 1. ffi Plutarch. Lycurg. 
* Epist. 13. lllud te admoneo, ne eorum more facia.% qui non proflcere, sed cousplci cupiunt, qu tu habit - 
tuo, aut genere vitoe notabilia surir, asperum culture et vitiv_um caput, negligentiorem barb&m» indictmn 
al'gento odittm, cubile humi positum, et quicquid ad laudem peTersa via sequiur, evita, • Per. 
• t/uis vero tare bene modulo iuo mctiri enovit ut eum aiduoe et Jrn]Od,C.e laudatio»r.. non mov¢.&ut  
lien. Stelh. 



]fiera. 8. Sul 14.] 

those paraies will overtura him: if he be a king, he is one of the nine 
worthies, more than a man, a god fo.hwith,ediu Domini D 
ws: and they will sacfioe unto him, 
 '«  dlvlnos si  patlas honor 
UIu6 lpsl blm meritq rab 
If he be a so]dier, then Themtocles, Epaminondas, ector, Achilles, d 
fulmlna belli, um terrarum, &c., und the valour of both Scipios  too 
little for hîm, he is inissimus, serendmus, multb rop ortsimus, 
¢urw dominus, although h   garous, indoed a very coward,  milk- 
sop, nd  he said of Xe, posrem lu pun, primus infug& nd such 
a one  never durst look his enemy in the fice. If he be a big man, then is 
he a Samson, another Hercules; ff he pronounce a spch, another Tully or 
Demosthenes: as of Herod  the Ac, "the voice of God and not of man ;" 
if he OEn make a verse, Homer, Vir &c. d then my siIly weak tient 
takes ail these eulogiums to himlf; if he be a schor so commended for his 
much rding, excellent yle, method, &c., he will eviscerate himmff 5ke 
spider, udy to death, Lat osteit avb Junonia pennas, peacock-like he 
vill dLplay MI his feathem. If he be a soldier, and so applaxded, his valour 
exlled, though it be impar congrs,  that of Troil, and Achilles. 
, he will combat with a giant, n first upon a breh,  another "Philip- 
pus, he wili ride into the thickt of his enemies. Commend his houoekeeping, 
and he will beggar himself; commcnd  temperance, he wfil starve himself. 
-- et laudataque 
Cz'ci et immeasum gIori cal¢ar habet:'  
he la m, md, mad, no woe with him ;impie coor eri, he will 
over the Alps o be talked oÇ or fo mainin s credit. Commend an ambi- 
tio mun, some proud prince or pontat%  l æqo ur (saith 
Erasmus} crtas erigit, exui hambem, Deum se pu, he sets up s crcst, 
d will be no loagcr a man but a 
" nIhil est quod eredere de e 
on audet quum laut  oequa pott."  
]ike Hereule in  ]ion's kin oiin  god (*Domin 
to te cify of bylo omodus fhe emror ws so gu]led y s ar- 
e erowned wih ivy, ert-ie in  criot, nd dore fr cchus. 
kig of Tree, w rrie o "inerv, d sen fe severl messeuers 
one fer nofer, fo 8ee iï e were corne fo i e-elmmer. Suç  one 
ws uçir-eneert, Iximnus ov]ms, ioc[esinus Herçu[eus, Spor 
he erin king, broter oï he un nd moon, nd out modern 
• vill be gods on h, kings oï kin, God's sdow, eomde of al] 
y be eommnd, out kin of Çi nd Trry in fis preenf 
oend  çaIIenge o oun Afo ; nd mm re mny sish princes, bruh 
itt»  fol'8 prdi by feir pris, 'ti  eommon umour, hmide o 
men, when ey re in ge l,le, or corne fo fhe soIsieo er honou, hve 
• Ma. Stroga. *' I[ you will cept divine honou we will w;,lingly ereet and eoeera 
yo." Jutin. • Livi. Gloria tantum eatt non ir in mediç host h'fere, qued eomple:is 
glo, lnclud withm it an immenseimpue." el demen e soev croe per Alpe. u.le Aliqui 
&c. ut pueri piae et declatio fi. Juv. Sat. 10. • in Mori Encore. 
" There OE uothing w hiçh oçer-ud power wt[l ne prume  imagine er itlfY 
in Domitiano.  Brionu  ntoni ab sentatoHb evect Lib e aem appeaH 
et pro deo e venditavit l'edi,ni hedera, et eorona velatu aure e thyum tenen% cet uisque 8uceictu 
eurru velut Liber patcr recrus t Alexaudrioe. Pater. vç[. post. * Miuvoe nupti 
«cit ut t«lfit» ittcrt ad vidd n dea  talam vect s  . 



1 '9 ç«e of.lIelaneho!y. [Pa. 1. 800. 

produnt, &e., (sath *Plteruz) your very tradesmen if they be excellent, 
crack and bmg, and sho their folly in exoess. They have good parts, and 
they know if, you need hot te them of if ; out of a conceit of their woh, tbey 
go sming fo themselv a etl meditation of their tropes and pudits, 
they  a t qui mad, and lose the s.  Petrch, l. 1.  conmpt 
,ui, confsed as much of himse and Catin, h  fih book of wdo 
gives an hstance h a smith of Mien, a feDow-citoEen of h»  one le de 
ube, that behg commended for refining of an insten of Archimed, 
for joy tan mad. PlutoEeh in the lire of Araxe, bath sueh a le sry of 
oue Champ, a soldier, that wounded king Cyrus  battle, and "ew the 
upon  tarront, t in a sho spaoe aer he los  wits." So many 
men, if aay new honour, ooEoe, prefeent, booty, treure, posson, or 
patrimony,  ip«ato fall unto them, for immodem joy, and eontinuM 
metation of it, OEnnot eep *or teH what they say or do, they  so mvhed 
on a sudden ; and th va conceits transpoed, there is no re with theoE 
Epanonda% therefore, the next day after his uctrn victory, "*came 
abd all squalid and submiss," and gave no other ron to his fi'ien of 
doing, than tt he roeived himlf the day before, by on of h good 
f»une, to be too insolent, overmuch joye& That we and virtuo lady, 
Quoen Kathene, Dowager of England,  pvate t upon like osio 
said, "that *he would not wiingly endure the extoemity of either fortune 
but  it were so, that of necity she mt undergo the one, she wodd be 
adversity, buse comfi w never wtg in it, but sti counsel and 
government were doEective  the other ;" they cod not modera theelv 

SVBSECT. XV.--Love of £e«rnlng, or overmuc£study. IVitoe a DigresMon of 
tke misery of Sclwlars, omol why tire Muses are Melanclwly. 
LEox,arvs FVcrsrL, s, Iustit. lib. iii. se.ct. 1. cap. 1, Foelix Plater, l/b. iii. 
de »veoeis alienat., Hcre. de Saxonia, Traot. post. de melancK cap. 3, speak of 
a °peeuliar fury, whieh cornes by overmueh study. Fer**elius, lib. 1, cap. 18, 
Vl»uts study, eontemplat, ion, and eontinual meditation, as an espeeial cause of 
l,,adness: and in his 86 consul, cites the saine words. Jo. Areulanus, in 
9, lfhasis aoE A laasorera, cap. 16, amongst other causes reekons up s$udium 
velenmns: so doth Levinus Lcmuus,//b. de ocvul, nat. zairav, lib. 1, CalO. 16. 
"«Mauy men (sith he) eome to this malady by eontinnal study, and night,- 
xvking, and of ail othcr men, seholrs are most subject to it:" and such 
h:tsis ad, ls, " that bave eommonly the fines vit" Con. l/b. 1, tract. 9. 
]larsilius Ficinus, de san/t, tuendd, l/b. 1, cap. 7, purs mek-tneholy amongst one 
of those rive principal plagres of students, 'tis a eommon Maul unto them ail, 
and almost in some meaure an inseparable eompanion. Varro belike for that 
cause OEils Tr/stes Pitilosoplws et severos, severe, sad, dry, tetrie, are eommon 
epithets to seholars: and 'latritius therefore, in the in.stitution of princes, 
wotdd hot bave them to be great students. For (as ]Iaehiavel holds) study 
weakens their bodies, dullz the spirits, abates their srength and com-age; and 

* De mentis slienat, cap. . • .çlniturqte superbis formarn. Livias ii. 11. aeum 
Inenia lxm4e hac et evsncŒee multosque sens penit sme. Homin intuen,  si ipsi non 
se ,t homme. Ge de Rubei civ aoer faber feari oh inventiouem instrumeng Cocl olim 
Archimedts dictÇ proe titia innivit. 'Insania pomodum corpt oh mism de ogtiam. 
k Beae ee mam die (oram. Hot. Foetu reverenr ha quicque repen Div 
proeere 1o. Aoni. Ptit squid et submi, or hi ei gaudium temper 
hodie iggr. m Uxor Heur. 8.  Neutfi se fortoe extm nter expram xit : 
eci te binde imponc, opère  cflem et v: qd  h n qm dent 
olatium,  r mult confl, &c. L. Viv. o Pecis fro'or» qui ex 
ugeK  idua tudi et profun giton  Non dun qui ex j stu  a 
Iucubraon bac devenenL bi p ri$ enim plenque melcholia soient . 
«ontiuual and t meditatiou, applied  thing with at dlre. Tully. 
l,4enii, et mul »roemetio e f eldt  mchol ,Oh 
b. . h. b. 



]Icm. 3. Subs. 15.] udy, a Cau 199 
good scholars are never good soldiers, whieh a eertaln Goth wcll perceived, for 
when his eountrymen came into Greeee, and would bave burned all their bool 
he eried out against it, by no menus they should de if, "'leave them that 
plague, which in time will consume all their vigour, and martial spixits." Tho 
 Turks abdicated Cornutus the next heir frein the empire, beeause he was 
se mueh given te his book: and 'ris the eommon tenet of the zorld, that 
learning dulh and diminisheth the Bpirits, and soi)er ¢onseruens produceth 
nmlancholy. 
Two main reasons may be given of it, why students should be more subject 
te this malady than others. The one is, they lire a sedentary, solitry lire, 
zibi et mus£s, ri-ce frein bodily exereise, and those ordinary disports which other 
rnen use: and many rimes if diseontent and idleness eoncur with it, which is 
too frequent, they are preeipitated into this gulf on a sudden : but the common 
cause is overmuch study; too much learning (as XFestus told Paul) bath 
ruade thee mad ; 'ris that other extreme whieh effeets it. Se did Trineavellins, 
l/b. 1., cons//. 12 and 13, find by his experienee, in two of his patients, a young 
baron, and another that eontracted this mahdy by too vehement study. Se 
Forestus, obs¢,rvat. L 10, observ. 13, in  young divine in Louvaine, that was 
xnad, and said "rhe had a bible in his head:" ]Iarsilius Fieinus de sanit. 
tend, lib. 1, cap. 1, 3, 4, and lib. 2, cap. 16, gives many reasons, "Xwhy 
students dote more often than others." Tlae first is their negligenee ; "°other 
naen look te their too]s, a painter will wash his peneils, a smith will look te hi 
hammer, anvil, forge; a husbandman will mend his plougla-irons, and grind 
his hatchet, if it be dull œee a çalconer or huntsman will bave an espeeial tare of 
his hawks, hounds, horses, dogs, &c.  a musician will string and unstring his 
lute, &e.; only seholars neglect that instrument, their brain and spirits 
rnean) whieh they daily use, and by whieh they range over all the world, vhicla 
by much study is consume&" l'/de (sait.h Lueian) ne funiculum nlmis 
intedendo, aliquandb abrumpas: "See thou twist net the tope se hard, till at 
length it bbreak." Ficinus in his fourtla chap. gives some other reazons; 
,tturn and ¢Iereury, the patrons of learning, they are both dry planers: and 
Orig.tnus assigns tho saine eause why ]Iercurialists are se poor, and most part 
beggars; for that their president Mercury had no better forttme himself. Tha 
de.tinies of old put povrty upon him as a punishment; shme when, poctrï 
and beggary aïe Gemelli, twin-born brats, inseparable eompaLfions i 
«*And fo this day fs every cholar poor; 
Groaa goltl frein thera fans hetllong te the boo : 
l[ercury can help them te knowledge, but net te money. The second is con- 
templation, " which dries the brain and extinguisheth natural heat ; for 
the spirits are lutent te meditation above in the head, the tomaeh and liver 
are lefç destitute, and thence corne black blood and erudities by defect of con- 
coction, and for want of exercise the superflous vapeurs canner exhale," &e. 
The saine reaons are repeated by GomesiŒEs, llb. 4, cap. 1. de sale *2Vyrnannus 
orat. de Inag. Je. Voschius, llb. 2, vap. 5, de peste: and something more they 
add, that hard studçxxts are eommonly troubled with gouts, eatarrhs, rhettms, 

æGaspar Ena, Thesaur. lolit. Apbteles. 31. Gr¢ls banc pestern relinquite, qnoe dnbinm non est quln 
brevi omnem ils vigorvm ercptura, Martiosqu@ piritus exhaustur& lt; ut ad ar,n& tractanda plaa 
Lqhabilcs futuri sin$. • Knoles, TurlL HisL • Acta, xxvL 2A. • Nimiis studiL rnelan«-holi us 
erasit, dit-eus se B|bllnm In capite babere, s Cttr melancholià asidn, crebrisque deliramentis vexentur 
evrurn anlmi ut des[pere cogantur. « $olers qullibet artifex lnstrumenta sua d-iligentissimë curat, penicel[os 
lictor; maUeos tu¢udesqu¢ ftber ferr&rius; toiles equoa, arma venatOr, auceps aves et canes, cythararn 
cytharoedus, &c. soli rnusarum myst:c tare negligentes sunt, n$ instrurnentum illud quo rnundum unlversum 
metiri soient, spiritum acilicet, penitus negligere videantur. Arcus et arma tibi non sunt imitaudm 
Dianœe. S! nunquam cesses tendere molli erIt. Ovid. eEphemer.  Contemplatio ccrcbrtœe 
exsiccat et extiuguit calorem naturalern, unde cerebrum frigldum et siccum evsd]t quod est melancholicurn 
Acce,lit ad ho.., quod natura in conternpltionv, ¢exebro lrorst ¢ordique intent, atomuchum heparqu 
ltituit, unde ex siimentis maie ¢octis, mmnguis crs..ls e n|ger efllcitur dtmt uimio otio membxottt.. 



19 Causes of Me[nelm.y. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

produnt, &e., (.ith *Pl:terus) your very tradesmen if they be excellent, will 
crack and brag, and sho their folly in excess. They bave good profs, and 
they know it, you need not 11 them of it; out of a conoeit of their woh, they 
go sming fo themselv, a perpetual medition of their tropes d plaudits, 
they  at lt qfite mari, d looe their ts.  Petraoeh, IOE. 1. & comptu 
undi, confd  much of himoelf, and Carn, h  fifth book of whdo 
gives an insnoe h a smith of Milan, a fellow-citen of h  one lem de 
ltubeh, that hg eommended for refining of n instent of Arehimedes, 
for joy ran md. Plutch in the lire of Artaxerx hath such a like s ot 
oue Chamus, a soldier, tha wounded king Cyrus  baçtle, and "ew the- 
npon so rrogant, that in a sho spa er he lost  wits." So many 
men,  any new honour, offioe, preferment, booty, trure, poason, or 
patrimony,  i»perata rail unto them, for immoderate joy, and continual 
meditation of if, cannot sleep kor tefi wt they say or do, they m  ravished 
on a sudden ; and with v conceits transpoed, there is no re with theoE 
Epanondas, thcrcfom, the next y after his Leuctrian victory, "»came 
abroad ail squid and submi," and gave no other reon to his fi'iends of so 
doing, than th;t he peroeived himlf e dy before, by tenon of h good 
fune, to be too insolent, overmuch joyeoE Tht we and virtuo lady, 
 Queen Katherine, Dowager of England, in private tk, upon like oasio 
sid, "that she would hOt willingly endure the extremity of either foune ; 
but if it wem so, that of ncceity she mt undergo the one, she wod be  
adversity, b comfi» w never wtg in it, but still counsel and 
government were defective  the other ;" they cod not modera themælv 

8uBsv.cz. XV.--Love of Learn¢ng, or overmuch sudy. 
the mlsery of Scholars, az w]y the J[uses are Mdanclwly. 
LEO'RTVS FçCtSlVS, [nSl;2. lib. iii. secS. 1. cap. 1, Foelix Plater, l/b. iii. 
ee meoeis aliezaZ., Herc. de Saxonia» 2raot. losg, dr nelar]. cap. 3, speak of 
a °peculiar fury, which cornes by overmuch study. Yeruelius, lib. 1, cap. 18, 
puts study, contemplation, and eontinual meditation as an espec'nù cause of 
,adncss: and in his 86 consul, cites the same words. 
9, ]lhasiz aæ Al,a»oren,, ca]». 16, amongst other causes reckons up sgudiurr, 
vc[errns: so doth Levinus Lemuius, lib. dr occul, nal. m-irac, l/b. 1, cap. 16. 
"« Many men (sith he) corne to this malady by coutinual  study, and night- 
'aking, and of all other men, scholars are most subjcct to it :» and such 
lmsis adds, "" that hve commonly the fiues wits." Cont. lib. 1, $rae$. 9. 
:Marsilius Ficinus, de sanie. $uendâ, lib. 1, ca;o. 7, purs meL«ncho]y amongst one 
of those rive principal plagues of studens, 'tis a eommon Maul unto them all, 
and almost in some meaeure an inseparable companion. Yr»o blike for that 
cause calls Trisges P]dloso2]ws  severo, severe sad, dry, etric, axe common 
epithets to scholara: and 'latritius therefore, in the iustitutioa of prineea 
would nog ]mve them fo be great studeuts. For (as Machiavel holds) study 
'eakens their bodies, dull the spiris, aboies theiï strength and couxage; and 

 De mentls alienat cap. $. • Sequ|tatrqe super'olc formam. Livl ll. I I. Oraeulum e 
lnqenia luxm-ie bac et evancoe multoue sensum pitus amise. Homin intuentur,  si ip uuu 
esse,tt homme, h Ge de Rubei v ner faber feri, oh inentionem insumen CocI oHu 
Archimeda dictÇ prœe loetitia iusauivit, qnnia pomod coeptus, ob uimiam de ogantiam. 
 Beue feue mam die lorrain. Hor. Fortu reverenr bab% quicunque re Div ab 
preere looe. Aoni. Pt»it squalid et aubm, ut hi diei gau tempoes 
]mdie ir. m Uxor Hemr. 8.  Neut se fooEœe extoemum Hbeur expermn xit : 
ecsit teri binde imner, opère  cflem et vam: qd  bac n quam dt 
solarium,  alter mt cous, . Lod. VivoE oPeci furor, qui ex li fit. P 
• uge  idua studi et profun giion q Non dun qui ex ju udio e 
]ucabraon huc deveuen bi proe Tteris euim planque mcholia soleut t. 
cotmual and t mittio applied  thinff with 'est desiro. Tully. r Et illi qui uut subtiHs 
I, zenii, «.t mul »roemetio de f eidt  mchoi Ob stor 



]Içm. 3. Subs. 15.] Sudy, a Cause, 199 
good scholars are never good soldlers, which a cealn Goth wcll perceiicd, for 
when his cotmtrymen came into Greece, and would have burned all their book 
he cricd out against it, by no means they shouhl doit, "'leave them that 
plagwle, which in rime wil! consume all their vigour, and martial spirits." The 
 Turks abdicated Cornutns the next heir from the empire, becanse he was 
so much given to his book : and 'ris the common teuet of the world, that 
lcarning dulls and diminLsheth the sphits, and so mer conseeens prudaceth 
nelancholy. 
Two main reans may be given of it, why studcnts should be more subject 
to this malady thau others. The one is, they lire a sedentary, solitary lire, 
«ib e2 mus/s, free from bodily exercise, and those ordinary dispos whlch other 
men use: and many rimes if discontent and idleness concur with it, which 
too frequent, they are precipitated into this gulfon a sudden: but the common 
cause s overmuch study; too much learning (as Festus told Paul) bath 
ruade thee mad; 'tls that other extreme which effects it. So did Trincavellius, 
lib. 1., consil. 12 and 13, find by his experience, in two of his patients, a young 
btron, and another that contracted this malady by too vehement study. So 
Forestus, observa$, l. 10, observ. 13, in a young divine in Louvaine, that was 
mad, and said "he had a bible in his head:" ]Iarsilius Ficinus de saniL 
tuend, lib. l, cap. 1, 3, 4, and lïb. 2, cap. 16, gives many reasons, "why 
students dote more often than others." The first is their negligence ; ""other 
men look to their tools, a painter will wa.h his pecils, a smith will look to 
hammer, anvil, forge; a husbandman will mend his plough-irons, and grlnd 
his hatchet, if it be dull; a falconer or huntsman will bave an especial care of 
his hawks, hounds, horses, dogs, &c. ; a musician will string and unstring his 
lute, &c.; on|y scholars neglect that instrument, their brain and spirits 
mean) which they daily use, and by which they range over all the world, which 
by much study is consumed." }'/d (saiÇh Luciau) n funiculum nimis 
infedendo, aliand abrumpa: "See thou twist hot the tope so hard, till ai 
length if break." Ficinus in his fourth chap. gives some other reasons; 
Saturn and ][ercury, the patrons of learniug, they are both dry planers: and 
Orig.mus assigns the saine cause, why ]Iercurialists are so poor, ad most part 
beggars; for that their president Mercury had no better fortune himself. The 
de.tinies oï old put poverty upon him as a punishmeut; ahme when, poetry 
and begary axe Gemelli, twia-born brats, inseparable oemlanions i 
«'And fo this day fs eery scho]ar poor; 
Gros gold from them rUas hcadJong fo the boor :" 
]«rcury can help them fo knowledge, but hot to money. The second is con- 
tmplation, " which dries the brain and extinguisheth natural heat; for whilst 
the sldrits are intent to meditation above in the head, the etomach and liver 
are left destitute, and thence corne black blood and crudities by defect of con- 
coction, and for want of exercise the superaous vapours cannot exhale," 
The saine reasons are repeated by Gomesius, lib. 4, cap. 1. de sal 
orat. de Imag. Jo. Voschius, llb. 2, vap. 5, de peste: and something more they 
add, that hard studunts are commonly troubled wlth gouts catarrhs, rheums, 

«Gaspr Eus, Theaur. Polit. Apbteles. I. Grcls banc ptem re]Inqu[t quoe dublum non t quln 
brevi omnem ris vigorem erept Mti«sque 8pit exhaustura ; ut ad ma acnda plane 
habil fu sit. = Knole Tur st. ffi Act xxvL . Y Nimiis studi melancholi . 
evit, dicens se Bibllum  capite habere, • C melancholià id oeebue deliramentis vexentur 
eorum animi ut dlpere cogant . • Solers qullibet tife sum aua eutiimWcuraç aic¢Ilos 
pietor; Ueos lncudque faber feaus; mil iuog a vator, auceps sv et cana, eytharam 
¢ytharuN &c., li musar mys t neglint sunç ut stmment iilud qao mund l¢ersum 
meti soleuç spitum scilieeh enitus negligere videant, t Ar et ma tibi non aunt imitada 
Dianoe. Si mnquam ¢ tendere moH erit. Ovid. *EChemer.  Contçlatio oerebraoe 
exsiccat et extiit c.lore,n naturem, aride cerebrnm fridam et siccnm evadit quod est melancholicum 
Acce,iit ad ho.-, ,mod natura In contemploue, ¢oeebro prom cordique tent stomachum heparqua 
destituiç unde ex imentis me ¢oeti ngais esa  niger ecitnr, dura nimio otio membzo 



200 Causes of Mdmlbj. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

cachexia, bradiopepsia, bad eyes, stone and colle, rerudities, oppilations, vertigo, 
winds, consumptions, and all sueh diseases as eome by overmuch sitting ; they 
are most part lean, dry, ill-eoloured, spend their fortunes, lose their wits, and 
many rimes their lives, and ail through immoderate pains, and extraordinary 
studios. If you will hOt believe the truth of this, look upon great Tostatus 
and Thomas Aquinas's works, and tell me whether those men took pains 
l,ernse Austin, lIierom, &e., and many thousands besides. 
"Qui cupit optatam cursu contingere metam, I  Ho that desires this wished goal to gain. 
5luira tulit, fecit.lue puer, sudavit et alsit." lust swet and freeze before ho can attin, ' 
and labour hard fir it. So did Seneca, by his own confession, op. 8. 
a day that I spend idle, part of the night I keep mine eyes open, tired with 
wakiog, and now slumbcring to their continual tazk." Hem" Tullypro Archi 
l'oetâ : "whilst others loitered, and took their pleasures, ho was continually 
at hi book," so they do that will be scholars, and that to the hazard ([ say) of 
their healths, fortunes, wits, and lires. Yfow much did Ariztotle and Ptolemy 
spend I uniua regni Frecium they say, more than a king's ransom ; how many 
crowns per armure, to perfeet arts, the one about his Iitory of Creaturea, 
t!lo other on his A]maget i Yfow much time did Thebet Benchorat employ, 
to find out the motion of the eighth sphere fort.y years and more, some write : 
how many poor scholars have lost their wits, or become dizzards, neglecting all 
wo»ldly aflirs and their own health, wealth, ae and bo ese, to gain know- 
ledge, tbr which, after ail their pains, in this world's esteem they are accounted 
ridiculons and silly fools, idiots, asses, and (as off they are) rejeeted, con- 
temned, derided, ' " - 
,otmo, and mad. Look for examples in Hildesheim, sp/cd. 2, 
d mnia et deliio : read Trincavelllus, l. 3. cool//. 36, et c. 17. ]Kontanus, 
coing. 233. aCl-cens de Judic. Sertit. cap. 33. ]Iercurialis conail. 86,calo. 25. 
Prosper Calenius in his Book de atrâ bil; Go to Bedlam and ask. Or if 
they keep their wits, yet they are eteemed scrub8 and fool8 by reason of 
thcir caxriage " after 8even years' study" 
--++-tott taciturnha$ exit, 
Plerum lus et risu populum quatit." 
"Ye becomes more silent than a statue, and generally excites people's 
laughter." Because they cannot ride m hors% which every clown can do 
salure and cour a gentlcwoman, carre at table, cringe and make congés, which 
cvery common swasher cm do, lws [oopu[us ridel, &c., they are laughed fo 
corn, and accounted silly fools by out gallants. Yea, many rimes, 8uch 
their misery, they deserve it : la mere scholar, a more ass. 

« = Obstipo capite, et flgentes lumine terrain, 
Mmanura c6m secum, et rabiosa silentia rodunt 
Atque experrecto trutinantur verba labello, 
zEgroti vetcris meditantes somnia, gigni 
De nihilo nihilum; in nihilum nil pusse revertL" 
----------"* who do lean awry 
Their hcadpiercing the earth with a tîxt eye; 

When. by thernselvea, they gnaw their murmaring 
And furious silence, as "twere blancing 
Èach 'ord upo[t their outstretched lip, and when 
They rneditate the drearns of old sick rnen, 
As, 'Out of nothing, nothing can be hrought; 
And that which L% oaa ne'er be turn'd to nought. TM 

Thus theygo eommonly meditating unto themselves, thus theysit, such is their 
action and gesture. Fu|gosus, l. 8, c. 7, makes mention how Th Aqtùnas, 
supping with king Lewis of France, upon 
table, and cried, cowlusmr est contra 3Ianiclweos; his wits were  wool-gather- 
ing, as they say, and his head busied abottt other matters, hen ho perceived 
his error, he was much °abashed. Such a story thero is of Archimedes in 
ritmvius, thathaving tbund out the means to know how muchgold wasmingled 
 Studlosl sunt eachectici et nunquam b¢ne coloratl, propret debilitatem digestivm facuitatls, mulfipllcantur 
in ils auperfluitates. Jo. Voschius parte 2. cap. 5. de pete, s lqullu mihi per otium dies exit partem 
octis studiis dedieo, non veto somno, sed oculo$ vigilia fatigatos cadentesque, in operam dctineo. 
 Johanne Hanuschius Bohemu.% nat. 1516. eruditus vit, nlmii -tudii$ in Phrenein Incidit. Mont, anus 
ïs.tan .c.in a Frcîcphman.of Tolosa. ! Cardinlis Coecltts; oh iaborem, vigiliam, et diuturna studia factus 
• eanenoncus. er. Sat. S. They cannot flddle; but, a Themistocles said, he could make a small town 
become a great elty. Pers. Sat. - lngenium sibi quod vanas deumpsit Athenas et septem studiis 
annos dedit lnsenuitque. Libris et curis statua taciturnius exlt, Plerunque et risu populum quatit, Hot. 
. i. lib. 2.  Tranalated by M. R l»;a,.v. • Thoma rnbore confuus dixit s de axgumento cogit,a, 



]em. 3. Subs. 15.] tudy, a Cause. 20] 

with the sil'er in king Y[iero's crown, ran naked f ,rth from the bath and cried 
ïogng,,, I ha'e round : "P and was commonly so i tent fo hia studies, that ho 
aever pereeived what was done about him: when the city was taken, and the 
soldiers now ready to riflo his bouse, he took no notico of it." St. Bernard 
rode all day long b the Lemnian lake, and asked st last where ho was, ]Iarul- 
lus, l/b. 2, cap. 4. If was Domocritus's carriago alone that ruade the Abderitea 
snppose him to bave been mad, and sent for Yiippocrates to cure him : if ho 
had been in any solemn company, he wouhl upon ail occasions fall a laughing. 
aeophrastus aith as much of lïeraclitus, for that he continually wept, an,i 
Laertitm of/Venedemtm Lampsacus, becalzse he ran like a madman, q saying, 
"he came from hell as a spy, to tell the devils what mortal men did." Your 
greatest tudents are commonly no better, silly, soft fellows in their outward 
behaviour, absurd, ridiculous to others, and no whit experienced in worldly 
business; they can measure tho heavens, range over tho world, teaeh others 
visdom, and yet in bargains and contacts they are circumvented by every 
base tradesman. Are not these men foolz and how should they be otherwise, 
"but as so many sots in sehools, when (as * he well obsewed) they neither 
hear nor sec sueh things as are eommonly praetised abroad$" how should they 
get experience, by what means "" I knew in my rime many seholars," saith 
_/Eneas Syleins (in an epistle of his to Gasper Scitick, ehaneellor to the em- 
peror), "excellent well lcarned, but so rude, so silly, that they had no eommon 
eivility, nor knew how to manage their domestie or publie affairs." "Pagla- 
rensis was amazed, and said his frmer had surely eozened him, when he heard 
him tell that his sow had eleven pigs, and hiz azs had but one foal." To say 
the best of this profession, I ean gi'e no other testimony of them in general, 
tkan that of Pliny of Isoeus; '"l-e is yet a seholar, than which kind of men 
thcre is nothing so simple, so sineere, none botter, they are most pax harm- 
less, honest, upright, innocent, plain-dealing men." 
low, beeause they are eommonly subjeet fo such hazards and ineonve- 
aaiences as dotage, madness, simplieity, &e., 5 . Vozehius would haro good 
seholars to be highly rewarded, and had in some extmordinary respect abovo 
other men, "fo bave greater * privileges than the test, that adventure them- 
selves and abbreviate their lires for the publie good." But out patrons of 
learning are so far no'-a-days from respeeting the muses, and giving that 
laonour to scholars, or reward which they deserve, and are allowed by those 
indulgent privileges of many noble princes, that after ail their pains takcn 
in the univcrsities, cost and charge, expensos, irksome hours, laborious tasks, 
wearisome days, dangers, hazards (barred interim from all pleasures whieh 
other men bave, mewed up like hawks 11 their lives), if they chance to wado 
through them, they shall in tho end be rejeeted, eontemned, and whieh is 
their greatest misery, driven to their shifts, exposed to want, poverty, and 
cga T. Their familiar attendants are, 
* Pallentes morbl, luctu, curoeque laborqne I "Grief, labour, tare, pale lcknes, mlserie$, 
Et metu$, et malesuda lames, et turpin eg-st» I Fear, fllthy povcrty, Imnger that cries, 
Terribilcs visu formœe" Terrible monsters to be seeu with eyes." 
:If there were nothing else to trouble them, the conceit of this alone wero 
enough fo rnake them all melancholy, lost other trades and professions, aftcr 
tome seven years' apprenticeship, are enabled by their craft to live of them- 
sclves. A merchant adventures his goods st ses, and though his hazard be great, 
 Plutarch. vlt arcelll. /ec senslt nrbem captam, nec milltcs In domurn lrruente, adeo intentera 
«" udil, &¢. «Sub Furise larv& circumivit urbem, dictitans se exploratorem ab inferis venisse, delaturum 
d:emonibus mortalium peCcata, • Petronltts. Ego arbitror in scholis stuklssimos flerl, quia nlhil eorum 
q tt in usu habemus sut audiuut ant vident, • lovi mels dlebus, plerosque studii literarum dedito, 
qui discipliuis admodum sbuudabant, sed uihll c|vtliatts ]aabente, nec rem publ. nec domesticam regere 
zaÇrant. Stupuit Paglarensis et furti vilicttm accusavit, qui suem foetam undeclm porcellos, ainsm uum 
duntaxat pu|lum enixam retuler«t. « Lib. l. Epl«t. . Ad.hue cholaaticus tantum est; quo geuere 
bominum, nihil sut est slmplicius, aut sincerins sut meliUSo • Jttrc lrivilegiandi qui oh çommtm 
Ionum abbrcviant ibi vit ara. • Virg. 6 



yet if one ship return of four, he likely makes a saving voyage. An husband- 
xnan's gains are almost certain; quibs ips Jpiter noc«re non potes (whom 
Jove himself can't harm), Cris  Cato's hyperbole, a great husband himself); 
only scholars methinks are most uncertain, unrespected, subject to ail casual- 
tics and hazards. For first, hot one of a many proves&o be a scholar, ail 
are not capable and docile, z ex orai l/gno non tic Mercur/us : we can make 
majors and ofllcers every year, but hot scholars: kin can invest knights 
and barons, as Sigismund the emperor confessed; universities tan give de- 
wees; and Tu quod es,  populo qvilibet esse pot; but he nor they, nor ail 
the world, can give learning, make philosophem, artists, orators, poets; we 
cm soon say, as Seneca well notes, 0 v/tutu bonura, 6 divitem, point st a rich 
man, a good, a happy man, a prosperom man, surapguos vestium, Calarais-- 
t'atura, bene oentm, magno temporis irapendio cotat hac [aMatio, ô virura 
lirarura, but 'ris hot so easily performed to find out a learned man- Learn- 
ing is hot so quickly got, though they may be wi|ling to take Ins, to that 
end sufliciently infoimid, and liberally maintined by their patrons and parents, 
yet few can compass it. Or if they be docile, yet ail men's wills are hot an- 
swerable to their wits, they can apprehend, but will hot take pains; they 
are either seduced by bad companions, vel in puegam impingunf, vel in poeu- 
lum (they fall in with women or wine), and so spend their rime to their friends' 
grief and their own undoing Or put case they be studious, industrious, of 
ripe wits, and perhaps good capacities, thon how many diseases of body and 
xnind must they encounter I To labour in the world like unto study. 
tay be, their temperature will hot endure it, but striving to be excellent to 
]now all, they lose health, wealth, wit, life and ail Let him yet happily 
escape all these hazards, æreis intestiis, with a body of brasa, and is now con- 
summato and ripe, ho bath profited in his studios, and proceeded with all 
api»lause: after many expenses, ho is fit for preferment, where shail ho bave 
iti ho is as far to seek it as ho was (after twenty yeam' standing)st the 
first day of his coming to the Univcrsity. For what course shall ho take, 
being now capable and readyl The most parable and easy, and about which 
xnany are employed, is to teach a school, turn lecturer or curate, and for that 
ho shall bave tdconer's wages, ton pound per annum, and his diet, or some 
small stlpend, so long as ho can pleaso his patron or the parish ; if they ap-- 
prove him hot (for usually they do but a year or two), as inconstant as T thcy 
that cried "]osanna" one day, and "Crucify him" the othcr; serving-man- 
like, ho must go lok a new toaster; ff they do, what is his rewardi 
' • lloc qnoqne te m anet ut pueros elementa docentem 
Occuper extremis in vicie alba seaectua." [ "At last thy snow-white age in subnrb echoola, 
Bhall toil in teaching boya their grammar rulea." 
I.ike an ass, ho wears out his rime for provender, and can show a stum rod, 
toga» tritara e lacerara, saith ++ Fioedus, an old torn gown, an ensign of 
iltfcLicity, ho hath his labour for hi. pain, a nwdicura to keep him till ho be 
dccrepid, and that is ail Graramaticusnon estfce2ix, &c. If ho be atrencher 
chaplain in a gentleman's bouse, as it befel • Euphorinio, after some seven 
ycam' scrvico, he may perchance bave a living to the halves, or some small 
rectory with the mother of the mads st length, a poor kinswomen, or a 
cracked chambermaid, to bave and to hold during the rime of his life. But 
ho offcnd his good patron, or displease his lady mistresa in the mean time, 
« • Ducetur Plant& velnt lotus ab Hercu]e Cacua 
Ponetnrque fora ai quid teataverit unquam 
Hicere " 
as Herculea did by Cacua, ho shall be dragged forth of doors by the hee]s 

* Plutareh. vtt  Cerfum agrlcolatlonls lucrum &c. Quotannle flttnt cousu]es et proe, osu]es 
Rex et Poeta quotannis nou nsa¢itur.  Mat. 21. • Hot. epLst. 0.1.1.  Lib. 1. de conte, amoZ, 
• atyrl¢,n. •Juv. Sat. 5. 



m. 3. Subs. 15.] Sf.oEy a C'«,. 203 

avay with him. If he bend his forces to some other studies, wlth an intent to 
be à seretls to some nobleman, or in such a place with an ambassador, he shall 
final that these persons fise like apprentice one under another, and in so many 
tradesmen's shops, when the toaster is dead, the foreman of the shop com- 
monly steps in his place. Now for poets, rhetoricians, storians, philosophers, 
bmathematicians, sophisters, &c. ; they are like grasshoppers, sing they must in 
summer, and pine in the winter, for there is no preferment for them. Even 
so they were af first, if you will believe that pleasant gale of Socrates, vhic]: 
he told fair Phoedrus under a plane tree, at the banks of the river Iscus; about 
noon when it was hot, and the gra.hoppers made a noie, he took that sweet 
occasion to tell him a tale, how grasshoppers were once scholars, musicians, 
poets, &c., belote the lIuses were born, and lived without ment and dlnk, and 
for that cause were turned by Jupiter into grasshoppers. And may be turned 
again» In Tythoni Cicadas, av2 Lyciovum ranas, for any reward I see they are 
like to bave: or else in the meantime, I would they could live as they did, 
• vithout any viaticum, like so many manucodiatoe, those Indian birds of para- 
dise, as we commonly call them, those I men that live with the air and dew 
of heaven, and need no other food? for being as they are, their "* rhetorc 
only serres them to curse their bad fortunes," and many of them for want of 
menus are driven fo hard shffts; fmm grasshoppers they turn humble-bees 
and wasps, plain parasites, and make the muses, mules, to satisfy their hunger- 
starved paunches, and get a meal's meat. To say truth, 'ris the common ff,r- 
tune of most scholars, tobe servile and poor, to complain pitifully, and lay 
open their wants to their respectless patrons, as Cardan doth, as $Xilander 
and many others: and which is too common in those dedicatory epistles, for 
hope of gain, to lie, flatter, and with hyperbolical eulogiums and commenda- 
tions, fo magnify and extol an illiterato unworthy idiot, for his excellent vir- 
tues, whom they should rather, as MAchiavel observes, vilify and rail at 
downright for his most notorious villainie and vices. So they prostitute them- 
selves as fiddlers, or mercenary tradesmen, to serve great men's t.urns for a 
small reward. They are like § Indians, they bave store of gold, but know 
hot the worth of it: for I ara of Synesius's opinion, "°King Hiero got more 
by Simouided acquaintance, than Simonides did by his;" they hve their 
best education, good institution, sole qualification from us, and when they bave 
doue well, their honour and immortality from us: we are the living tombs, 
registers, and as so many trumpeters of their lames: what was Acbilles with- 
out lffomer? Alexander without Arrian and Curtius? who had llowa the 

« Belote great Agamemnon relgdd, 
Reign'd kings as great as he, and brave, 
Whose huge ambition's now contain'd 
In the small compass of a grave: 
In endless night they sleep, unwept, unknown, 
1o bartt they had to make all rime their own.  

they are more heholden to scholars, than scholars to them; but they under- 
value themselves, and so by those great men are kept down. Let them bave 
that encyclopoedian, ail the learning in the world; they must keep it to them- 
selves, "¶lire in base esteem, and starve, except they will submit," as 
]3udoeus well bath it, « so many good parts, so many ensigns of as, virtues, 
be slavishly obnoxious to some illiterate potentate, and lire under hi insolent 

• Ars colit astra. . A]drovandtts de Avibus. l. 12. Gesner, &c. * Literas ]abent quels sibi et 
fortunoe suoe maledicant. Sat. Menip.  Lit>. de libris Froprils fol 2. : Proeft. translst. Plutarch. 
FoUit. dispttt. |au,litres etoilunt eos ac ni vlrtutibus pollerent quos oh lnflnits scelera potius vttu]perxre 
oporteret, § Or as horses know uot their strength, they consider ot their own worth, • ]lura 
ex Simonldis famfl|aritate lllero consequutus est, quam ex Hieronis Simonides. | Hor. ]ib. . od. 9. 
Inter inertes et plebelos fore jacet, ]timum ]ocum habens, tsi rot artis virtutisque lnsignia, turpiter, 
obnoxi, snpparisitando faclbtm subjecerit rotervoe insoleutitque oteutie Lib. l. de coutewt, rerum 



worship, or honour, like par•sites," Qui tam zure alinum pa coe 
du. For to my truth, ar  n  l«tivw,  Guido Bonat that 
grt trologer could foresee, they be hot gad as these, sed e  
floe, but or and h. 
« * Dat Genm op dat Jmtlanm honor [ « e ch phy$ldan, honouFd lae d 
S genre et speci cogit e pe: " Wt e poor scho foo it by eir ide." 
Povey is the m' patrimony, and  that poetioE1 vity tcheth  
hen Jupit's daughters were each of them i to the go the muses 
alone were lef sota, Hecon forken of 1 suito d  beeve it w 
beca they had no ion. 
 CaoEope lonm cœelebs c vixit lu m   m y d Calope Hve  long a mald  
empe nl do quod nerare emt."  e h no do to be loE" 
ver slnce ail their foHowe are poor, foken and ]ef to OEelv 
Insomuch, that  tPetronius armes, you shall ely know them by their 
cloth. "There OEme," saith he, "by chce into my compy, a feUow hot 
ve spoe to look on, that I could peroeive by thnt no one he w a 
schol, hom commody rich men haï: I ked him wt he w, he 
answered, a et: I demanded agin why he w so ragged, he told me this 
kind of leaing never ruade any man rich." 
"s Qui Pego edit, mao se fore toHi ] u  mercht's  Is  that go to s; 
Qui pu et rosa pctiK pcintm, aoEo : ] A ldi bossed aH  gold; 
Vilis sdn•for plcto jt ebri osffo, A datterer li foz'd in brave say; 
o proe horrct fdis nn.  A schol only ragged  holoE" 
All which ooe ornary students, right welt rceiving in the uversiti, how 
unpfitble the poetioE], mathematioe, and phi]osophioE1 studi  how 
little respected, how fcw tns; pply themselv iu oe ha•te to thooe t'ee 
commodious profeions of law, physic, and divinity, sharing themselves 
between them, rejecfing the arts iu the meanoEme, histo, philosophy, 
philolo, or lightly ping them over,  plent toys fitting only tablt 
and to fuih them with diou. They are not so behoveful : he that u 
teH h money hth arithmetic enough: he is a true geometrician, c 
mesure out a good foune to himoelf; a peNect tloger that OEn t the 
rise and fall of others, and mark thcir cn't motio to his own u. The 
best optioE are, to reflcct the beams of some eat men's favour and graoe to 
• bine upon him. He is a good engineer, that alone can make an instituent to 
get preferment. This w the common net and practice of Polnd,  
Cmes observed hot long since,  the fit book of h hito; their 
universities were genemlly ba, not a plosopher, a mathematician, an 
antiquaT, &c., to be found of any note amongst them, because they h no 
set reward or stipend, but every man betook himself to divinity, lwc so[um i 
voi le, ium sacerdotimn, a good pronage was theh" aire. ThL w 
the practioe of some of our near neighours,   Lipsius inveighs, "they thrust 
theh- chilien to the study of law and divinity, before they be ormed arigh 
or pable of such studies." cicd omn rt nt/ata s l, df- 
wr esl m auri, qm çulcid Groeci Latiniq ira,s scpse. 
x  nuro n veniu  gubern reilTub, in d  co 
i reyum, ô pat ô pa ] so he complined, and so may other For 
even so we find, to oee a t man, fo get an offioe  some bishop's co 
(to practi  some good town), or oemp a benefice, is the mm-k we shoot 
at,  ing  dvanteous, the highway fo prefment. 
though many tim, for aught I  see, these meu il  offert as the 

• Buchsnan. eleg. lib. tin Sstyrlcn. lntrst senex, sed ltu non Ira ,peelosu, ut faeil sppareret eum 
bac nota literatum ese, quoa divites odie soient. Ego inquit Poeta aura : Quare ergo tare maie vestitus es 
Propter hoc ipsum; smor ingenii neminem unquam divitem fecit, • Petronlu Arbiter. b Oppretts 
psupertate anhnu$, nihil eximtum sut sublime cogitare potest, smoenitstes ]iterarnm, sut e]egantlsm, 
quonlam nihtl proesi(lil in bi• ad vit eommodnm videt prim negligere mox odisse incipit. Hens. 
t Eistol. qust, lib. . Ep. 2L 



]em. $. Sus. 15.] WT, y ll fues are M'ec)j. 

205 

rest in their projects, and are as usually frustrate of their hopes. For let him 
be a doctor of the law, an excellent civilian of good worth, where shall ho 
practise and expatiate ? Their fields are so scant, the civil law with us so con- 
tracted with prohibitions, so few causes, by reason of those all-devouring 
municipal laws, quibs nlhll illieratlus, saith Erasmus, an illiterate and a 
barbarous study (for though they be never so well learned in it, I can hardly" 
vouchsafe them the naine of schola, except they be otherwiie qualified), and 
so few courts are lcfC to that profession, such slender offices, and those com- 
monly to bc compasscd at such dear rates, that I know hot how an ingenious 
man should thrive amongst them. ow for physiciaus, there are in evcry 
village so many mouutebauks, empirics, quacksMvers, paracelsians, as they 
call themselve.s, Çaucifici. et sanicldoe, so * Clenard terres them, wizard.s, alche- 
mists, poor vicars, cast apothecaries, physicians' men, barbers, and good wives, 
professing great skill, that I make great doubt how they shall be maintained. 
or who shall be their patients. Besicles, there are so many of both sorts, ar, l 
some of them such harpies, so covetous, so clamorous, so impudent; and as 
 he said, litigious idiots, 
« Qulbus loqnacis affatlm arrogatloe est « Whlch bave no sklll but pratlng arrogance, 
Peritiœe parùm ut nibil, No learning, such a purse-mi|king nation : 
ec tt|la mica llterarii salis» Gown'd vulttu'es, thieves, and a iitigious roui 
Crurnenimulg natio : O.  cozeners that hunt thi occuptiou»  
Loquutelcia turba, litium strop]]œe, 
l[alig'aa litigantittra cohors, togati vultures» 
Lavernoe alumui, Agyrte," 
that t.hey cannot well tell how fo live one by another, but as ha jested in the 
Comedy of Clocks, they were so many,  major pars poFuli aridâ reTtan$fazne , 
they are almost starved a great part of them, and ready to devour their fcl- 
lows, fE$ noxié calliditate se cor'iTere , such a multitude of pettlïoggers and 
empirics, such imposto, that an honst man knows hot in what sort to com- 
pose and behave himself in their societyæ to carry himself with credit in so 
vile a rout, scntia no¢nvn, ot suFlibus Tartum et vilis, Trofer disFudeat , 
postquam, &c. 
Last of all corne to out divines., the most noble profession and worthy of 
double honour, but ofall others the most distressed and miserable. Ifyou will 
not believe me, hear a brief of it, as it was hOt many years since publicly 
preached at Paul's cross,  by a grave minister then, and now a reverend 
b£hop of this land : "We that are bred up in learaing, and destinated by out 
parents fo this end, we surfer out childhood in tbe grammar-school, which 
Austin calls magnam tyrannidem, er grave malum, and compares it to the rot- 
ments of martyrdom; when we corne to the university, if we lire of the collage 
allowance, as Pha|aris objected to the Leontines, ,,v;, ,,ç ,xt ,& i 
needy of all things but hunger and fear, or if we be maintained but partly 
by out parents' cost, do expend in unnecessary maintenance, bootrs and de- 
grees, before we corne to any perfection, rive hundred pounds, or a thousand 
marks. If by this price of the expense of time, out bodies and spirits, our 
substance and patrimonies, we caunot purchase those small rewards, which are 
ours by law, and the right of inheritance, a poor parsonage, or a vicarage of 
£50 per armure, but we must pay to the.patron for the lease of a life (a spent 
and out-worn lire) either in aunual pension, or above the rate of a copyhold, 
and that with the hazard and loss of oursouls, by simony and perjury, and the 
forfaiture of all out spiritual preferments, in esse and poese, both present and fo 
corne. What father after awhile will be so improvident to bring up his son 
to his great charge, fo this necessary beggary? What Christian will be so 
irreligious, to bring up his son in that course of life, which by all probability 
and necessity, co9e$ ad SurT/a, enforcing fo sin, will entangle him in simony 
 Clceron. dt-l. * Eplst. iib. 2. * Ja. Dousa Epodon. lib. 2. car. 2.  Plautu.  Barcl. 



and perjuryÇ when as the poet aid, lnv/aus ad lc   n : 
"a beggr's brat ken om tho bdgo where he sits a beghg, if ho e 
the inconvenience, hd cause to refo if." Th being thus, haro no wo 
hed fa a t.h while, tha aoe tite divines, fo find no better fits of 
our lbour  t ca, c9EEunragg  do we mera 
ouelves for this I Is it for thh we fise so eady ail tho yr long ] "* lp- 
g ( ho saiçh) out of out beds, when we hear tho bell ring,  if wo ha,l 
heard a thderclap." If t be all he rester, rewrd and hono we shall 
bave, frae  coEUrs,  soEu  lell,s : le  ve over our bk, 
and betake one]ves to some other course of life; to whatend should we 
study  p Qid  lit stti re parent, what &d o parents mn 
to make us scholam, to be  far to seek of pfermcnt aer twenty yeat" 
study,  we were at first: why do we take such pns Qu tantun 
ianjuv impalce crt? If theoe be no more hope of reward, no 
better encouragement, I y again, range  c¢  sci 
libos; let's turn soldiem, ll out boom, and buy swor, gun¢ and 
or stop bottles with them, tut out philopher's go,  Cleanthes once 
did, into miller coats, lve ail, and rather betake ouelves to any other 
cou of life, than to contue longer  this misery. +Proestat 
rere, quàm literari nut tgtum favem ere. 
Yea, bat methinks I hear some man except at these wos, t though 
this b truc which I hav id of the estate of scholam, and espe¢iaHy of 
divines, that it  meable and dd at th rime, tt the cht¢h sem 
shipeck of ber goods, and tt tLy bave jusç  fo compln; there is 
a ult, but whenoe procds it] If the uoe were jtly exaned, it would 
be rtorted upon ouelves, ff we were cited at that tribunM of truth, w 
should be round guilty, and hot able fo exce if. That there  a t among 
us, I conf, and were there hot a buyeL them wod hot be a aeBer: but 
him that wiB consider betr of if, it wi more than manffestly appear, that 
the founta of th miseries prooeeds from th griping patro Xn accng 
them, I do hot altother exce i both are ty, they and we : yet  my 
judgment, theim  the eater çat, more apparent us% and much fo ha 
condemneoE For my part, ff it be hot with me  I would, or  it shod, I do 
ascribe the cause, as «Cardan did in the hke OEoe;  irtun@ Toti 
ilum sceri, fo  me own inf¢licity rather than the naughth; although 
I bave been bed in my rime by some ofthem, and have jt OE to com- 
l»la  another: or rather indeed fo mine own neggenoe; for I w ever 
like that lexander in  Plutarch, Crs  tutor in phfiosophy, who, though 
he lived many ym famarly with rich Csus, w even  poor when from, 
(which many wondered at)  when he OEme fit fo him ; he never ked, th 
other never gave him any tng; vhen h tmvelled wih Cus he boowe4 
a ha of him, at his reç rasored i agaim I have d some such noble 
friends'quainKnoe and scholars, but mo.,t part (common ¢out%esies and ordi- 
na respects exoepted), they and I pad  we meç, they gave me  muu  
X requeste and that w-- And  Ar  Andro, Gen. dr. 
l. 6. c. 16. ruade awer to ieronim Minus, t wondered, um plur 
navos et Obi  dignit et srdt pro» qtM v', when 
other men ro, still he w  he me sate, n e fortu i r- 
cm m stiu e p, whom  thought to drve  
wuB  the re,t. e me answer, at he w oennt th his prnç 

• Pers. S&t. 3. * E leeto exsillentes, ad subitum ttntinnalmli l)lausm qsi fulmine territl. 1. o Mm-t. 
.[art. f S&t_ Menip. q L|b. 3. de cons. : I hgd no moneys I wanted impudenCe, I eould hot 
icr&rnble, temportse, disaerable: non pranderet olua, &c. vis dicam, ad imlpand:m et adulandnm penitrt 
inulsus, recudi non psmn j&ra lenior ut sire talis, et flngi nolo, utcunque re&le eedat in rem ¢neam ct 
obcurus inde deliteacam,  Vit. Crafi. nec facilè judicarepoteet tttrmn l)aup_rior eum primo 4 



was hot ambitious, and a]hough objwrgabundus sm nm , 
obscuoe s mi ad s  pon os, &., he chid him for 
his bkwardnem, yet he w still the me: and for my pa (though I be non 
worthy perps to oe Aexder's bks) yet by some overweeg and well- 
shing friend the like spehes bave beea ed to me; but I plied still 
with Alender, that I had enough, and more peradvento than I deserved; 
and with Libanius Sophlsta, tt ther chie (when honours and offioes by the 
emperor were oflbred un him) to be Sophga, quàm talfa9i«tragus. 
had  lier be still Democritus junior, and privu8 priv«, d mihiflm 
For the r¢ 'ris on both aides:its taum, ¢o buy and aell ltviug, 
deain from the chuh, tha which d'a and mea'» wa haro bestoved on 
buç in them mos¢, and tt ri-oto çhe oeve¢oa and ignorance of such as are 
terested  th busin; I naine covetonesa in the fit place,  ¢he moi 
o[ aU th mchiefs, which, £chan-like, oempeh ¢hem ¢o commit aacrilege, 
and fo mtke simoniaoEl compote (and what hot) fo their own ead¢ "that 
kindles God'a wra¢h, hngs a plague, vengeanoe, and a heavy vhitation upoa 
themselv and othe Some out of that intiable diro of filthy luc, to 
be enriched, eare hot how thcy corne by if Terfas  mfa¢ hook or 
ehey hava if. nd othem when they haro th rio¢ and prodigality embeled 
their esça¢ fo reoever theelves, make a prey of $he church, mbbing it, as 
"Jtflian the apoaate did, apoil pamons of the revenu (in keeping hall back 
« a grt man amongst  observ) : "and that maintenanoe on which they 
ahouM lire:" by m whereoÇ bbarism  increed, aad a t day of 
chti profm: for who  apply mlf  the divine stua, his 
or fi'ien whea afr t ins ken, they all have aotg 
fo ve Bu with w even do they the 

«  Opeque toti viribns venamlnl, 
At inde me.gai accidit micrrLma.  

They toil and moil, but what reap thcy They are commonly unforunato 
f-«milies that use it, accursed in their progeny, and, as common experience 
evinceth, accursed themselves in ail their proceedings. « Vith vhat face (as 
° he quotes out of Aust.) can they expect a blessing or inheritance from Christ 
in heaven, that defraud Christ of his iaheritance here on earth]"  would ail 
out simoniacal patrons, and such as detain tithes, would read those judicious 
tracts of Sir Henry Spelman, and Sir James Seml)ill, kaights those lato 
elaborate and learned treatises of Dr. Tilflye, and 5r. ][ontague, which they 
bave writtcn of that subject. Jut though they should read, it would be to 
small purpose, clames llcet et mare ctr[o cofn[as ; thunder, lighten, preach 
hell and damnation, tell them 'ris a sin, they wiil hot believe it ; denounce and 
terrify, they bave "cauterised consciences, they do hot attend, as the enchanted 
adder, they stop their ears. Call them base, irreligious, profane, barbarous, 
pagans, atheists, epicures, (as some of them surely are) with the bawd in 
Plautus, E«, optimè, they cry and applaud thems¢lves with that miser, "s/mu 
ac nummos contemplor in arcd: say what you will, Cswru/ue modo rem: as 
a dog barks at the moon, to no purpose are your sayings: Take your heaven, 
let them bave money. A base, profane, epicurean, hypocritical rouf: for my 
par, let them pretend what zeal they wiII, counterfeit religion, blear the world's 
eye bombat themselves, and stuff out their gTeatness with church spoils, 
shine llke so many peacocks; so cold is my charity, so defective in this behalf, 
that I shall never think better of them, than that they are rotten af cote, theit 

• Dm hbtgt tratm, sbtqemortem oeam t, ls mil nam. Su in Josua 
. Em4ptd. • Nioephor lib. 10. p. 5.   Coo   RepooE second pa fol  
 Eui4oE = S  Sp de non mer Eoei. • I T. & 2 • Hor. 



208 Causes of Mdanchoy. [Far. I. Sec. 

bones axe full of epicurean hypocrisy, and atheistlcal marrow, they are worso 
than heathens. For as Dionysius alicarnasseus observes, A ntiq. Rom. [lb. 7. 
"Primum locum, &c. «Greeks and Barbarlans observe all religious rites, and 
dare hot break them for fear of offending their gods; but our simoniacal ccn- 
tractors, our senseless Achans, our stupified patrons, fear neitber God nor 
devil, they bave evasions for it, it is no sin, or hot due jure divin.o, or if a sin, 
no great sin, &c. And though they be daily punished for it, and they do 
mauifest]y perce;ve, that as he said, frost and fraud corne to foul ends; yet as 
"Chrysostom follows it, Nulla ex poenâ sit correctio, et quasi adversis maitia 
hominum provoceur, crescit qotliè qzwd punbtur : they are rather worse than 
better,--iram arque anf»ws à crimine sumunt, aud the more they are correctcd, 
the more they oflënd: but let them take their course, b/ode, caper, v/s, go on 
st;Il as they begin, 'ris no sin, let them rejoice secure, God's vengeance will 
overtake them in the end, and these ill-gotten goods, as an eagle's featbers, 
"will consume the test of thcir substance; it is « aurum Tholosanum, and will 
produce no better effects. "°Let them lay it up sale, and make their convey- 
ances never so close, lock and shut door," saith Chrysostorn, "yet fraud and 
covetousness, two most violent thieves, are. st;Il included, and a little gain evil 
gotten will subvert the rest of their goods." The eagle in _]Esop, seeing a 
Idece of flesh, now ready to be sacrificed, swept it away with ber claws, and 
carried if to ber nest; but there was a burning coal stuck to it by chance, 
which unawares consurned ber young ones, nest, and ail together. Let out 
simoniacal church-choppi)g patrons, and sacrilegious harpies, look for no 
better success. 
 second cause is ignorance, and frein thence contempt, successi$ odium 
leras ab ignorakl vulgi; which  Junius well perceived: this hatred and con- 
tempt of learning proceeds out oîignorance; as they are themselves barbarous, 
idiots, dull, i!literate, and proud, se they esteem of others. Sin$ [ecoenates, 
nor vrun, Flatte, ,[arones: Let there be bountfful patrons, and there will be 
painful scholars in ail sciences. But when they contemn learning, and think 
themselves sufficienly qualified, ifthey can write and ad, scramble ata piece 
of crédence, or have se much Latin as that emperor had, 
• wsci$ ver«, they are unfit te de their country service, te perform or underta]e 
any action or employment, wh;ch raay tend te the good of a cornmonwealth, 
except it be te fight, or te de country justice, with common sense, which every 
yeoman can likewise de. And se they bring up their children, rude as they 
are thernselves, unqualified, untaught, une;vil rnost çart. * Qeis  nos$r juven- 
tue legitlmè iastituiur literis ? Quis oratores au phiosophos tangi 
oriam legit, illan rerun agendarum quasi ania» ? præcipitant pareges vo 
ta, &c. "twas Lipsius' complair, t ço his illiterate countryrnen, it may be ours. 
Now shall these rnen judge ofa seholar's worth, that bave no worth, that know 
hot what belongs to a student's labours, that cannot distinguish between a true 
scholar and a drone ? or him that by reason of a voluble tongue, a strong vo;ce, 
a pleasing tone, and some trivially polyanthean helps, steals and gleans a few 
notes from otlmr men's harvests, aud so makes a h'er show, than he that is 
truly learned indeed : that thinks it no more fo preah, than to speak, '' orto 
run away with an ernpty cart;" as a grave man sad: and thereupon vilffy us, 
and our pains; seOrll us» and ail leaxaing. Because they are rich, and bave 

• Primum locum apud omues gentes habet patrltlus deorum cltus, et genloram, nain hune dlutlsslmk 
stotliunt, tare Groeci Qusm Barbart, kc. Tom. 1. de steril, trium annorum sub Eli sermone. 
• Uvid. Fast. * De maie qnoeltis vx gaudet tert|ns bæres, eStrabo lib. & Geog. • Nihil faci|in 
opes eertet, quam avariÙa et fraude parta. Et si enfin eeram addas tali arcs, et exteriore |anua et vecte 
em commun;as, lntus tamen fraudera et avaritiam, &c. In 5. Cormh7 tAc.ad, cap. 7. gars 
hem;hem babet inirnicum prœeter ignorantem, h He that caunot dissemlle cannot lire. * Eplat. queet. 
lib 4. epist. 21. Lipsins.  Dr. Kiug, in his last lecture on Jonan, so,nettme mght revereztd lot4 biahoI 
Of Londost. t mbus opes et otium bi barbaro fttt ttter 'n',cmnunt. 



em. 3. 8ub. 15.] ..ç'tJy, a Cae. 09 

other means fo lire, they tlduk if concerns thcm hot to -]o.-v, or to troublo 
themselves with it; a fitter task for younger brthers, or poor mcn's sons, to 
be pen and iakhorn mea, pedantical slaves, and no whit beseeming the calling 
of a geutleraan, as Frencbmen and Gcrmans commonly do, neglect thereforo 
ail human lcarning, what have they to do with it Let marincr lcarn astro- 
nomy; merchants, çactors study arithmetic; surveyors get thcm geomctT; 
spectacle-makers optics; landleapers geography; town-cl¢rks rhetoric, what 
should he do with a spade, that hath no ground to dig; or they with learnng, 
tht bath no use of it thus they reason, and are hot ashamed to let mariner.% 
apprentices, nd the basest servants, be better qualified tban themselves. 
folner rimes, kings, princes, and emperors, were the only seholars, excellent 
in ail faculties. 
Julius Coesar meded the year, and writ his own Commenaries, 
«  * media inter proelia semper, 
Stcl]arum coelique plais, »uperisque vacavit.  
Antonius, Adrian, Tero, Seve. Jul. &c. Iichael the emperor, and Isaciu 
were so much given to their studie.% that no base fellow would take .o much 
pains: Orion, l'erseua, AIphonsus, Ptolomeus, famous astronomers; S:tbor, 
Mithridates, Lysimachus, admired physicians: Plato's kings all : Evax, tbat 
Arabian prince, a most expert jeweller, and an exquisite philosopher; the kings 
of Egypt were priests of old, ehosen and from thence,--Idem tex 
]'hbi(l sacerdos: but those heroical rimes are past; the ][uses are 
banished in this bastard age, ad sordida tugurlola, to meaner persons, and con- 
fined alone almost to universities. In those days, scholars were highly beloved, 
 honoured, esteemed; a old Ennius by Scipio Africaaus, ¥irgil by Augustus 
• Iorace by ]Iecoenas: princes' companions; dear to them, as Anacreon to Poly- 
crates; Philoxeaus to Dionysius, and highly rewarded. Alexander sent Xeno- 
cmtes the Philosepher fifty talents, because he was poor, v/su rerum, au$ eru- 
ditioe prw.stantes vir, »wsis olim regun adhibiti, as Philostmtus relates 
Adan and Lampridius of Alexnder Severus: famous clerks came to these 
princes' courts, velu in Lycaum, as to a university, and were admitted to their 
tables, quasidivûm ell& accumbentes; A rchilaus, that Macedonian king. would 
hot willingly sup without Euripides (amongst the rest he dmnk to him at 
supper one night and gave him a cup of gold for his pains), ddectatus poetv 
stavi sermone; and it was fit it hould be so; becauoe, as  Plato in his Proe 
tagoras well saith, a good philosopher as much excels other men, as a great 
king doth the commons of his country; and again, °quniam ill d/dl dees$, 
d minl» egere solent, e disciolinas çlas profiu,ttur, soli à conte»tu vindicare 
possunt, they needed hot to beg so basely, as they compel Pscholat in out times 
to complain of poverty, or croueh to a rich chuff for a meal's ment, but could 
"¢indicate themselves, and those arts which they professed, low they would 
and cannot: for it is held by some of them, as an axiom, that to keep them 
poor, will make them study; they mu:»t be dieted, as horses to a race, hot 
pampered, cAle,dos volunt, non saginandos, e mdioris wt.is flammula exti. 
guatur; a fat bird will hot sing, a fat dog cannot hunt, and so by this depre»- 
sion of theirs, "some watt means, others will, ail want "eacouragement, as 
bcing forsaken almost; and generally contemned. 'Tis a old saying, 
$leccena, m deerunt, 'laece, Matrones, and 'ris a true a)'ing still. Yet 
vftentimes, l may not deny it, the main fault i in ourselves. Out aadcmics 



210 Caua of Mel, an, cho!/. [Paxt. I. Sec. 2. 

too frequetly offend in'neglecting patrons, as e Erasmus well taxeth, or making 
ill choice of them; egll#imus oblatos sut amlolectimur loarum aloOS, or if we 
gel a good one, non studemus mutuis offrciisfavorera ejus alere, we de net ply 
and follow him as we should. Ider mihi acddit Adolescenti (saith Erasmus) 
acknowledging his fault, et gravissirr& teccavi, and so may  I say mysel/ I 
bave offnded in this, and se peradventure bave many others. We did net 
spondere mag;mtttm favoribus, qui coeperunt nos amTlectl , apply ourselves with 
that readiness we should : id|ene, love of liberty, immodicu a.rnor libertatis 
effecit ut diù cure perfidis amicis, as he confesseth, et Tertinacl pau.pertate col- 
loEtarer, bashfulness, melancholy, fimorousness, cause many of us te be too 
backward and remiss. Se seine offend in one extreme, but too many on the 
other, we are most par too forwrd, too soIicitous, too ambitious, too impudent; 
we commonly complain deesse Mcecenates, of want of eneouragement, want of 
means, when as the truc defect is in out own want of worth, our insufficieney : 
did Moecenas take notice of Horaee or ¥irgil till they had shown themselves 
first? or had Bavius and ]Ievius any patrons Egregiura specimen dent, saith 
]Erasmus, let them approve themzelves worthy tiret, sufficiently qualified for 
learnàng and manners, beïoro they presume or impudently intrude and put 
themselves on great men as too many de, with such base flattery, parasitieal 
.eolloguing, such hyperbolieal elogies theydo usually insinuate, that il is a sLame 
te hear and sec. lmmodlcoe laudes conciliant iuvidiam, potius quara laudem, 
and vain commendations derogate frein truth, and we think in conclusion, non 
melius de laudato, pejus de laudante, iii of both, the eommender and eommended. 
Se we offend, but the main faufil is in their harslanes, defeet of patrons. Hov 
beloved of old, and how much respected was llato te Dionysius  How dear te 
Alexander was Aristotle, Demeratus te Philip, Selon te Croesus, Anexareus 
and Trebatius te Augustus, Cassius te Yespatian, t'lutaa'ch te Trajan, Seneea 
te ero, Simonides te Hiero how honoured 
 t ed hoee prias faere, mme recondita 
8crient quiet%" 
those days are gone; Et SlmS , et ,'crie stud[arum in Csar« tantum:+ as he 
aid of old, we ma). truly say new, he is our amulet, our stm, out sole comfort 
and refuge, out ltolemy, out common BIoecenas, Jacobus munificus, Jacobus 
pacifieus, mysttt Musarum, l?e 191atonicus : Grande decus, colurnenqu no- 
trum: a famous scholar himself, and the ole patron, pillax, and sustainer of 
learning: but his woh in this kind is se wel| known, that as laterculus of 
Cale, Jam ipsum laudae nef as sit: and which §l)liny te Trajan, Ser/a te 
caq'mina, honarue oeternus annalium, non lwec brevis et oudenda 'oedicatio celer. 
]3ut he is new gone, the stm of ours set, and yet no night follows, Sol occub,dt, 
a nulla sequuta est. We bave such another in his room, ]]aureus aller. 
Avulsus, similifi'ondescit virga meta//o, and long may he reign and flourish 
amongst us. 
Let me net be malicious, and lie against my genius, I may net deny, but 
that we bave a sprinkling of our gcntry, here ami thcre one, exce|lent|y well 
learned, like those Fuggeri in Germany; Dubartus, Du Plessis, Sadael, in 
Franee; Picus Mirandula, Schottus, Barotius, in Italy; Alaparent rarinades 
it gurgite vaste. But they are but few in respect of the multitude, the major 
art (and seine again excel)ted , that are indifferent) are wholly bent for hawks 
and hounds, and carried away many limes with intemperate lust, gaming and 
drinking. If th'ey read a book al any lime (si quod est interim otii à venatu, 
loculis, aleâ, scortis) 'ris an English Chronicle, t. Ituon of ]3ordeaux, Amadis 

* Chll. 4. Cent. l. adag. I. " Had I done as otlers did, ont myself forward, 1 mlght bave haply 
been as great a man as many of rny cquals. "Catullus, Juven. $ A.ll ottr hopes and inducernents to 
etudy m'e ceatred in Cw..ar alone.  llemo est quem non Phoebus hic noeter eoIo intuitu lube,ttorr.m 
geddt.  ranegyr. I Virg. 



Iem. 3. Subs. 15.] Etudy, a Cana. 211 

de Gaul, &c., a play book, or some pamphlet of news, and that at such seasons 
only, when they cannot stlr abroad, to drive away rime, • their sole discourse 
is dogs, hawks, horses, and what news If some one have been a traveller in 
Italy, or as far as the emperor's court, wintered in Orleans, and can cour 
his mistress in broken French, wear his clothes neatly in the newest fashion, 
sing some choice outlandih tunes, discourse of lords, ladies, towns, pa 'lces, 
and cities, ho is complete and tobe admired: • otherwise he and they are 
much at one; no difference between the toaster and the man, but worshipfal 
titles: wink and choose betwixt him that sits down (clothes exeepted) and 
him that holds the trencher behind him: yet these men must be our patrons, 
our governors too sometimes, statesmen, magistrates, noblv, great, and wie 
by inheritance. 
]Iistake me not (I say again) Vos,  Partus sanguls, you that are worthy 
s¢ators, gentlemen, I honour your humes and persons, and with ail submis- 
siveness, prostrate myself fo your censure and service. There are amongst 
you, I do ingenuously confess, mauy well-deserving patrons, and true patriots, 
vf my knowledge, besides many hundreds which I never saw, no doubt, or 
heard ot pillaxs o£ our commonwealth, "whose worth, bounty, learning, for- 
wardness, true zeal in religion, and good esteem of all scholam, ought to bv 
consecrated to ail posterity; but of your tank, there are a debauched, cor- 
rupt, covetous, illiterate crew again, no better than stocl-, merttm 
(testor Deum, non mihi videri dignos ingenui hominis appellatione), barbarous 
Thracians, et quis ille tl«rax qui boy n'je$  a sordid, profane, peicious com- 
pany, irreligious, impudcnt and supid, I know hot what epithets to give them, 
enemies to learning, coafounders of the church, and the ruin of a commou- 
wealth; patrons they are by right of inheritance, "and put in trust freely to 
dispose of such liviugs to the church's good; but (hard task-masters they 
prvve) they t'ake away their stmw, and compel them fo make their number of 
brick; they commonly respect their own ends, commodity i the stcer of all 
their actions, and him they l»resent in conclusion, as a man of greatest giïts, 
that will give ma.; no penny, • no pater-noster, as the sayiug is. //s/preces 
au'o fdcias, amplius ir''itas : $ Cerberus offa, their attendants and officcrs 
• uust be bribed, feed, and ruade, as Cvrberus is with a sop by him that goes 
to helL It was an od saying, Omnia Roture vetali (all things are venal at 
lome), 'tis a rag of ioçery, which will never be rooted out, there is no hope, 
no good tobe doue without money. A clerk may offr himself, approve 
 worth, learning, honesty, religion, zeal, they will commend him ibr it; but 
• probitas laudatur et alge$. If he be a man of extraordiaary parts, they wll 
ttock afar off t heur him, as theydid in Apaleius, to se Psyche: multi 
conjquebat ad vider,du», «ecul decus, specuhtm glriosun, laud.ttur ab omni- 
bvz, sTectatur ab omnibus, nec quisuam nmt tex, nn regitt, cupidus ejus tup- 
tiaru»t Tetitor accedit; mirantur yuidetr diinart fvq',»ta ones, sed ut 
nulaerumfabr} Tolitum .miraut,q'; many mortal men came to see fah" P.syche 
the glory of ber age, they did admixe h«r, commead, d«sire ber foc ber di 
beauty, and gaze Ul»On ber; but as on a pictm; noue would mal T ber, q« 
indotata, fuir l)syche had no money. ¢o rhey do by leating; 
" $ didicit jam die avaras I '" Y°ur rich meu bave n°w learn'd f latter dal  
Et 9uvi Jtmoai 'vm " T heur and see a worzhy holw- 
 children doa pe¢oc.k' tLher." 
• Rarus-elm ferme ensu commuais in llla Fortuna. Juv. Sut. 8. • Qui enim generosnm dizert 
hunc que lndignus genere et pr&clm-o nomtne tantum, lnsigni. Ju. Sst.S. l bave often met 
my¢ll, and conferred wih divers worh¥ gentlemen m he country, no whit inferior, if hot tobe preferred 
fr divers klnd of learning to ma¥ of ottr acdcnic& • Ip licet Mti venias comitts, IIomere, Nil 
tamn ttttlr|s, Lbi, tlomere furm. • Et Jegat hltOricos auctorea, noverit omnes Taaqua ungucs 
chritoque SUoS. JtXv. t. "/. * Jttvenal, •ftt veto licet Ophett si, x,x gon  tetttttitis emoil|Ùt 
#Juseu. baL. 7. 



212 Cause* of Mdae«hobd. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 

e shA1 Imve .11 the good words ht may be given, "a proper man, and 'ris 
pity he hath o preferment, all good wi.hes, but inexorable, indul'te as he is, 
he will no prefer him, though if be in hia power, because he is indobus, ho 
bath no money. Or if ho de give him entertainment, let him bo never se well 
qualified, plead afflnity, eonsanguinity, sufflciency, ho shall serve seven years, 
as Jacob did for Raehel, beforo ho shall bave if. flf he will enter af fir.t, ho 
must yet in af that Simoniaeal gat, corne off soundly, and put in good security 
te perform all covenants, elso ho will net deal witb, or adroit him. But if 
aome poor scholar, seine parson chaff, will offer himsclf; seine trenclter chap- 
|aih, that will tke it te the halves, thirds, or aeeept of what ho will give, ho 
L welcome; be conformable, preach as he will haro hi,n, ho likes him beforo 
a million of others; for the best is always best eheap: and then as Itierom 
rLid te Cromatius, patell digzum olaerculum, such a patron, such a clerk; tho 
eare la wcll aupplied, and ail parties pleased. Se that is still verified in out 
age, whlch «ChTsostom complained of in his rime, Qai opuletiores sun, in or- 
dinera parasitorura cogunt eos, eg ipsos gauam canes ad »ensas suas enutriunt, 
eormwlue inpu, dentes Yenlres iniquarura coearur reliquiis differtiunt, iisdra 
l»ro arbitrio abuteates: 12dch men keep these lecturers, and lawning parasites, 
like se many dogs st their tables, and filling their hungry guta with the off-ala 
of their ment, they abuse them st their pleasure, and make them say what they 
propose. " As children de by a bird or a butterfly in a string, pull in and 
lt him out as they list, de they by their trencher chaplains, prescribe, com- 
maad their wits, let in and out as o them if seema best." If the patron b 
precise, se must his chaplain be; ff he be papistical, his clerk must be se too, 
or else be turned out. These are those clerks which serve the tnrn, whom 
theycommonlyentertain, and present te church livings, whilst in th meantime 
we that are University men, like se many hide-bound calvea in a pasture, tarry 
out our time, vither away as a flower uagathered in a garden, and are never 
used; or as se mauy candles, illuminate ourselvea alone, obscuring one aa- 
other's light, and are net discerned here st all, the least of which, translated 
te a dark room, or te seine country benefice, where it might shine apart, woul4 
give a fair l[ght., and be seen over alL Vhilst we lie waiting here as those 
ick men did ai the Iool of * Betheada, till the Angel stirred the water, ex- 
pecting a good heur, they step between, and beguile us of our preferment. 
[ bave net yet said, if after long expectation, much expense, travel, earast 
suit of ourselves and friends, we obtain a small benefice st last; our misery 
bcgina afresh, we are suddenly encountered with the flesh, worl.i, and devil, 
with  new onse; we change a quie lire for an ocean of troubles, we corne tq 
a tre'nous bouse, which beforo it be habitable, must be necessarily te our great 
dama0e repaired ; we are compelled te sue for dilapidations, or vise sued om'- 
selves, and scarce yet settled, we are called upon for our predecêssor's arrear- 
ages; first-fruits, tnths, subsidies, are instantly te be Paid, benevolence, pro- 
eurations, &c., and which is most te be feared, we light upon a cmcked title, 
as it befel Clenard, of Brabant, for his rectory and charge of his Begbu; he 
was no sooner inducted, but instantly aued, coepbnusque (¢saith he) stremd 
Il'Agate, sg implacabili belle con]ligere: st length, after ten years' suit, as long 
as Troy'a siege, when ho had tired himseli and apent his money, he wa faiu 
te leave all tbr quietneas' sake, and give it up te his adversary. Or else we m'e 
insulted over, and trampled on by domineering officers, fleeced by those greedy 
harpies te get more fees; we stand in fear of seine precedent lapse ; we tll 

«Euge bene, no need, Doua epod. llb. 2.---dos Ipa eientla ibique conglarlum est. fQuatuor ad porta 
Ecclcsias itus ad omnes; sanguinis attt Simonis, proesulis atqtte Dei. Holcot. • Lib. contra Gentite de 
I:abila martyre, b Prscribun¢ imperant, in ordinem Cogtmt, ingenium tlostrum prout tpsis videbituç, 
atringunt et relaxant ut papilionem ptteri sut bruchum file demittunt, sut attrahunt, uos  libidine sus 
pendere oequum cenentes. Hcinsitm. * Joh. 5. f Epist. lib. 2. Jam ttffe:tu in locttm deorth, 
ro|Mus exortus est adersariu &c. æ post multos lab.res, sumptus» 



lfem. 3.8ubs. 15.] 8tudg, a Cause. 

amongst refractory, sedifious seetaries, peevish puritans, perverse papists, a 
]ascivious rouf of atheistical Epicure.% that will notbe reformed, or some liti- 
gious people (those wild beasts of Ephesus must be fought wih) that will sot 
pay their due without mach repining, or compellcd bylong suit; 
oppialo festi, an old axiom, all they think well gotten that is had from the 
church, and by such uncivi], harsh dealings, they make their poor minister 
weary of his place, if no his lire; and put case they he quiet honest mes, make 
the best of if, as ofen if lhlls out, îrom a polite and terse academic, he musç 
tqrn rustic, rude, meLncholise alone, learn to forger, or elle, as many 
become maltsters, grazers, chapmen, &c. (now banished from the academy, ail 
c.ommeree of the muses, and contined to a country village, s Ovid was from 
}tome to Pontus), and daily converse with a company of idiots and dow».s. 
Nos interim quod attiser (nec enim immunes ab bac noxâ sumus) idem 
reatus rnanet, idem nobis, et si non mult5 gravbts, crimes objici potest : nostr5 
enim culpâ sit, nosgrâ incurie, nostrâ avaritiO, quSd tom fre9uentes, foedoe?ue 
.fiant in Ecclesi nunàinationes, temphtm est voenale, deusque) rot sordes inre- 
hantur, rasta grasset,te impietas, rasta nequltla, tare insanus miseriarum 
luripus, et tarbarmn æstuarium, nostro 5Tuam , omnium ( Academ(corum im- 
primis) vitio sit. Quod toi Resp. roulis alficiatur, à nob;s seminarium; ultrd 
raclure hoc accersimus, et quâvis contumdi, qtâvis interim mtseriâ digni, qui 
pro virili non occurrimus. Quid enim .fieri posse speramus, quum lot indies 
sine ddectu pauperes alumni, ¢erroe .fili, et cjgscunque ordines hom unciones ad 
gradus certatim admittantur? qui si dçfinitionem, distinctionemque unam sut 
alteram memoriter edidicerint, et pro more rot annos in dialectieâ posuerint, non 
refert quo profectu, qtales demum sint, idioter, nugatores, otlatores, aleatores, 
compotores, in,l£gni, libidinis votup.atum9ue administri, " Sponsi Penelopes, 
buloaes, Alciaoique»" mod rot annos in academiâ insumpserint, et sepro togatis 
venditârint; lucrieaus&, et «micorum intercessu præsentantur: addo etian 
et magnificis nonnunquam elogi£ç rnorura et scientioe : et jam valedicturi 
testlmonialibus hlsce iitteris, amplissim conscrlptis in eorum .qratiam hono- 
rantur, ab iii, qui .fidei suoe ct ,..&timatlonis jacuram procuhlublo facunt. 
Doctores enim et professore. (quod ait  ille) id mum curant, ut ex professio- 
nibus frequentibus, et tumultuariis potius quam legitimis, commada sus pro- 
moveant, et ex dispendiopublico suum faciant incrementum, ldsolum in lotis 
bent annni p[erumque mag[stratas, ut ab iacipientium n umero  pecunias em u 
gant, nec multum interest qui Mnt, literatores an literati, modd pingues, nitidi, ad 
aspectum speciosi, et qudd verbo dicam, pecttniosi sint.  Philosophastri licen- 
tiantur in artibus, artem qui non habent,  Eosque apientes esse jubeng, qui 
nu}l. prœediii sunt sapientia, e nihil ad gm«lum proeterquam relie adferm. 
Theologastri (solvant modo) satis supe, que docti, per otaries lmnorum 
evehuntur et ascendant. Arque hinc fit qtdd tare viles seurrer, tot passim idiotoe, 
literarum crepusculo Fositi, larvœe postorum, circumforanei, vagl, barbi, fungi, 
erozsi, asin i, merum pectts, in sacrosanctos th eologe aditas, illotispedibus ir r um- 
pont, prœeter inverecundam frontem adferentes nihil, vu/gares quasdam 9uis- 
quilias» et scholarium quoedam nu9amenta , indi9na quoe vel reeipiantur in 
tririi. Itoe illud indignum genus hominum et famelicum, indigum, vagum, 
ventri$ mancipium, ad stivam potitts relegandum, ad haras aptius quam ad 
aras, quod divinas hasce literds turpRer prostituit; bi sunt qui pulpita corn- 
1Ment, in edes nobil;um irrepunt, et quum reliquis virer destituantur subsidiis, 
oh eorporis et animi egestatem, aliarum in repub, partinm rninimè espaces 
Mnt; ad sacram hase anvhoram confugiunt, sacerdotium quovismodd vaptantes, 
non ex sinceritate, çuod  I)aulus ait, sed cauponantes verbum Del- Ne 9uis 



214 Causes of «llelanehohj. [Part. 1.8e. 9. 

i:terim vlrls bon;s detractum quld putet, quos habetecdesia A n9licana quampht- 
rimos, egregiè doctos, illustres, intactœe famce homines, et pluresJorsan quam 
qt«ceis Europce provhwia; ne ŒEuis à florentissimis ,'tcademiis, quce viros undi- 
quâque doctiçsimos, omni virtutum genere suspiciendos, aunde loroducunt. 
ultj plures utraque habitura, raulto ple»didior futura, si non hrsordes siolen- 
didum lumen ejus obfuscarett, obstaret corruptio, et cauioonantes 9urdam har- 
pjce, prol«tari?lue bonurn hoc nobis on inviderent. Nmo etim tare cœec[ 
mente, qti non hoc ipsur videat: nemo tare stolido ivgenlo, qui non intelligat; 
tare pertinocijudicio, qui non agnoscal , ab his idiotls circum.foraneis, sacram 
pollui Theolo9iam, ac ccelestes z[usas quas prophaum 9uiddar lrostitui. 
Viles animoe et effrontes (sic enim. Lutherus  alicubi ocat) lueelli eausa, ut 
muscoe ad mulctra, ad nobilium et heroum mensas ad volant, in spem saccrdofii, 
cujuslibet honoris, ojïeii, in quamvis aulam, urbern se ingerunt, ad quodt, is se 
ministerium componunt.. "Ut nervls alienis mobile hqnumDucitur" 
IIor. Lib. I[. Sat. 7. * oi«m sequenes, psittseorum more, in proedoe 
spem quidvis efftttiunt: obsecundantes Parasiti (Erasmus ait) quidvis doeent, 
dicunt, scribunt, sudent, et contra conseientiam probant, non ut salutarem red- 
dant gregera, sed ut magnificam sibi parent fortunam, a Opiniones quasvis et 
decretacontra verbum I)eiastruunt, ne non offendantpatronum, scd ut retineant 
£vorem procerum, et populi plausum, sibique ipsis opes accumulent. Eo etenim 
plerunque attimo ad Tkeologiam accedunt, non ut rem divinara, sed ut suam 
Jàciant; nonad Ecclesicel, onumpromovendum, sed expilandum; quœerentes, quod 
Paulus ait, non ClUoe 3esu ChrisLi, sed quoe sua, non domini thesaurum, sed ut 
Mbi, suistltte thesaurizent. Nec tanturn iis, qui viIioris fortunœe, et abjectoe 
sortis sut, hoc in usu et : sed et medios, summos, elatos, 
scopos, hoc malum invasit. "" Dicite, ponti)qccs, in sacrls 9uid facit aurum' 
• summos soepe viros transversos agit avariLig, et qui reIiquis orum proLitate 
prwlucercnt; hi facem proeferunt ad ,.imoniam, et in corruttionis hunc scout. 
l«m impingentes, non tondent pecus, »ed deglubunt, et quocunque se coferunt, 
expilant, exhaur[unt, abrodunt, nagnu famw suce, si on animce nauJragiurn 
facientes; ut non ab imis ad summos, sed h summis ad (njmos nalum pro- 
manâsse videatur, et illud verum sit quod ille olim luslt, emerat ille prius, vert- 
dere jure potest. Simoniaeus enim (quod cure Leone dicam) gratiam non 
accepit, si non accipit, non habet, et si non habet, nec gratus potest esse 
tantum en ira absunt istorum nonnuili, qui ad clavum sedent, à Fromovendo rdi.- 
eluos , ut penitus impediant, probk sibi conscil, 9uibus artibus illic pervenerint. 
• am qui oh literas emersisse illos credat, desipit; qui veto ingenii, eruditio- 
nis, experientioe, probitatis, pietatis, et 1Kusarum id esse pretium putat (quod 
olim reverâ.]uit, hodiè lo'ornittitur) planissimè insanit. Utcungue vel undecun- 
(le rnalum hoc originem ducat, non ultra çuceram, ex ]iis lorlmordiis coe]it viti- 
orum colluvies, omnis calamita$, omne miseriarum agmen in Eccleslam inve. 
hitur. Itinc tam frequens sîmwtia, hic ortce querelce, fraudes, impostttrce, 
hoc fonte se derivârunt omnes nequltiœe. Ne uid obiter àica de ambitione 
adulatione plusquam aulicâ, ne tristi domicoenio laborençde luxu, de foedo non- 
",,unquam vitce exemplo, quo nonnuiios offendunt, de compotatione 'gbaritic 
&c. h inc ille squalor academicus, tràstes hse tempestate Camerme, quum çuivis 
homunculus, artium i9narus, his artibus assuruat , hunc in modum promota$wr 
et ditescot, ambitiosis appellationibus insignis, et multis di9nitatibus augustts 
t, uIui ocuIos perstringat, benk se habeat, et grandia gradiens raajestatem quart- 
data ac amplitudinem lor ce se ferens, rniramque solicitudinem, barbâ reverendu, 
togâ nitidus, purpurâ coruscus, supeilectilis splendore, et famulorura 
maximk conspicuus. Quales statuœe (quod ait « ille) quoe sscri in oed]bu 

Comment. In GaL • Helnsius. P EccIe2/a.. q Luth. tu Gal. t_Pst's. S&t.2. sgalln 
S. h[enip, t Budeu de  lib. . 



Iem. 3. Subs. 15.] 8tudy, a Cause. 

columnis imponuntm; velut oncri cedentes videntm; ac si insudarent, quum 
rever' sensu sint carentes, et nihil saxeam adjurent firmitatem : atlantes vidert 
vo[itnt, quum si«t stat«œe lapldeæ, umbrati[es reverâ hom «»ciones, f ungl, f.,rsar, 
et bard nihil à saxo d.fferentes. Qmtm itterim docti viri, et vitce sanctioris 
ornamentis proediti, qui oestum diei sustlnent, his iniqnâ sorte Sel'riant. minimo 
.tbrsan salario contenti, puris nominibus nuncupati, humiles, obsc«rL mMtoque 
dijulores llcet, egentes, inhonorati vitam privam privatam a.qant, temd7ue 
sepulti sacerdotio, vel in collegiis suis in oeternum incareerati, in.qloriè dehes- 
cmd. Sed nolo diutius banc movere sentlnam, bine illœe lachroe, 
nusarum habitus,  hlnc ipsa religio ( quod cure Se¢ellio dicara ) in ludibrium eg 
contmptum adduciur, abjectum sacerdotium (arque hœec ubi.fiunt, auslm 
dicere, et putl dtm putidi dicterium de clero usurpare) pugidum vulgus, inops 
rude, sordidum, melancholicum, raiserum, deslicabile , contemnendum, • 

* As for ourselves (for nelther are we free om thls anlt) the saine gallt, the ssme crime, may be obJectcd 
agalnst n : for Il is through out fault, negligence, and avarice, that en many and nuch shameful corrnp= 
tionn occur in the ehurch (both the temple and the Dtity are offered for nain), that such sordidncss 
introdnced" nuch impiety committed, such wickedness, nuch a mad gdf of wretchedness and irreglarity 
these I say arien from ail our faults, but more particulariy from ours of the Untversity. We are the nursery 
in which hose iiln are bred with which the ntate in affiicted; we voluntarily introdnce them, and are deSel'ving 
ni every opprobrum and nufferng, nince we do hOt afterwards encounter them ccording in our ntrength. 
For what better can we expect when en many poor, begarly fellows, men of every order, are redily and 
withoug elcction, admitted in degrces  Who, if they can only commit to memory a few dcflnitlons and 
divisions, and pass the customary perlod in the ntudy of logies, no malter wtth what cffct, 'htever 
thcy prove in be idiot triflern, idlers, gamblers, ente, eensualists, 
Umere clpher in the book of lire 
Like those who bcldly woo'd Uly." mire; 
lqorn in consume the fruits ofearth : in truth, 
A vain and idle as Pheacla'n youth;" c]y]etthemhavepsedtheetipulatedperlodin theUniverity, andprofeedthemse|ves co|leglan: elther 
for the nake of profit, or threugh the influence of their fi'iends, they obtain a presentatlon; nay, nometimes 
even arcompanled by brilliant eu]ogies upon their morale and acquirements; and when they are about to 
take leave, they are honoured with the mont flatterlng litcrary testimoniale in their favour, by those 
undonbtedly nustain a loss of reputation in granting them. For d»etors and professor (as an author sayn) 
are anxious bout nue thlng only, riz., that out of their varionn caBingn they may promnte their ovr 
advantage, and couvert the publie loss into their private gainn. For ont annual off]cern wih this ouly, that 
thone who commence, whether they are taught or nntaught le of no moment, nhal be aleek, fat, pigeons, 
worth the plucking. The _Philonophastic are admitted to a degree in Art.% because they bave no acquain 
anen with them. And they are desired to be wise men, because they are endowed with no wisdom, and 
bring o qualification for a degree, except the vieh in bave il. The Theologastic (only let them pay) thrcn 
lcarned, are promoted to every academic houour. Hence il le that no many vile buffoons, an many idiots 
cverywhe.-'e, placed in the twilight of letters, the mere ghosts of sholars, wanderers in the market plce, 
vagrants, barbel$, munhreom$, dolts, asses, a growUng herd, with unwashed feet, break into the ascred 
i,rcclnctn of theology, brining nothing aiong with thcm but an impudent ff'ont, home vlgar trifles and 
foolinh echolatlc teehnicaitties, unworthy of respect even ai the cros8ing of the hlghwayn. Thin le the 
unworthy, vagrant, voluptnoU race, fitter for the hog-sty (haram) than the altar (aram), that basely prOs- 
titnte divine literature; these are they who flll the pulpits, ereep into thepa]aees of our nobility aller ail 
other prospcctn of existence rail them, owing to their imbecility of body and mind, and thcir being incapable 
of nuntaining any other parts in the commonwea]th; to this nacred refuge they ff)3 undertaking the office 
er the ministry, hot from sincerity, but as St. Paul eaye, huckstering the word of GooE Let hot any 
nue nuppose that il in here intended to detract from thase many exemplary men of which the Church of 
England may boust, learned, eminent, and of spotless faine, for they are more humerons la that than in any 
othcr chureh of Europe : nor from those mont learned universities whieh constantly eend forth men 
endued wlth every form of vit'tue. And thee eminaries would produee a ntill greater number of lnesti- 
rahle scholar hereafter if ««roEidnesa did hot obscure the eplendioE light, corruption interrupt, anoE certain 
truekling harpies and beggar envy them their usefulne. Nor eau any nue be o blind asnot in pereeivo 
thin--any o ntolld as hot to undertand it--any o pervele 
been contammated by those notoriou idiots, and the celestial Muse treated with profnity. Vile and 
bam¢le nouln (nayn Luther) for the nake of gain, like flics to a milk-pail, orowd round the tables tf tho 
nobiIAty in expectation of a church Bvin¢:. any office or houour, 
te accept of any employment that may offer. 
"A thing of wood and wh'es by other played." 
Following the paste as the parrot, they cintrer out any thing in hopes of reward 
Kranmu, teach, eay, write, a(lmire, approve, contrary in their couvcitton, anything you piease, hot in benefit 
the peopie but to lmprove their own fortunes. They subscribe to any opinionn and deeisionn contrary to 
the wor¢! of God" that they may hot offenoE thetr patron but retain the favour of the great, the applause of 
the multitude, and thereby aequlre riches for themnelves; for they approach Thcology, hOt that they may 
perform a naered duty, but make a fortune: hot to promote the interner ofthe church, but to pillage il: 
eeking, as Paul eay$, hot the thing which are of Jesus Christ, but what may be their own : hot the treasure 
ci their Lord, but the enrlchment of themelves and their follower. Nor dons this evtl belong to thone of 
humhler birth and fort'unes on]y, |t posees the m|ddie and higher rauk, biahopn excepled. 
« 0 Pon fifre, tell the efl]eascy of gold in aered matter I" Avarice of leu lead the highest men astray, and 
mon, a(lmirable In all other repeets : thee flnd a aalvo for nimony; and, ntriking againnt thin rock of 
corruption, they tin uni nhear but flay the flockl and, wherever they tenta, piunder, exhaust, raze, making 
hipwreck of their reputation, if hot of their noul also. Hence il appears that this malady 

* Lib. de rep. Gsloram.  Campian. 



o_1 Cavaea of JIda»cl,,' a. [ParL 1. Sec. . 

f:nrn tle lmmhleçt fo the hihe «]-«e.% but vice «8, sn tat the max;m 
" he botght firȂ therefure h the bt right to sell." For a Simoni tthat I Iy ue the phrolo of 
Lc) h hot rccet'e a ft'our: slnce e h hot rele one he do hot poe one; an sinoe e do hot 
p«,ss one he anot confer one. So fr inde are some of those who are placed at the helm om 
promoting otherN that thcy conplctely obsct them, om a conscion ofthe means by which theelvm 
obtained the hono. For he who lmtn that they emerged from their obsHty through their leaing,  
deceived; indoed, whoevcr euppos promotion to be the reward of geni edition, experienc probi«y. 
pie, and poet (which focrly w the e, but now-&3-s is only pmised) i evldently denffcd. 
liow or when this y mmenceoE I ahaU not furter inquire; t from the bnnln, thie 
tion ofwc, 1 ber lamiti and i have bn brought upon the Chch; hence such equent nets of 
eimony, complaint fraud, impostufrom this one fountain spring ail its nspio iniquiti. I shall 
not pr the qutlon of ambition and tly fl'ttteT, lt they my be chagfied about luxuw, be 
exampl of lif which offend the honÇ wanton drinking parti, &c. 
equalor, hc m now look s. since evew low fel:w lorant of the 
promotc and grm  rich, dtlnished by ambitio 
hows him to the lgar, and by his stately can'ie display a sp of major, a remarhle solicitud 
lctting do a flowing bcar decked in  brilliaut toga rlendent with pml d rpected ao on 
account of the splendour of his hoehold and nnmb of hic scr an. There are ain stu placed in 
tacred efices that secm to stnk under their 1o, and lmost to persplr when in reality they are void of 
nsatio and do hot nbnte to the sny etability, eo th en would wish to look like Atl when 
they a no bettcr than statues of ston insigniflcant ecbs, ngs, dolt little different om atone_ 
leanwbile rlly leaed men, endowed with ail that n o a holy lif men who bave ended th heat 
vflnid-day, by eome jt lot obey the dzar content probably th a miserable , kno' by 
honct appellations, humbl obsc althoh eminently wohy, noedy, lding a private life without 
houour, buried alive  me poor bcnefl or incarcerated for ever In thelr eollege chamberN lying hid 
i,tglooly. ut I ara unwilling o stir thie sink any longer or any deeper; hence those te this melan- 
cho]y habit ofthe m; hence (that I may sak with Secelli) is It that religion is brought into dis- 
rcpute and contemp and the prithd abjt (and sinee this is s I mt speak out du the thy 
witticm of e thy) a fœetid crow pr» sordi melancholy» rebl dicgblç œeenmptlble. 

IEIB. IV. 
SCBSV.C. I.--IVon-necessary, 'ernoe, outward, adveitu,  accnt 
ca : as firs fro» t 
OF Chose remot outward, amient, nece uæs, I bave suclent]y 
icoud i the poeoedent memer, the non-neoery fvllow; of which, ith 
"Fuchsius, no art OEn be ade, by reason of their unoeainty, ualty, and 
multitude; so called "hot neoesW" beoEuse aoeordlng to ffi Fernelius, "they 
may be avoide, l, and used withot neity." [any of the aidental 
causes, which I all entrent ofhe, might bave well been reduced go the for- 
meL because they OEnnot be avoided, but faEy happen to us, though acci- 
denta]ly, ald unawas, at some tinle or other: tire rt aoe contingent and 
nevitable, and more properly inrted h this nk ofoEes. To reckon up 
all is a thing impossible; of some therefore most remarkable of these contin- 
gent causes which produce mclanchoIy, I wHl briefly spk and h their ordeç 
From a child's nativity, the first fil accident that OEn like]y befall him in this 
kind is a bad nuée, by whose means alone he may be taind with this Ymadv 
fr,,m his cmdle, Aulus Gd]ius l. 12. c. 1. bgs in Phavorinus, that eloquet 
philosopher, proving this at large, "%hat there  the samc rtue and propey 
in the milk  in the sd, and hot in mcn alone, but in aH other crtuoes; he 
gives instance in a kid d Iamb, ifeither ofthem suck ofthe other's mi the 
lamb of the goat's, or the kid of the ewe' the wool of the otm will he hd, 
and the ha of the other sofa." Girald Ca»ne Itirar. Car, l. 1. 
c. 2. confirms th by a notable example whlch happened in his rime. A sow- 
pig by chanoe sucked a bch, and when she w gro, "" would mculoly 
hunt ail manner of deer, and that  weH, or ther berger, than any ohary 
hound." ]is conclusion is, "bthat nmn ad beasts paicipate of ber nature 
awl conditions by who mi they are fed." Phvorin rg if fher, and 
dem«,nstrates it more edently, that if a nurse be "mhapen, chte, 
• Froem. ]lb. 2. 'uHa arc eonii potest. ,LIb. 1. e. 19. de morbm eais. Qu dec]arc ]loet 
ant nulle nitate utimur, • Quo mel t Imbuta recens abit odorem T di Hor. t Sieur 
valet ad fingend coos nique ami similidin vb et haïra miniN sic quoque ]is ppet. 
eque id in hominib solum, ced in pecndib animadveum. Nain ci ovium lacte h aut capram 
ai a]crentnr, constat fie In his ianam dom, In  capillnm gii veorem. a Adta in 
feram persuntione  miracum ue eax.  Tare animal qdlit qm homo, ab illl cue 
lacte nutrir, naturam contrahit, • Improb infois, impui temeu au & quoni  
oribue effooEan maam  ptem ingenium a]icil t nata lac tenct. 



Mem. 4. Subs. 1.] Nurse, a Cause. 217 

dishonest, impudent, %ruel, or the like, the child tlxt sucksupon her breast will 
be se tooï ail other affections of the mind and diseuses are almost ingrafted, 
as it were, and imprlnted into the temperature of the infant, by the nursc's 
railk; as pox, Icprosy, melancholy, &c. Cato for seine such reason would 
make his servants' ehildreu suck upoa his wife's hreast, because by that meatts 
they would love him and his tho better, and in all likelihood agree with them. 
A more evident exemple that the minds are altered hy milk cannot he given, 
than that of "Dieu, whieh he relates of Caligula's cruelty; it could neither ho 
imputed te father ner mother, but te his cruel nurse alerte, that anointed ber 
paps with blood still 'hen he sucked, xvhich ma,le him such a murderer, and fo 
express ber cruelty te a huit: and that of Tiherius, who was a common 
drunkard, because his nurse was such a one. tsi delirafuerit (toue observes) 
infantulum delirura facig, if she be a fool or dolt, the child she nurseth wfll 
take ufter ber, or otherwiso be misaffected ; vhich Franciscus Barbarus, l. 2. 
¢. ulg. de, re uxorld, proves af full, and Ant. Guivarra, lib. 2. de, M«rco A urdlo : 
the child will surely participate. For hodily sickness the is no douht te ho 
ruade. Titus, Vespasiau'a son, was therefore siekly, becauae the nurse was se, 
Lampridius. And ifwe may believe physiciens, many rimes ehildren catch tho 
pox frein a had nurse, Botaldus, cap. 61. de luv vener. Besides evil attendance. 
negligence, and manygross inconveniences, which are incident te nurses, muca 
danger may se corne te the chiloE For these causes Aristotle, Polit. lib. 7. 
e. 17. lhavorinus and Marcus Aure|ius xvould net bave a child put te nurse, ai 
all, but every mother te brig up ber own, of what condition soever she be ; 
for a sound and able mother te put o!t ber child o nurse, le naturw intemFerles , 
se * Guatso ca]Lu if, 'tis fit there£ore she should be nurse herself; the mother 
will he more careful, Ioving, and attendaat, than any servile woman, or such 
hired creatures; this ail the world ackowledgeth, convenientissimum est (as 
Rod. à {astro d at. mulierum, lb. 4. c. 12. in many words confesseth) 
marrera ipsam lacta'e infatem, "It is most fit that the mother should suckle 
ber own infant"---who denies that it should be so?--aad which seine 
most curiously observe ; amongst the test, that queen of France, a Spaniard 
by birth, that was se precise and zcalous in this behaff, that when in her 
absence a strange nurse had suckled ber child, she was never quiet till she had 
ruade the infant vomir it up again. ]ut she was too jealous. If it be se, as 
many rimes it is, they must be put forth, the mother be net fit or well able te 
be a nurse, I would then advise such mothcrs, as Plutarch doth in his book de 
liber educandls, and k S. tierom, li. 2. epist. 27. Zev de, institut..fil. Mag- 
zinus part. 2. _Reg. sanit, cap. 7. and the said Rodericus, that they mal:e 
ch,)me of a sound woman, of a good complexion, honest, free frein bodi|y dis- 
eases, if it be possible, all passions and perturbations of the mind, as sorrow, 
leur, grief, ffolly, melancholy. :For such passions corrupt the milk, and alter 
the temperature of the child, which new being  Udum et molle luxure, "a 
moist and sort clay" is easily seasoued and perverted. And if such a nurse 
may be round out, that will be diligent and careful withal, let Phavorinus and 
M. Aurelius plead how they can against it, I had rather accept of ber in seine 
cases than the mother herself, and which Bonacialus the physicien,/çic. Biesius 
the politician, lib. 4. de repub, cap. 8. approves, " Some nurses are much te 
be preferred te seine mothers." :For why may net the mother be naught, a 
peevish drunken flirt, a waspish choleric slut, a crazed piece, a fool (as many 
mothers are), unsound, as soon as the nurse] There is more choice of nurses 

a Hlreanoeque admrnnt ubera TIgre Vtrg. ,Llb. 2. de (oesarlbus. «Beda, e. 27. 1.1. Ec¢les. h/st. 
zNe insifivo lactis alimento degeneret corpus, et animne corrurnpatur. *Lib. 3. de civ. convers 
• Stephanus. ' To 2. lutrices non quasvis, sed maximè probas delig4mUS, a lutrix non rot leiva 
eut rem ulent&, nier.  Prohibendum ne etolida I scier, m Pers.  Nutrices interdum matribu 
sunt rneliores. 



18 6'auses of.,l[danclg. [Part 1. Sec. 

than mothers; and therefore except the mother be most virbuous, staid, a 
woman of excellent good parts, and of a sound complexion, I would have all 
children in such cases eommitted to discreet strangers. Aud 'ris the only way; 
as by marriage they are ingrafted to other families to alter the brced, or if 
any thing be amiss in the mother, as Ludovicus Mcrcatus contends, Tom. 2. lib. 
de "awrb. hcered, to prevent diseases and future maladies, to correct and qualiîy 
the child's ill-disposed temperature, which he had from his parents. Thia 
m an excellent remedy» if good choice be ruade of such a nurse. 
StrSFCr. II.--Edacation a Cause of J[dancholy. 
EDVc.*.ao, of these accidental causes of /Ielancholy, may justly challenge 
the next place, for if a man escape a bad nurse, he may be undone by evil 
bringing up. *Jason Pratensis purs this of education for a principal cause; 
bad parents, step-mothers, tutors, masters, teoehem, too rigorou, too severe, 
too remiss or indulgent on the other side, are often fountains and furtherers 
of this disease. Parents and such as bave the tuition and oversight of children, 
offend many rimes in that they are too stern, alvays threatening, chiding, 
brawling, whipping, or striking; by means of which their poor chfldren are so 
disheartened and cowed, that they never after bave any COUlage, a merry hour 
in their lires, or take pleasure in any thing. There is a great moderation tobe 
had in such things, LS matters of so great moment to the making or mm-ring 
a child. Some fright their children with beggars, bugbears, and hobgoblins, if 
they cry, or be otherwise unruly: but they are much to blame in if, many 
times, saith Lavater, de spectris, part 1. cap. 5. ex metu in morbos graves ineb- 
dun et noctu dormientes clamant, for fear they fall into many diseases, and cry 
out in their sleep, and are much the worse for if ail their lires: these thing 
ought hot af all, or to be sparingly done, and upon just occasion- Tyrannical, 
impatient, hare-brained schoolmasters, ar/di mag/s, so * Fabius terres them 
Ajacesflagdliferi, are in this kind as bad as hangmen and executioners, they 
make many chfldren endure a martyrdom all the while they are af school, with 
bad dmt, if they board in thetr bouses, too much severity and iii-usage, they 
quite pervert their temperaturo of body and mind: still chiding, railing, 
frowaaing, lashing, tasking, keeping, that they arefracti animis, moped many 
rimes weary of their lires,  imia severitate de.ficiunt et desperan$, and think 
no slavery in the world (as once I did myself) like to that of a grammar 
scholar. Prceceporum ineptiis dlscrucianur ingenia puerorum, * saith Eras- 
mus, they tremble at his voice, looks, eoming in. St. Austin, in the first book 
of his cooEess, et 4. ca. calls this schooling meticulosam necessitatem, and els 
where a martyTdom, and confesseth of himself, how cruelly he was tortured in 
mind for learning Greek, nulla verba noveram, et scevis trroribus et poenis, tu 
ssem, instabatur mih vehemerder, I knew nothing, and with cruel terrom and 
punishment I was dafly compelled, • Beza complains in like case of a rigorou» 
uchoo!master in Paris, that ruade him by his continual thunder and threat 
once m a mind t9 drown himself, had he hOt met by the way with an uncle oI 
his that vindicated him frora that misery for the rime, by taking him to 
his bouse. Trincavellius, l/b. 1. cons//-. 16. had a patient nineteen years ol 
age, extremely melancholy, oh nlmiura studium, Tarvitii  prw.cepknis mnas, 
by reason of overmuch study, and Iris «tutor's threats. Many masters are 
hard-hearted, and bitter to their servants, and by that me.ans do so deject, with 
terrible speeches and hard usage so crucify them, that they become desperate» 
and can never be recalleoE 

 Lz-o. de morbis capltls, cap. de manla; Haud postrema eansa supputatur educatio, Inter ha menti$ 
ala]ienationis eausa& lnjusta noveroE * Lib. 2. cap. 4. " Idem. Et quod maxlmè nocet, dura iu 
Ieneris ita riment nihil conantur, •" The pnpii's faett]Ùe are perverted by the lndlereÙon of the 
m&ter."  Proefat. ad Testam. PIua ment iedaogic, o euper¢ilio abatulit qu,m nnqna 
preceti ms eapieti iastillavit. 



Others again, in that opposite extreme, de as great harm by t?aeir too much 
remissness, they give them no briuiu up, no calliu te busy themselves 
about, or te lire in, teach them no trade, or set them in any good course ; by 
menus of which their servants, children, scholars, are earried away with that 
stream of drunkenness, idleness, gaming, and muny such irregular courses, that 
in the end they rue it, curse their parents, and mischief themselves. Too 
much indulgence caus¢th the like, inelata partis lenitas efacilitasprava, when 
as Mitio-like, with too much liberty and too great allowance, they feed their 
childrenh humours, let them revel, wench, riot, swagger, and do what they 
will themselces, and then punish them with noise of musicians; 
"'Ob$onet. potet, oleat unguenta de meo ; 
Amat t dabitur h me argenture ubi erit commodum. 
Fores effregit t rcstituentur : descidit 
Vestem t reaarcietur.Fclat quod lubet, 
Sumat, censurant, perdat» decretum est pari." 
]3ut as Demeo told him,  llum corrumpi snG, your lenitywill be hlsnndoing, 
proevfder videor jam dm llum, qzum hic egens profgie aliqud miIRatum, 
foresee his ruin. Se parents often err, many fond mothers especially, dote se 
much upon their children, like «/EoI)'s ape, till in the end they crush them go 
death, Corporum nutri¢es animarum novercee, pampering up their bodie te the 
uudoing of their seuls; they will net let them be °corrected or controlled, but 
still soothed up in every thing they de, that in conclusion "they bring sorrow, 
sham¢, heviness go their parents, (Ecclus. cap. xx 8, 9,) become wanton, 
stubbora, wilful, and disobedient ; rude, untaught, headstrong, incorrigible, 
and graceless;" "they love them se foolihly," sith "Cardan, "that they 
ruther seem te hate them, bringing them net up go virtue but iujury, net te 
lcrning but te fier, net te sober life and conversation, but te ail pleasure and 
licentious behaviour." Who is ho of se little experience that knows net this 
of Fabius go be true  ""Education is another nature, altering the mind and 
will, and I would go God (sith he) we ourselves did net spoil out chfldren's 
manners, by out overmuch cockeriug and nice education, and wcaken tho 
strenh of their bodiea and miud¢ thag causcth custom, custom nature," 
For these causes Plutarch in his book de lib. educ. and tierom, epis, l[b. 1. 
epist. 17. te Levta de institut.filin, gives a most espe¢ial charge go all parents, 
m,l many good cautions about bringing up of chitdren, ht they be net com- 
mitted te mdiscreet, passionate, bedlam tutors, light, giddy-headed, or coetous 
persons, and spare for no cost, ¢hat they may be well nurtured and taught, 
being a marrer of se great consequence. For such parents as de otherwise 
lluta«ch esteems of them "rthat are more careful of their shoes than of their 
fcet," that rate their wealth above their chfldren. And he, saith "Cardan, 
"that lcaves his son te a covetous schoolmaster te be informed, or go a close 
Abbey go fast and learn wisdom together» doth no other, thaa tlt ho be 
learaed fool, or a sickly wise mn." 

Smscr. III.Terrors and Affrights, Causes of Mdaholy. 
TOEv, in the fourth of his Tculans, distguhes the terrors which 
aroEe from he apprchensioa of some terrible objet heard or secn» kom other 
•Ter. Adeph. . 4. • Idem. Act. !. e. 2. '« Let hIm f dn e hImself t my exp: 
lin be in love, I shall su]y him with money. H he broken  the gat  they shaR ho repaired. 
ho to hls gaen t they shaH be placed. t him de what he ple k end, wt I ara rolved 
t, ubmit. t Camerari em. 7. nt.  bath elegautly exr it au emblem, perdit amudo, &c. 
al'ro¢, xliL . «' He that areth the rod hat h son." -Lib. 2. de conl. Tare sttè puo$ 
diligimnt odie pofi vidmur, illos non ad vt d ad ]uriam, non  editionem sed ad 
luxure, n  virtutem  volupm eduut, • Li. l. c. . Kdutio alta at alterat animos 
et vointat arque nflnam 0nquit) Iiberom noomor non Ipal perder, qu infantiam 
oetatim deliciia solm : moHior i$ta ed«catio, quam dgentiam ¢ocam neos omn et mentis et 
eoos 5"ant; fit ex h consnemdo, lnde haïra.  Pede it ac  quts de cceo sit soli, 
dem nihil cnret. J¢en. ii pa minns oet quam flll, • Lib. 3. de plent : qui avales 
poedgis pucros alendoe danh  cos  oenobfl$ jejunare  et pc» ni d agç nisi 
elnt v non sine ettitia erut v non a vit sapient. 



220 Çaea of 3Ielancho?,j. [Part. 1. Sec. -'2. 

fears,-an,1 te doth Patritius, lib. 5. Tir. 4. de recfia institut. Of ail fears they 
are raost pernicious and violent, and se suddenly alter the whole temperature 
of the body, more the seul and spirits, strike such a àeep impression, that the 
parties con noyer be recovereà, causing more grievous and fiercer melancholy, 
• as Felix Plater, c. 3. dementis alienat. "speaks out of his experience, thon any 
inward cause whatsoever : and imprints itself se forcibly in the spirits, brain, 
humours, that if ail the mass of blood were let out of the body, it coulà hardly 
be extracteà. This horrible kind of melancholy (for se ho terms it) haà been 
oftenbroughtbefore him, and troubles and affrights commonlymen and women, 
young and old of ail sorts." * iIereules de Saxonia calls this kinà of melan- 
choly (ab agitatio spirituum) by a peculiar home, it cornes from the atation, 
motion, contraction, dilatation of spirits, net frein any àistemperature of 
humours, and produceth strong effects. This terrer is most usually causeà, 
as lalutarch will bave, "frein some imminent danger, when a terrible object 
is at hand," hearà, seen, or conceiveà, "truly appearing, or in a ddream : 
and many times the more sudden the accident, it is the more violent. 
" t Star terror animls, et cor attonltum slit, 
Paidumque trepidis palpitat veni jecur." I "Thelr soul's ttffright, their beart ttmazed quakes 
The tremblJng liver pants i'th" veins and aclaes." 
Arthemedorus the grammarlan lest his wita by the unexpected sight of a 
crocodile, Laurentius, 7. de melan, °The massacre at Lyons, 1572, in the reiga 
of Gharlea IX., waa se terrible and fearful, that many ran mad, some died, 
great-bellied women were brought te bed before their time, generally all 
atfrighged aghast, hIany loso their wits "tby the sudden sight of seine spec 
tttm or devil, a thing very common in all ages, aaith Lavater, part l. cap. 9. 
as Orestes did at the sight of the Furies, which appeared te him in black (as 
 Pausnias records). The Greeks oall them/of/0),Z«t, which se terrify 
their seuls, or if hey be but affrighged by seine counterfeit devils in jest, 
 § ut puerl trepidut, arque omnl 
In teaelaria metuunt " as children in the dark conceivWhobgoblina, and are se afraid, they are 
the worse for it all their lives. Seine by sudden rires, earthquakes, inundations, 
or anysuch dismal objects : Themison the l,hysician fell into a hydrophobia, 
by seeing one sick of that disease : (Diosct,.-ides, l. 6. c. 33.) or by the sight of 
a monster, a oarease, they are disquieted many mont.ha following, and canner 
endure the room where a corpse hath been, for a world would net be alono 
xvith a dead man, or lie in that bed many years after in wtfich a man hath died. 
• At sBasil many little children in the spring time went te gather flowers in 
a meadow at the town's end, where a malefactor hung in giblmts; ail gazing at 
if, one by chance flung a atone, and ruade if stir, by which accident, the childrcn 
affrighted tan away ; one slower thon the rest, looking back, and seeing 
stirred carcase wag towarda her, cried out if came after, and was se terribly 
affrighted, that for many daya she could net rest, eat, or sleep, she could 
be pacified, but melancholy, died. In the same town another child, beyond 
the Rhine, saw a grave opened,and upon the sight of a carcase, was se troubled 
in mind that she cotfld net be comforted but a little after departed, and 
• Terrer et metua maxlm ex Improvise aeceitentes Ira anlmttm eommovent, nf aplrltua nunquam reenperent, 
grvioremque tnelancholiam terrer fait, o,nm qu ah tuteraa eauaa fit. Impressio tm fortis in spiritibu 
lmmoribnsque eerebrl, ut extracta tota tanguinea mana, oegre exprimatar, et baec bonoenda peciea melan- 
tholioe froquenter oblata mihi. omnea exercena vites, Juvenes, senea. *Tract. tic melon, cap. "/. 
ab intemperie, sed a4ittione, dilatatione, oontractione, moto spirituum, • Lib. de fort. or vit'tut. ,Mex. 
proeaertirn lneunte perieulo, ubi resprope adaunt terribilea. «Fit a viaione horrenda, rever apparente 
vel per insomula, Plterus. « A painter's wife in Bil Ig00. $omuisvit 111iutn bello mortuurn, 
Melancholica consolsri nolalt. " Senec. Herc. Oet. « Quart& pars Comment. de statu religionis in 
Gallia sub Carolo 9. 1572. t Ex occursu doemonum allqul furore corripinntur, et experientia notum est. 
$ Lib. 8. In Arcad. § Lucret. s Puelloe extra urbem In preto concm'rentes, &c. mcesta et melancholi«a 
domum redilt per dies aliq,mt vexata, dura mort-us est. Plater. Altera trans-Rhenana ingresas epul- 
©hrm recens aperturn, vitlit cadaver, et Iomum sublto reversa putavit eam vocare, post paucos dies obiit 
proximo sepulchro coilocata. Altera patibulum sero proeteriens, metuebat ne urbe exclusa illic pernoctare 
uade rnelanchollc lacis, per multos annos labor&vit. Plsteru. 



ws burled up. Platerus, observa. L l, a gentlewoman of the saine ciy sa 
a «t bog cut up, when he entrai were opened, and a noisome savour oended 
ber nose, e much mled, d would hOt longer abide: a physician in 
prnoe tdd ber,  that hog, so w she, full of filthy exerements, and aggra- 
vad the matter bysome other loathsome stanees, insomuch this niee gentle- 
woman appreheuded it so deeply, that she fe forthwith a-vomiting, was so 
mightily distempered in mind and body, that with MI s a and peuasions, 
for me months after, he oeuld hot rtore her fo helfagain, she oed hot 
forget it, or remove the objeoE out of ber sight, I&m. Iany nnot endure to 
see a wound oned, but they are offended: a man exoeuted, or labour of any 
feafful disse,  poession, apoplexies, one bewitehed;  or if they rd by 
choe of me terrible thing, the symptoms alone of such a disea, or that 
whieh they dislike, they are iustantly troubled  mind, agbast, ready to apply 
it to thelv, they are  much qeted as if they had n it, or were so 
affeeted themselv. Het i vtur somne, they dream and eonti- 
nlly think of it.  lamentable effets are ed by such teible objects 
heard, rd, or n, aus mamos t in rpe f, as  Plutaoeh 
hd, no oen makes eater altemtion of body and mind: sudden sech 
sometimes, expd news, be they good or bad, priva min at, will 
more m much, atimun oue, et  s  je, as a  philosopher 
ob, w take away ot sloep and appeti, turb and quite overturn 
Let them bear tnem that have heard tho tmgioE1 alams, ouries, hideous 
noises, which are many tim suddenly hrd lu the dead of the night by 
itption of enemies and aoeidental rires, &c., those  panic fea, wch often 
drive men out of thek wits, bereave them of sense, detanding and ail some 
for a rime, some for their whole hves, they uever cover it. The  5Iianites 
were so affrighted by Gideos soldie they bag but every one a pitcher; 
and * Hannibal's army by ch a nic fear was dod at the wal of 
ome. Austa Lira hearing a few tragical vers recited out of VirgH, 
J[arc , &c., fell do dd in a sw«on. Edinus ng of Denmark, by 
a suddcu sound which he heard, " * w tued into fu with all his men," 
Cranzius, l. 5, Dan. hisa et Aw ab Aaro l. 3. c. 5. Amatus 
Litan had a patient, that by reason of bad tidings became epileptic, 
2. ra 90, Card stil, l. 18, w one that lost his wits by mtang of an 
echo. If one nse aloue OEn OEu such violent oemmotio of the mind, what 
may we thi when hring, sight, and those other senses are all troubled af 
onoe  by some emhquakes, thunder, lightning, mpests, &c. At Boloa 
in Italy, Anno 1504, there w sucha fearful earthquake about eleven o'clock 
in the night ( v Beroald,  his b»ok  terroe tu, bath commeuded to pos- 
terity) that ail the city trembled, the people thought the world w at an end, 
actum  rtalus, such a frfid noise, it ruade such a detestable sme, the 
inbitants were infinitely affrighted, and some n mad. Audl rem atm«m, et 
anl mam (mine author adO), hear a stnge stop, and worthy 
to be chnicled: I had a rvaut at the saine time called Fco Arnus, a 
bold and proper man, so grievoly terrified th it, that he « w fit melan- 
ehdy, afçer dod, at lt m, and ruade away eg. At 
Japona "thet was ch an thquake, and darknem on a sudden, that many 
mon were offended with headad*e, manyoverwhelmed with soow and melan- 
choly. At bIcacum whole streets and goooey pal were ovem'ned at tho 
' Subit oc, Inoplna lectlo.  Lib. de audiflone. * Theod. Prodrom lb. 7. Amo 
  ceens fuent ine t Qu me nunc inflst cocus Fs sit. Alciat. embL 122. 
m Jud. 6. 19. - luch vi ej.  In furorem c s vers.  Subiti toe mot. 
 Coepit de dre cure dndio ssnitst, inde adeo demen ut sibi ip moem feet. • Histori 
rclatio de b Jsponicis Tr. 2. de legst, regis Chincnsi s Lodovico Froi Juits. A. 1596. Fcini 
de repente ntsae igo et oe mot ut mti pite doleren plarimis r moero et melancholis 
oberetoe. Tantum emitum edeba ut tonit orem imita vidcretar, tantamqu &c. In urbe 
Si  hocus fui ut hom  s comçot 
hv't.ndo secco» 



same rime, and there was such a hideous noise withal, like thunder, and filthy 
smell, that their hair stared for leur, and their heurts quaked, men and beasts 
were incredibly terrifieoE In Sacai, another city, the saine earhquake was so 
terrible unto them, that many were berefç oftheir senses; and others by that 
horrible spectacle so much amazed, that they knew not what they dioE" 
]31asius, a C]n-istian, the reporter of the news, was so affrighted for his part, that 
though if were two months aïter, he was scarce his own man, neither could he 
drive the remembrance of if out of his mind. any rime, some ycars follow- 
ing, they will tremble afl'esh ab the 'remembrance or conceit of such a terrible 
object, even all their lires long, if mention be ma|e of lb. Cornelius Agrippa 
relates out of ulielmus Parisiensis, a sory of one, that afçer a distasbeful 
purge which a physician had prescribed uuto him, was so much moved, « tthat 
ab the very sight of physic he would be distempered," though he never so 
much as smelled toit, the box of physic long after would give him a purge; 
nay, the very rmembmnce of it did effect if; "u like travellers and seamen," 
saith Plutarch, "that when they bave been sanded, or dashed on a rock, for 
ever after fcar hot that mischance only» but ail such dangers whatsoever." 

SUBSECT. ISr.--,_qCOffS, Calumn¢es, bitter Jests, Itow they cause Melanclwbj. 

I is an old saylng, u,A blow with a word strikes deeper than a blow with 
a sword :" and many men are as much galled with a calumny, a scurrilous and 
bitterjest, a libel, a pasquil, satire, apologue, epigram, stage-play or the like, 
as with any misfortune whatsoever. Princes and potentates that are other- 
wise happy, and have ail ab command, secure and free» uibus polentia sceleris 
i»tpunitatem fecit, are grievously vexed with these pasquilling libels, and 
satires: they fear a railing "Aretine, more than an enemy in the field, which 
ruade most princes of his rime (as some relate) "allow him a liberal pension, 
that he should hot tax them in his satires. ''r The gods had their Momus, 
]Iomer his Zoilus, Achilles his Thersites, Philip his Demades: the Coesars 
themselves in lome were commonly taunted. There was never wanting a 
X'etronius, a Lucian in those rimes, nor will be a labelais, an Euphormio, a 
Boccalinus in ours. Adrian the sixth pope "was so ]fighiy offended, and 
grievously vexed with Pasquille ab Rome, he gave command that his statue 
should be demolished and burned, the ashes flung into the river Tiber, and had 
dons it forthwith, had hot Lodovicus Suesamus, a facete companion» dissuaded 
him to the contrary, by telling him, that Pasquil's asbes would turtt to frogs in 
the bottom ofthe river, and croak worse and louder than before,--genus irrita- 
bile rature, and therefore • Socrates in Plato adviseth all his friends, « thab 
respect their cdits, to stand in awe of poets, for they are terrible fellows, can 
lraise and dispra£e as they see cuuse." tIiw uà»t sit cala»nus swv&r en.çe» 
19altO. The prophct David complains, Plm cxxiii. 4. "that his soul was fitll 
of the mocking of the wealthy, and of the despitefulness of the proud," and 
Palm Iv. 4. "for the voice of the wicked, &c., and their hxte: his heart 
trcmbled within him, and the terrors of death came upon him; fear and hor- 
rible four,"&c., and Psalm lxix. 20. "lebuke bath broken my heart, and I 
ara full of heaviness." Who bath not like cause to complain, and is hot sc 
troubled, that shall f.tll into the mouths of such men  for many are of .o 

• Quum subit l]iius tristtssima noctis Imago. t Qui solo aspectu medicinoe movebatur 1 purgandum. 
 SIcut vlatores i ad sxum impegeriut aut naut memores ui casOs, non ista modo qu offendunt, sed ct 
similia horrent perpettt5 et tremunt, • iviter volant, graviter vulnerant. Bernardns. ffi Eusi sauciat 
corpus, mentem sermo.  Sciatis eum esse qni anemine fere oevi sui magnate, non illustre stipendimn 
habtLk, ne mores |psorttm Satyris suis notaret. Gap. Barthins proefat, parn.odid, • Joviu In vit ejus 
g,-aissimè tuiit famosis llbellis nomen suum ad Pasquilll statuam fuisse Inceratum, decrevitque idco sta. 
tu,un dcmoliri, &c. • Plato, lib. 13. de Icibus. Qni existimationem curant» postes vexentttr» qui 
m,a im h,tb.t ad laudandum et vitupcr4du.n. 



Mem. 4. Subs. 4.] 
peulan a spleen; d bave ha fire Sm so on in he mouths, 
so bitr,  fooh, m "Balr Cm¢io nos of them, tt "they caano 
spea but they must bite;" hey d tacher los a ffiend than ajes; and 
w oempany soever they corne in, hey w be soeag, insulting over their 
ferio, especiay over such  any way depend upon them, humouring, m- 
usg, or putting l[ees on some or other tfll they ve ruade by the[r 
houfing or gulli «ez gto ianw», a mope or a noddy, d  to make 
themoelves me: 
xcufit 
Fen, neutem, enees, ll re  one, fo me a foel  mdman,  their 
spot, and they ve no eater flicity tn to scoff and deride othem ; thcy 
must cr[fioe fo the goal of ughter, with them  Apuldus, onoe  dy, or 
else they shafi  melcholy themselves; they oere hot how they [nd ad 
mise othe, so they y exhihmte their owa peinons. Thcir wits indeed 
serve them to tt le pose, to make spot, to break a oeu-fie jt, wch 
is m çed£fus, the fvoth of wit,  sTly holds, and for th they 
 often applauded, in  other come, dry, barren, stramineo, dl d 
h, he  their ge, in t they alone exc¢l, plie themselve and 
othe. Leo Decim, tt oeog çe,  Jovius bath regtered  the Fouh 
book of s OEe, ok an extrrdiay delight in houring of silly f¢ows, and 
 put eries upon them, 
or tt; he me  stolid ssis, e mamè s,  stl insa ; 
sort fefiows, stark noddi; and such  were foos qte mari ibre he 
lef them. One memoruble exumple he mcit there, of Toecom of 
a musician that w so humod by 
t bine, that he thought himseto  a man of most excefient skill (who 
 indeed a uny), they 'amade h set foelish aong aad invent new ridicu- 
lo preoepts, wch they d highly oemmend,"  to rie his arm that plyed 
on the lute, fo mke him tre  sweeter stmke, "and to pull down the 
Arr ngings, bec,de the voioe would be clearer, by rn of the revcr- 
bertion of the wa[L" In the like manuer they persuaded oae BoEritoE of 
Calera, tht he w  goed  poet s etmrch; wod have m fo be ruade 
a lurte poet, and iavite I his iends fo his itment; and had  poed 
the poer man with  coaceit of  exceBent poct, that whea me of h 
more discret ieads told him of his foy, he w ve ny with them, aud 
id « they emed his honour, and prosperity :" it w strnge (saith Jovius) 
to see an old man of 60 ycars,  venerable and grave old man, so gued. ut 
wt aot such soeffem do, clly  they fiad a soft coeaure, a whom 
they my work nay,  ,y tth, who  s wise, or so dcoeet, that may hot 
be humoured in th 
he that & othem, he were so humoud, would be  mad himselt  much 
gr[ev and t«rmend; he might c with m in the comedy, ProIt Jupir, 
t lw»m  adig 
if he be  slly soul, and do hot perceive it, 'ris we, he may haply make 
othm spot, and be no whit troubled himself; butif he be apphensive of 
flly, and take if fo het, thca if torments him worse thau auy lash : u bitte 
lest,  slunder,  lumny, pierceth deeper than any loss, dr, bv«ly pain, 
o inju whatsoever ; t «nim vo (if files swiftly),  Beard o an 
arrow, sed gravr l (but wounds deel,ly), espec]ly if if sha]l procoed 
tom  viru[eat tongue, "if cu (ith David) like  twodgcd sworL Thcy 
t Pel leue chinuo. • C. Hb. 2. a quodam  lnatl ut qu0ti loq, toti mordere 
licere aibi patent.  Ter. Eunuch. « Hot. r. lib. 2. t. . "Proded he can only excite laghtcr 
he apsr hot h bt friend." b. 2. s De orat.  Landando, et raira i peuendo, ffi Et 
çns flat opinion lncrebfila  denda quoed ic proecep commentuetur, c.  Ut vo 



O 
,. Causes of Mdanclwly. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 
shoot bittcr words as arrows," Psalm lxiv. 3. "And they smote with their 
tongues,"Jer. xviiL 18. and that so hard, that they leave an incurable wound 
bchind them. ]Iany men are undone by this meana, moped, and so dejected, 
that they are never tobe recovered; and of all other men living, those which 
are actually melancholy, or inclined toit, are most sensible (as being suspicious, 
cholerc, apt to mistake) and impatient of an injury in that kind: they 
aggravate, and so meditate continually of it, that it is a perpetual coToaive, 
hOt to be removed till rime wear it out. Although they peradventure that so 
scoff, do it alone in mirth and merriment, and hold it oltimum a[ienâ.frui 
isaniâ, an excellent thing to enjoy another man's maduess; yet they must 
know, that it is a mortal aih (as .Thomas holds), and as the pphetP David 
denounceth, "they that use it, shall noyer dwell in God's tabeaacle." 
Such scurrilous jests, flouts, and sarcasms, therefore, ought hot at all to be 
used; especially to out betters, to those that are in misery, or any way dis- 
tressed : for to such, oerumnarum incrementa sunt, they multiply grief, and as 
°ho perceived, In multis pudor, in multis iracundia, &c., many are ashamed, 
many vexed, angered, and there is no greater cause or firtherer of melancholy. 
]Iartin Cromerus, in the Sixth book of his histoT, hath a pretty story to thia 
purpose, of Uladislaus, the second king of loland, and leter Dunnius, earl of 
Shrine; they had been hunting late, and were enïorced to lodge in a poor 
cottage. When they went to bed, Uladislaus told the earl injest, that his wifo 
lay softer with the abbot of Shrine; he hot able to contain, rep[ied, 
])abesso, and yours with Dabessus, a gallant young gentleman in the coin't, 
whom Christina the queen loved. 2"etigit id dictwn Principis animum, theso 
words of his so galled the prince, that he was long after tristis et cogitabundt«s, 
very sad and melancholy for many months; but they were the earrs utter undo- 
iag : for when Christina heard of it, she pe]ecuted him to death. Sophia tho 
empress, Justinian's wife, broke a bittcr jest upon lffarsetes the eunuch, a 
famous captain thon disquieted for an overthrow which he lately had : tha* ho 
was titrer for a distaff and to beep women company, than fo ,vield a sword, or 
to be general of an army : but it cost ber dea; for ho so iar distasted it, that 
he went tbrthwith to the adverso part, much troubled in his thoughts, caused 
the Lombards to rebel, and thence procured many miscries to the common- 
vealth. Tibcrius the emperor withheld a legacy from the people of lome, 
which his predeccssor Augustus had lately giron, and perceiving a fellow round 
a dead corse in the ear, would needs know whercfore ho did so; the fellow 
replied, that ho wished the departed soul to signify to Augustus, the commons 
of Rome were yet unpaid: for this bitter jest the emperor caused him forth. 
with to bc slain, and carry the news himself. For this reason, all those that 
otherwise approve ofjests in some cases, and facete companions, (as who doth 
hot?) let them laugh and be merry, rumpantur et ilia Codro, 'ris laudable and 
fit, those yct will by no means adroit them in their companies, that arc any 
way inclined to this malady; non jocandum cure 
eerumnosi, no jesting with a discontented person, 'Tis Castilio's cavent» P Jo. 
Pontanus, and «Galatcus, and every good man's. 
«Pla)- with me, but hurt me hot : 
Jest wlth me but ahame me 
Comitas is a virtue between rusticity and scurrility, two extremes, as aiability 
is between flatte T and contention, it must hot exceed ; but be still accom- 
panied with that" ,« or innoccncy, quæ enid ocet, omnen 
oblaionem abhorrons, hurts no man, abhors all offer of injury. Though a man 
be liable to such a jst or obloluy, haro been overseen, or committed a foui 

» 2.2dœe qnst. 75. lrrt«lo mortale peccatum, • Psa]. xv. 9, Balths.sar Catilio tib. 2.  avAico. 
D¢ sr.:.u lib. . cp. 3.  ,t 5. Galatcu. ,Tully Turc. qu,es. 



Mem. 4. Subs. 5.J /oss ofLierty, er, £'c. 2-05 
fact, yet if is no good manners or humanity fo upbraid, fo hit him in the teeth 
with his offence, or fo scoff af such aone; 'ris an old axiom, turpis 
omr «zFro/rrat/o.  I speak hOt of such as generally fax vice, Barclay, Gen- 
tilis, Erasmus» Agrippa, Fishcartus, &c., the Varronists and Lucians of 
time satirists, epigrammatists comedians, apologts, &c., hue such as per- 
sonate rail, scoff, calumniate, l»erstringe by naine, or in presence oflènd; 
u • Ludit q,d stolidtl procacitate, 
lon esl; Sesl;ius ille ed caballus ;" 
'Tis horse-play thls, and those jests ( ho «saith) "are no better than inju- 
%s," biting jests, morJees e a,ce«i, they are poisoned jests, leave a stbag 
behind them and ought hot fo be use& 
" Set hot tby foot fo make the bllnd fo fall; 
Nor wilfutty offeud thy weaker brother : 
Tor wotmd the dead with thy tongale's biffer 
/elther rejolce thou in the fal of otherY 
Ii" these rules could be kpt, we should bave much more case and quietness 
thon we bave, less melancholy whereas, on the contmry, we study fo misuse 
each other, how fo sting and gail, like two fighting boora, bending ail out 
force nd wit, friends, fortune, fo crucify • one another's souls; by means of 
which, there is little content ad charity, much virulency, hatred, m«ilce, and 
dLcluietness among u. 

Susv.r. V.oss of iberty, 8eotu, [reprenant, how ty cause 
To t taloe of ca,  may well annex lo of lierty, servitude, or 
impfisonment, weh fo some rso   'eat a toux  any of the test. 
Though they have all things convenieng sptuous houoes fo their use, ,tir 
wal and garde, dvlicio bowers, gaHeries, good çare and diet, and all 
thhgs correspondent, yet they aoe hot connt, becmse they are coned, may 
hot corne and go af their pleasure bave and do what they , but live alnd 
qoErâ, af another man's table and commauoE Aa if is "in meats so if is in 
a other things, places, societi, spots; let them be nevcr so pleant, 
commodious, wholome, so good; yet onmin rm  saeie, there is a 
loathg tiety of all tngs. e children of Israel were tiœed th manna, 
it  ksome to them so to rive,  tu a bird in a cage, or a dog in hîs kenncl, 
they are weary of it. They ara hay, it is te, and bave ail things, to 
other m's judgment, that hea oen wh, or that they themselves can 
desim, b  sua nôrint: y they loathe it, and are tired with the prnt: 
Es tura mlnum ta aoe; men's nature is stiH dessous of news, 
variety, delights; and o wandering affections are so iegular in th kd, 
that they must change, though if must be fo the worst. Bachelom must be 
married, d maied men would be bachelo; they do hot love their o 
siv though otherwe fait, w, uo, and we qualified, because they 
e the; otw preoent eate is stfll the wmt, we cannot endure one course 
eflffe long,  quSd m voverat, ode, one OEing long, se 
oe dl; one plie long, "Eont Tybur amo, veatos Tybure Eonmm, 
that weh we eatly aought, ve now oentemn. Hoc çsdam ay OE mot- 
km (th  Seneea) qu6d opta soepe mut«ndo in eadem 
man, that they are fied to the me still, as a horoe in a miH, a dog  a whoe], 
* « Eve reproach utter ai oaa dy udemned,  mea-iflted.  
h moea ttne et dementia conflictor. T. ad Attic. . I1. • Miscm est aliena viver 
a. Juv. • Cramboe b coc. Yi me re pori. HoL  De qu sn. 



226 Causes of J[danchol!t. [Par. 1. Sec. 2. 
they run round, wihout aleraion or news, their lire groweth odious, the world 
loathsome, and that whieh erosseth their furious delighs, what  still tho 
sarae  ]lareus Aure.liu- and Soloraou, that had experieneo of ail worldly 
delighs anti plesure, eonfessed as rnuch of themselves; what they raost do- 
sire, I, was tedious al lst, and that their lust eould never be satisfied» ail was 
vanity and affliction of raind. 
Now if it be deah itself, anoher hell, o be glutted wih one kind of spor, 
dieted wih one dish, tied to one plaeej though hey have ail things otherwise 
• .tS they eau desire, and are ir hea'er to another raan's opinion, wha raisery" 
mad discourent shall they bave, that lire in slavery, or in prison itself? Quod 
tristius morte,  servittte vivendum, as HelmaOlallS told Alexander in 
"Curtius, worse than death is bondage: * hoe animo scito omnes jbrtes ut 
raovtera servituti anteportant, Ail brave men al arms (Tully holds) are so affected. 
 Equidem eg is sure qui servitutem eztremum omnium malorum esse arbitro': 
I ara he (saith Boterus) that accourir servitude the ettrerait.y ofraisery. nd 
what calaraity do they endure, that rive with those hard taskraasters, in gold 
raines (like those 30,000 +Indian slaves al Potosi, in Peru), tin-minez, lead- 
raines, stone-quarries, coal-pits, like so raany raouldwarps under ground, con- 
deraned to the galleys, to perpetual drudgery, hunger, thirst, and stripes, 
without ail hope of delivery }fow are those woraen in Turkey aflécted, that raost part of the year corae hot abroad; those Italian and $panish daraes, 
that are raewed up like hawks, and locked up by their jealous husbands hov 
tedious is il to thera that lire in stores and caves hall a year together as in 
Iceland, lIuseovy, or uner the ° pole itself, wbere they bave six raonths' per- 
petual night. Nay, what raisery and discontent do they endure, that are in 
prison They want ail those six non-natural things al once, good air, good 
diet, exercise, company, sleep, rest, vase, &e., that are bound in ehains ail 
day long, surfer hunger, and (as tLucian describes il) "raust abide that filthy 
stirrk, and rattling of chains, howlin, pitiful outeries, that prisoners usually 
raake; these things are hot only troublesorae, but intolerable." They fio 
nastily araong toads and fi'ogs in a dark dungeon, in their own dung, in pain 
of body, in pain of soul, as Joseph did, Psalra cv. 18, "They hr lais feet in 
the stocks, the iron entered his soul." They lire olitary, alone, sequestered 
from ail company but heat-eating raelancholy  and for want of raeat, raust- 
eat that bread oïafl]iction, prey upon theraselves. Vell raight tArculanus 
put long iraprisonment for a cause, especially to such a.s bave lived jovially, 
in all sensuality and lust, upon a sudden are esranged and debarred frora ail 
raanner of pleasures: as were lï[uniades, Edward, and Richard II., Valerian 
the Eraperor, Bajazet the Turk. If il be irksorae to raiss out ordinary com- 
panions and repast for once a day, or an bout, what shall il be to lose them 
t'or ever If it be so great a delight to lire a liberty, and to enjoy that variety 
of objects the world affords; what misery and discourent raust il needs bring 
to him, that hall now be cast headlong into that $panish inquisition, to fait 
frora heaven to hell, to be cubbed up upon a sudden, how shall he be perplexe 
what shall become ofhira Robert Duke of Norraandy being iraprisoned by 
his young est brother cnry I., ab illo die 6wonsolabili dolor« 6 carcerecontabuit, 
saith lIatthew Paris, frora that day forward pined away with ief. Jugurtha 
that generous captain, "brough fo Rorae in triumph, and afçer imprisoned, 
through anfish of his soul, and melancholy, died." Roger, Bishop of Salis- 
bury, the second raan from King 8tephen, (he that built that famous caztle of 
• Lib. 8. " Tulliu Lepldo» Para. 10.27. a Boterns, 1. 1. polit, cap. g. f Laet. descript. Americm. 
• If there be any itahabitants, t In Taxart. ln/erdiu quidem collum vi»cturn est, et manus constricta 
aoctu ver6 roture corpu vincitur, ad bas mlserits ttccidit corporia foetor, strepitus ejulantium, 
brevitaa, hoe¢ omnia planè molesta et intolerabilia, s In 9 Ihais. u William the Conqueror'm eldet 
mon.  Sallust. Rornarn triu,npho ductus tatldernque in c&rcerern conjecttaa, anirni doiore pet'iii;. 
 Camàen in Wiltsh. rniscrtXm seaern ira faine et calamitatibu in carcere fregit s inter mortis rnetum et vir 
$ormenttb &c. 



lIem. 4. Subs. 6.] l'vvertj and IVant, Ca«ses. °.27 

k Devizes in Viltshire), was o tortured in prison w':th hungcr, and all those 
calamities accompanying such men, ! ut v£vere noluerit, mor£ nescierit, he woul,l 
hot lire, nd could hot die, between fear ofdeath, and tormcntz of life. Franc.s, 
King of France, was taken prisoner by Charle V., ad mortem ferb 
cholicus, saith Gnicciardini, melancholy almost to death, and that in an instamt. 
Iut this is as clear as the sun, and needs no further i]lustratiom 

Swsr.cv. VI.Poverty and Il'uni, Çus 
Povsarr and wan are so violent oppugners,  unweleome guests, so much 
abhowed of ail men, that I may ao omi to speak of them apa. Poverty, 
althogh (if eonsidcre,! a6gh, to a wi, understanding, truly regenete and 
eontented man) it be donum Dei,  blsed estate, the wy to heaven, as 
Chrysostom ealls i God's gifç, the mother of modty, and much to be pre- 
ferred belote riches ( shaH be shown ia his *place), yeç  it is esteemed 
the world's eeasut, it is a most odious OElling, le and baoe, a severe torture, 
mmu scelles, a most intolemble burden ; we *shun iç ail, ca 
angue (wor than  dog or a shake), we abhor çhe naine of it, " 
fitur, otoyue arcessitur orbe, as being the fountain of all other miserie are, 
woes, labour, and gevanoes whaoever. To avoid which, we wfil take any 
pains,etres curr mcator ad Indos, we will Icave no haven, no coast, 
no crk of the world unserched, though it be to the hazaM of out lires; wo 
will dire to the bottom of he se to the bowels of the earth, +rive, six, scven, 
eight, nine hundrcd £tthom dl» , thr, ugh all rive zones, and both extremes 
]mat and cold : we will turn parasites and slaves, pmstitute oumelves, swear 
and e, damn our bodi and souls, fimake God, abjnrc religion, steal, rob, 
murder, rather than endure this insufferable yoke of poverty which doth so 
tymnnise, crucify, and generally depress u 
For look into the world, and you shall see men most part estoemed acc0rding 
fo their mns, and happy  they are rich: $ Ubiq tanti quq quantun 
buhfidt. If he be likely to thve, and in the way of prefermenç, who but 
he ? Ixt the wlgar opinion, if a man be wealthy, no matter ho he gets iç, of 
what pareutage, howqua[ified, how viruously endowed, or villainously incled 
le him be a bawd,  gril , an usarer,  villain, u gan,  barbarian, 
wretch,  Luciau's tyrant, "on whom you mny look with less crity than 
the sun ;" so thaç he be rich (and fiberal withal) he shall be honoured, admired, 
adored, revcrenced, and higbly magnified. "The rich is h in reputation 
beoEuse of his goods," Eccl. x. 31. He shall be befriended: "for riches 
gather many friends," rov. xix. 4,muh,,s ntmabit arnica, ail happines 
ebbs and flows with bis money. He shall bc accounted a gracious lord, 
$IeoEn, a beneftor, a wise, dcree, a proper, a valiaut, a fortunate man, 
of a generous spirit, Pullus Jov, et gallinoe filius aiboe : a hopeful, a goo,! 
man, a virtuous, hones man. Quan ego  J.unoum pum et ntris 
parfum verb aureum,  "Tully said of Ocvianus, while he was adopte,[ 
Coeur, and an heir "apparent of so eat a monarchy, he was a golden chfl,I. 
Al[ 'honour, offices, applause, and titl and turgeng epithets are pug upon 
him, om om bona dlcer«; ail men's eyes are upon him, Goal blee8 his 
good worship, his honour ; every man speaks well of him, every man 
him, ks and sues to him tbr his love, favour and protection, fo rve him, 
k Vl hodle. ! Sene.  Coin.  Hebr. u Pa. 2. St. $. Iemb. 3. o Quem ut 
dcilem morbum uer trere foi. Plut.  Luen. 1.1.  As in the silver 
Frlburg In Gean. Fin Morom $ Eupid.  Tom. . . minore pecuio solem 
mc defixis oculis licet intueri. Omnis en[m r, vus, fam decm% Sna humanue pulchris 
Di'itiis pent. Hot. Ser. I. . Sat. . Clar cris, forti s, sapis, iam rex.  quicqui 'olet. 
 E gcntt% et fonam, rena pecunla donat. lon adds sp@it courag &c. r Epint. t.  Atficum. 
 Our young mter, a fine towdly gcntlema God bi him, and hopeful ; 'hI e is he[r apparent to 
ght wohlpful, to thc right honourable, &c. t O nugi. lllllnl : 'ob] he ël'..at hOOlc. 
 zinde sapere cure otaries dicim ac queue fortam haut. Plaut. l'eud 



228 Cause oJ'l/eoehuly. [Part. 1. Sec. 2. 
belong unto hm, every man th fo him, as fo Themistocles in the Olympi, 
if he speak,  of Herod, o Dd, n lwmin, the voice of Go hot of man. 
Ail the graces, Veneres, ple, elegances attend him, golden foune 
companies and lodth with him; and  to those man cmpero 
pd in his chambcr. 
  ecura aviget aur 
Fortuuamque suo tempcret arbitrio :" 
he may sail  he will himself, and temper his estte at h pl«ure, jovial 
days, splendour and magnifioenoe, sweet music, dainty re, the good thin, 
and t ofthe ]and, fine clothe% rich att, soft beds, down pillows are st 
command, ail the world labours for him, thousands of artificers are his slaves 
to ddge for him, run, de, and post for him : *Divines (for Pyth Phip- 
at), lawye, physicians, posophers, schola aoe hs, wholly devote to 
serce. Eve man seeks his "acquaintanoe, his kdred, to match with him, 
though he he an oaf, a ninny, a monster, a goosecp, ure dat Dm 
when and whom he 11, hu optan 9erum ex  eçinhe is an 
excellent "match for my con, my daughter, my niec% &c. Qu9u caav 
h, osa, let him go whithcr he will, tmpets sound, belh ng, &, ail 
happins attends him, every mn is wing to entertain m, he sups 
bApoo wheroever he oemes; what preparation  ruade for his enteain- 
ment I fish and fowl, pices d perfum, ail that s and land affords. 
cookery, mg, mirth to exhilarate his person! 
«« Da Trebio, porte  ebium» vh ater ab fl 
Ilibus  
Vhat dh wfil your good worship eat of l 
«  dcia pom « Sweet appl and whater thy flei affor, 
Et quoscque feret ctus fibi fund honor, Eefore thy Go  eervelet erve thy Lord.  
Aute Larcin, gustet venerabor Le v." 
What spo will your honour have  hawg, hunting, fishing, fowling, bls, 
beam, cards, dice, coc, players, tumblem, fiddlers, jesters, &c., they are ai 
your good womhip's command. Fah" boxes, rdens, oïchards, texan, gM- 
leries, cabinets, pleant walks, delightsome places, they o at hand: 
autels c, »inum in argent, tu  um speosoe, we, 
wenches, &e., a Turkish paradise, a heaven upon eartK Though he be 
silly sort feHow, and 8carce have common senoe, yeg  he be born to foues 
( I have said), ure hitao sapere ju5etur, he must bave honour and 
office in his course: Ne ni div e dignus (Ambros. offia 21.) aorte 
so worthy m hinmelf: he shall ve it, arque to uçu Seius aut Lab. 
Get money enough and command } ngdoms, provin, armes, heas, hand, 
and affections; thu shalt bave popes, patriarchs to be thy chapls d para- 
sites : thou shalt hure (Tamerlane-like) kings to draw thy coach, queens to 
thy la,dresses, emperom thy footstoo, bld more tos and cities than 
great Alexander, Bnbel towe, pyramids and maolean tombs, &a, commnnd 
heaven and earth, and teH the world it is thy vsal, auto emitur d, 
argeo calum panditur, rius hsophmn cdch, nummus jus cogit, 
bol littum pdt, lum saaan coct, oes amicos conglutinat. 
And thercfo hot without good cause, John de hIedic, that fich Florentine, 
when he lay upon hh death-b, caHing his sons, Cosmo and Laurence, befor« 
m, amongst other sober sayings, repeated thé, ani qu dor , quod 
 A fon pncip cubiculis reponi solita. JuH Capifin vita Antoninl. r Peoni. 
* Theologl opulenUs adhoercn Jsperiti pecios terati nummosi Hbcralib ifl • Multi 
çm Juven mtoe petiere puel.  "He may bave Daë to wife." • Dummo sit div 
bar ille placet, e Plut.  Lu¢o, a rich chambcr so call, t p pane melior. 
tJuv. Sat. 5. $ Hot. Sa 5. lib. 2. * Bohem de Tm'c et Bredenbach. ¢Euphoio. 
 Q pecuniam en elatl unt animi 1o i brave men at s; ! ch men are genero 
couru c. ! Nummus ait pro me nubat Coubia Rom.e. " a diadem  pched with 
gold; sver opens the way to heaven; philoeophy may be hired for a nny; money controlsjtico; 
1 eatfl a m of lctters; precio metal procur health; we atch e." 



Mcm. 4. Subs. 6] l'ovcrtj omJ ]Vant, Cauea. 29 

v«,s sanos et divtes pos n rdinquam, « If doth me good te think yet, though 
I he dying, that I shall leave you, my cdren, sound and ch :" for wlth 
ways a. I is hot with » as amongst tho Ledemonian senators of 
Lycurgus in Plutrch, « He ptfeed that drved b, wa mos virtuous 
and wohy ofthe plaoe, not swiftne, orstrengh, or wlth, or friends car- 
ried i in tho daya:" but in optis o